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Full text of "The gardeners dictionary : containing the methods of cultivating and improving all sorts of trees, plants, and flowers, for the kitchen, fruit, and pleasure gardens, as also those which are used in medicine : with directions for the culture of vineyards, and making of wine in England ... / abridged from the last folio edition by the author, Philip Miller."

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THE /"tfPW*- 

Gardeners Dictionary. 

Containing the Methods of 
Cultivating and Improving 

ALL SORTS OF 

Trees, Plants, and Flowers, 

FOR THE 

Kitchen, Fruit, and Pleafure Gardens; 

AS A L S O v 

Thofe which are ufed in Medicine, 
with 

Directions for the Culture of VINEYARDS, 
and Making of W I N E 3 in England. 

In which likewife are included 

The Practical Parts of HUSBANDRY. 

Abridged from the laft Folio Edition, 
By the Author, PHILIP MILLER, F.R.S. 

Member of the Botanic Academy ^Florence, and Gardener to the Wiorlhipful 
Company of Apothecaries, at their Botanic Garden, at Chelfea. 

Digna manet divini gloria runs. Virg, Geor. 



In THREE VOLUMES. 



V O L. III. 



The Fourth Edition, Corrected and Enlarged. 

LONDON: 
Printed for the Author; 
And Sold by John and James Rivington, at the Bille 
and Croivn 9 in St. PauVs Church -Yard. 



M.DCC.LIV. 




/ 




THE 



Gardeners Di&ionary. 

Vol. III. 



PA 

.pADUS, The Bird-cherry, or 
JL Cherry-Laurel. 

The Characters are ; 
The Empalemeni of the Tlnver is 
hell- fhaped, con fifing of one Leaf 
which expands at the Brim, where it 
is fight ly cut into five Parts: the 
Flower is comfofed of five roundfh 
Petals, which are infer ted in the 
Empalemcnt, and are fprcad open : in 
the Centre of the Flower is fituated 
the Point al y attended by a great Num- 
ber of Stamina, which are inferted 
in the Empalement : the Pointal af- 
terward changes to a roundijh Berry, 
inclojlng cne oval Xut. 

The Species are ; 

1. Padus, glandulis duahus ba(i 
foliorum fubjedis. Lin. Hart. Cliff. 
The common Bird-cherry. 

2. Pad us foiiis ovatis ferratis, 
petiolis reclis, /pica forum brevier e. 
The Cornifh Cherry. 

3. Padus foiiis lanceolatis glabris, 
vix ferratis, frtitlu itt'gre. American 
Bird-cherry. 



P A 

4. Padus foiiis fempervirentibus 
lanceolato-ovatis. Lin. Hort. Cliff. 
The common Laurel, or Cherry- 
buy. 

5. Padus fsliis fempervirentibus' 
ovatis. Lin. Hort. Clff. The Por- 
tugal Laurel ; by fome called the 
Portugal Cherry ; and in Portuguefe, 

The two firft Species have been 
generally rangM in the Genus of 
Cherries, till Dr. Liun^us feparated 
them from that Genus, and added 
the two laft Species to them, and 
applied this Title of Padus to them ; 
which is an old Name given by Theo- 
phraflus to one of the Species : but 
the Doctor, in his laft Edition of his 
Method, feems to join thefe to the 
Cherries again. But as thefe produce 
their Fruit in a long Thyrfe, or 
Bunch, I think they may be fepa- 
rated from the Cherry on that Ac- 
count. 

The firft Sort is very common in 
feveral Parts of Engla?id s but parti- 
R r 1 4 cularly - 




grow in the Hedges in great Plenty, ripe. The Leaves of this Tree re- 

This will rife to the Height of eigh- main green until December, unlefs 

teen or twenty Feet ; but generally hard Frolts happen early, to decay 

fends out a great Number or Shoots them. The Wood of this Tree is 

from the Bottom, which, if fuffer- very beautifully vein'd, for which 

ed to grow, will form a Thicket, the Inhabitants of America greatly 

and prevent the upright Growth of elleem it. 

the Tree. The Branches of this All thefe Sorts may be propagated 

Tree are generally irregular, and by laying down their young Branches 

grow very confufed ; fo that it is in Oftcber, which, in one Year, will 

rarely feen to grow handfome : but have made good Roots : or they may 

when it is mixed with other Shrubs be grafted upon each other; as alio 

in Wildernefs-quarters, it makes an upon the common Cherry-itock : but 

handfome Appearance during the thefe grafted Trees never grow to the 

Seafon of its flowering, which is Size of thofewhich are propagated by 

commonly in the Beginning of May : Seeds or Layers. But they are fei- 

at which time the whole Tree is co- dom propagated by Seeds ; becaufe 

ver'd with long Spikes of white the Birds generally eat them, unlefs 

Flowers ; but thefe have a very the Fruit are Careened from them : 

flrong Scent, which is very difagree- and as the moft expeditious Method 

able to many Perfons ; fo there fhould of railing the Piants is by Layers, fo 

not be many of them planted too that is generally ufed by the Garden- 



The fecond Sort will rife to a The common Laurel is fo well 
greater Height than the firft, and known, as to need no Defcription ; 
maybe trained up with a regular it being very common in every Gar- 
ftrait Stem, to the Height of twenty den. This Tree was brought from 
Feet, with an handfome regular Conjiantiveple about the Year 1 578. 
Head: for the Branches of this Sort and was for many Years kept in 
are naturally difpos'd in a regular Pots and Tubs, and preferv'd in 
Order. The Flowers of this Sort Green-houfes in Winter : but after- 
are produced on fhorter Spikes than ward it was planted againfl: warm 
thole of the former Sort ; but in Walls, to preferve it ; being fre- 
other refpefts are very like them. quently injured by fevere Froft. Af- 
The third Sort is a Native of Ami- ter this the Plants were trained into 
rica, from whence the Seeds have Pyramids and Globes ; and conftant- 
been brought, and the Plants are ly kept fhear'd ; by which the broad 
now commonly fold in the Nurferies Leaves, were generally cut in the 
rear London. It grows plentifully Middle, which rendered the Plants 
in the Woods in Carolina ; where the very unftghtly. Of late Years they 
Fruit is particularly efteemed for have been more properly difpofed 
makingCherry-brandy.ThisTree is of in G ardens, by planting them to bor-r 
middiing Growth, and the Branches der Woodf, and the Sides of Wif- 
generally grow very irregular : the dernefs-quarters ; for which Pur- 
Leaves are very fmooth, and of a pofe we have but few Plants fo well 
fhining Green : the Flowers are pro- adapted ; for it will grow under the 
duced in long Clutters, like the Drip of Trees, in Shade or Sun ; 



near the Habitation. 



ers near London. 



former Sort ; but the Fruit is larger, 




P A 

Ground, fo as to form a Thicket ; 
and the Leaves being large, and 
having a fine gloffy green Colour, 
they fet off theWoods and other Plan- 
tations in Winter, when the other 
Trees havecaft their Leaves; and in 
Summer they make a good Contrail 
with the Green of the other Trees. 
This Tree is fometimes injur'd in 
very fevere Winters, efpecially where 
they ftand fmgle, and are much ex- 
poled ; but where they grow in 
Thickets, and are fcreen'd by other 
Trees, they are feldom much hurt : 
for in thole Places it is only the 
young tender Shoots which are in- 
jur'd; and there will be new Shoots 
produced immediately below thefe, to 
i'upply their Place ; fo that in one 
Year the Damage will be repaired : 
but whenever fuch fevere Winters 
happen, thefe Trees mould not be 
cut or pruned till after the follow- 
ing Midfummer ; by which time it 
• will appear what Branches are dead, 
which may then be cut away, to the 
Places where the new Shoots are 
produced : for by haftily cutting 
thefe Trees in the. Spring, the dry- 
ing Winds have free Egrefs to the 
Branches ; whereby the Shoots furfer 
as much, as they had done by the 
Froft. 

Thefe Trees are alfo very orna- 
mental, when they are mix'd with 
other ever-green Trees, in forming 
Thickets, or to fhut out the Appear- 
ance of difagreeable Objects : for 
the Leaves, being very large, make 
a very good Blind, and are equally 
ufeful for fcreening from Winds ; fo 
that when they are planted between 
flowering Shrubs, they may be train- 
ed fo as to fill up the Vacancies in 
the Middle of fuch Plantations ; and 
will anfwer thePurpofe of fcreening 
jn the Winter, and (hutting out the 
View thro' the Shrubs in all Seafons: 
fchsre are alfo many ether Purpofes 



p A 

to which this Tree may be applied, 
fo as to render it very ornamental. 

In warmer Countries this Tree 
will grow to a large Size ; fo that in 
fome Parts of Italy there are large 
Woods of them; but we cannot hope 
to have them grow to fo large Stems 
in England ; for mould thefe Trees 
be pruned up, in order to form them 
into Stems, the Froit would then be- 
come much more hurtful to them, 
than in the manner they ufually 
grow, with their Branches to the 
Ground : however, if thefe Trees are 
planted pretty clofe together, in large 
Thickets, and permitted to grow 
rude, they will defend each other 
from the Froft, and they will grow 
to a confiderable Height : an Inftance 
of which is nowin that noble Planta- 
tion of ever-greenTrees, made by his 
Grace the Duke of Bedford, at Wood- 
bcum- Abbey ; where there is a confi- 
derable Hill, covered intirely with 
Laurels : and in the other Parts of 
the fame Plantation, there are great 
Numbers of thefe intermixed with 
the other ever-green Trees, where 
they are already grown to a confi- 
derable Size, and make a noble Ap- 
pearance. 

This Tree is commonly propaga- 
ted by Cuttings, which mould be 
planted in September; and in taking 
off the Cutting?, if a Joint of the 
former Year's Shoot is cut to the 
Bottom of each, there will be no 
Danger of their growing : and thefe 
Cuttings will have much betterRoots, 
than thofe which have only the fame 
Year's Shoot ; which, being very fofc 
and tender, do not put out Roots 
from the Bottom in the fame manner 
as the others, and they frequently 
mifcarry. Thefe Cuttings fhould 
be made about fifteen Inches long, 
or fomewhat Ihorter ; and they Ihould 
be planted feven or eight Inches into 
the Ground, obferving to tread the 

Earth 



P A 

Earth down clofe to them. Thefe 
Cuttings fliould be planted in a foft 
loamy Soil, not fo ltrong as to de- 
tain the Wet, nor fo light and dry 
as to admit the Sun and Wind eafily 
to the lower Part of the Cuttings : 
in fuch Soil as this, the Cuttings 
muft be duly watered in the Spring, 
otherwife they will molt of them fail : 
whereas, in a gentle Loam, fcarce 
one in an hundred will mifcarry, and 
theywill make much greater Progrefs. 
The commonMethod ofplanting thefe 
in the Nurferies is, to lay out the 
Ground into Beds, about four Feet 
broad, with two Feet Alleys betwen 
them, for the Conveniency of go- 
ing between them to water them in 
dry Weather ; and in thefe Beds 
they plant the Cuttings about five or 
fix Inches afunder : but where there 
is a loamy Soil, it will be a better 
Method to plant the Cuttings in 
Rows, about a Foot or fifteen Inches 
afunder, and at fix Inches Diltance 
in the Rows : in this Method the 
Cuttings will have more room to 
grow, and there will be room to hoe 
between them in Summer, to keep 
them clean from Weeds ; and when 
they are removed, they may be taken 
up without injuring any of the 
Plants, which cannot be avoided 
where they are very clofe together. 

There are fome Perfons who pro- 
pagate thefe Trees from their Ber- 
ries, which is certainly the bell Way 
to obtain good Plants ; for thofe 
which come from Seeds, have a Dif- 
pofition to an upright Growth ; 
whereas almoft all thofe which are 
raifed from Cuttings, incline more 
to an horizontal Growth, and pro- 
duce a greater Number of lateral 
Branches. When any Perfon is de- 
firous to propagate this Tree by 
Seeds, the Berries mud be guarded 
from the Birds, otherwife they will 
devour them before they are per- 



p A 

feclly ripe ; which is feldom earlier 
than the Latter-end of September, or 
the Beginning of October j for they 
fhould hang until the outer Pulp is 
quite black. When thefe Berries 
are gathered, they fliould be fown 
foon after ; for when they are kept 
out of the Ground till Spring, they 
frequently mifcarry ; and there will 
be no Hazard in fowing them in Au- 
tumn, provided they are put in a 
dry Soil: and if the Winter fliould 
prove fevere, the Bed in which they 
are fown is covered with rotten Tan, 
Straw, Peas -haulm, or any light 
Covering, to prevent the Froft from 
penetrating of the Ground. The belt 
Way will be to fow the Berries in 
Rows at about fix Inches Diltance, 
and one Inch afunder in the Rows : 
if Drills are made about three Inches 
deep, and the Berries fcattered in 
them, and the Earth drawn over 
them, it will be a very good Me- 
thod. The following Spring the 
Plants will appear, when they mould 
be kept clean from Weeds ; and if, 
the Seafon fhould prove dry, if they 
are duly watered, the Plants will 
make fo good Progrefs, as to be fit 
for tranfplanting the following Au- 
tumn, when they fliould be carefully 
taken up, and planted in a Nurfery, 
placing them in Rows at three Feet 
afunder, and the Plants one Foot Di- 
ltance in the Rows. In this Nur- 
fery they may remain two Years ; 
by which time they will be fit to 
tranfplant where they are defigned 
to remain. 

The beft Seafon for tranfplanting 
thefe Flants is in the Autumn, as 
foon as the Rain has prepared the 
Ground for Planting; for altho' 
they often grow, when removed in 
the Spring, yet thofe do not take 
near fowell, nor makefo good Pro- 
grefs, as thofe which are removed in 
the Autumn ; efpecially if the Plants 
' , are 



P A 

are taken from a light Soil, which 
generally falls away from their 
Roots : but if they are taken up 
with Balls of Earth to their Roots, 
and removed but a fmall Diftance, 
there will be no Danger of tranfplant- 
ing them in the Spring, provided it 
is done before they begin to moot ; 
for as thefe Plants will moot very 
early in the Spring, fo if they are 
removed after they have mot, the 
Shoots will decay ; and many times 
the Plants intirely fail. 

There are fome Perfons who, of 
late, have banifhed thefe Plants from 
their Gardens, as fuppofing them 
poflefled of a poifonous Quality ; 
becaufe the diltilled Water has 
proved fo in many Jnftances : but 
however the diitilled Water may 
have been found deftrudlive to Ani- 
mals, yet from numberlefs Experi- 
ments, which have been made both 
of the Leaves and Fruit, it hath not 
appeared, that there is the leaft 
hurtful Quality in either j fo that 
the Whole muit be owing to the Oil, 
which may be carried over in Diftil- 
lation. 

The Berries have been long ufed 
to put into Brandy, to make a fort 
of Ratafia ; and the Leaves have al- 
fo been put into Cuftards, to give 
them an agreeable Flavour : and al- 
tho' thefe have been for many Years 
much ufed, yet there hath been no 
one Inftance of their having done 
the leaft Injury : and as to the Ber- 
ries, I have known them eaten in 
great Quantities, without Prejudice. 

There are fome Perfons who have 
grafted the Laurel upon Cherry- 
itocks, with Defign to inlarge the 
Trees; but altho' they will take very 
well upon each other, yet they feldom 
make much Progrefs when either the 
Laurel is grafted on the Cherry ,or the 
pherry upon the Laurel ; fo that it 
js only a thing of Curiofity, attend- 



p A 

ed with no real Ufe: and I would 
recommend to Perfons, who have 
this Curiofity, to graft the Laurel 
upon the Cornifo Cherry, rather than 
any other Sort of Stock, becaufe the 
Graft will unite better with this; 
and as it is a regular Tree, and 
grows large, fo it will better anfwer 
the Purpofe of producing large 
Trees. 

The Portugal Laurel has not been 
very long cultivated in the Englijb 
Gardens, nor is it, as yet, become 
common here ; but it deferves to be 
propagated as much as any of the 
ever-green Trees j for the Leaves 
have a molt beautiful mining Ver- 
dure, and, in June, the Trees are 
covered with long Spikes of white 
Flowers, which, together with the 
bright-red Bark of the young Shoots, 
make a very beautiful Appearance: 
and in the Autumn, when the Ber- 
ries ripen, they likewife make a 
goodly Shew ; and what renders this 
Tree more valuable is, its being fo 
very hardy, as to defy the feverelt 
Cold of this Country : for in the hard 
Froll of the Year 1 740. when almoft 
every other ever -green Tree and 
Shrub was feverely pinched, thefe 
Trees retained their Verdure, and 
feemed to have felt no Injury. 

This will grow to the Height of 
ten or twelve Feet in England (but 
probably, in their native Country, 
they may be much larger) ; but I 
have not feen any which are higher 
here : they generally fend out their 
Branches near the Ground, and form 
large fpreading Heads ; but they 
may be trained up with Stems, ef- 
pecially fuch Plants as are produ- 
ced from the Berries, which are more 
difpofed to grow upright, than thofe 
which are propagated from Cuttings : 
therefore where the Berries can be 
procured in Plenty, I would recom- 
mend the propagating thefe Trees 

from 



P M 



P JE 



from them, rather than by the Cut- 
tings : and as there are many Trees 
m England, which produce the Ber- 
ries in plenty, fo, if they are care- 
fully guarded from the Birds, there 
may be focn plenty of the Berries in 
England. 

Thefe Berries mull be managed in 
the fame way as hath been before 
directed for the common Laurel ; and 
if it is propagated by Cuttings, they 
fhould be treated in the fame man- 
ner as the common Laurel. 

This Tree delights in a gentle 
loamy Soil, which is not too wet, 
nor over-dry ; tho' it will grow up- 
on almoft any Soil ; but the Plants 
do not make fo great Progrefs, 
nor appear fo beautiful, when plant- 
ed in a very dry Soil, or in Ground 
that is too wet. The time of tranf- 
planting this is the fame as for the 
common Laurel. 

P^ONIA, The Peony. 
The Cbarafters are ; 

It hath a Flower compos 1 d of fede- 
ral Leaves, which are placed orbicu- 
larly , and expand in form of a Rofe ; 
cut of whofe Empalement rifes the 
Pointal, which afterward becomes a 
Fruit, in which federal little Horns, 
bent downward, are gather 'd, as it 
were, into a little Head, covered 
with Dcnvn, opening lengthwife, con- 
taining many globulous Seeds. 
The Species are ; 

1. P/eonia folio nigricante fplen- 
dido, qua mas. C. B. P. The Male 
Peony. 

2. P/eonia mas major, fore in- 
carnate. Hcrt. Eyft. The greater 
Male Peony, with a flefn - coloured 
flower. 

3. P/eonia communis <vel fcemina. 
C. B. P. The Female Peony. 

4. P/eonia faemina, fore plena 
rubro majore. C. B. P. Female Peo- 
ny, with a large double red Flow- 
er 

I 



5. P/eonia plena for e rubro, mi- 
nor. J. B. Peony with a lefler double 
red Flower. 

6. P/eonia fore exalbido pleno, 
major. C. 2. P. Greater Peony, with 
a double whirifh Flower. 

7. P/eonia Lufitanica, fore fm- 
plici odorato. Inf. R. H. Portugal 
Peony, with a fingle fvveet-fcented 
Flower. 

8. P/eonia mas, fcliorum fegmen- 
tis ampiioribus. C. B. P. Male Peony, 
with Leaves having broader Seg- 
ments. 

9. P/EONIA tenuius laeiniata, fub- 
tus pubefccns,f->re purpureo. C. B. P. 
Pecny with narrow jagged Leaves, 
which are downy underneath, and a 
purple Flower. 

10. P/eonia aquilina- foliis. C. B. 
P. Peony with a Columbine-leaf. 

I I.P/eonia fore njariegato. C. 
B. P. Peony with a ftrip'd Flow- 
er. 

12. P /eon 1 a folio fubtus incano, 
fore albo <vel pallida. C. B. P. Peony 
with Leaves hoary underneath, and 
white or pale Flowers. 

The firft of thefe Sorts is chiefly 
propagated for the Roots, which are 
us'd in Medicine ; for the Flowers, 
being fingle, do not afford near fo 
much Pleafure as thofe with double 
Flowers, nor will they abide near fo 
long in Beauty. 

The fecondSort hath larger fingle 
Flowers than the firft; but they are 
of a paler Colour : this is preferv'd 
by Perfons who are curious in col- 
lecting the various Kinds of Flow- 
ers ; but is not fo much efteem'd as 
thofe with double Flowers. 

All the Sorts with double Flowers 
are preferv'd in curious Gardens for 
the Beauty of their Flowers ; which, 
when intermix'd with other large- 
growing Plants in the Borders of 
large Gardens, will add to the Va- 
riety i and the Flowers are very or- 
namental 



P M 

uamental in Bafins or Flower-pots, 
when plac'd in Rooms. 

They are all extremely hardy, and 
will grow in almoft any Soil or Situa- 
tion, which renders them more valu- 
able ; for they will thrive under the 
Shade of Trees; and in fuch Places 
they will continue much longer in 
Eeauty. 

They are propagated by parting 
their Roots, which multiply very 
fait. The beftSeafon for tranfplant- 
ing them is toward the Latter - end 
of Augufli or the Beginning of Sep- 
tember ; for if they are remov'd after 
their Roots have fhot out new Fi- 
bres, they feldom flower ftrong the 
fucceeding Summer. 

In parting of thefe Roots, you 
fhould always obferve to prefer ve a 
Bud upon the Crown of each OfT-fet, 
otherwife they will come to nothing ; 
nor mould you divide the Roots too 
fmall (efpecially if you have regard 
to their blowing the followingYear); 
for when their Off-fets are weak, 
they many times don't flower the 
fucceeding Summer, or at leaft pro- 
duce but one Flower upon each 
Root : but where you would mul- 
tiply them in Quantities, you may 
divide them as you pleafe, pro- 
vided there be a Bud to each OfF-fet; 
but then they fhould be planted in 
a Nurfery-bed, for a Seafon or two, 
to getStrength,before they are plac'd 
in the Flower-garden. 

The fingle Sorts may be propaga- 
ted from Seeds (which they general- 
ly produce in large Quantities, where 
the Flowers are permitted to re- 
main); which fliould be fown in the 
middle of Augufi upon a Bed of 
frefh light Earth, covering them 
over about half an Inch thick with 
the fame light Earth : the Spring 
following the Plants will come 
up ; when they fliould be 
carefully cleared from Weeds, and 
in very dry Weather refrefh'd with 



Water, which will greatly forward 
their Growth. In this Bed they 
fhould remain two Years before they 
are tranfplanted, obferving in Au- 
tumn,when theLeaves are decay'd,to 
fpread fome frefh rich Earth over 
the Beds about an Inch thick, and 
conftantly to keep them clear from 
Weeds. 

When you tranfplant them (which 
fhould be done in September), you 
muft prepare fome Beds of frefh 
light Earth, which fhould be dug,and 
well clean'd from the Roots of all 
noxious Weeds ; then plant the 
Roots therein fix Inches afunder, and 
about three Inches deep. In thefe 
Beds they may remain until they 
flower ; after which they may be 
tranfplanted where you defign they 
fliould grow. It is very probable 
there may be fome Varieties obtained 
from the Seeds of thefe Plants, as is 
common in moll other Flowers ; fo 
that thofe which produce beautiful 
Flowers may be plac'd in the Flow- 
er-garden ; but fuch as continue fingle 
or ill-colour'd,may be planted inBeds 
to propagate for medicinal Ufe. 

The Portugal Peony may alfo be 
propagated either by Seeds, or part- 
ing of the Roots, in the fame man- 
ner as the other Sorts ; but fhould 
have a lighter Soil, and a warmer 
Situation. The Flowers of this 
Kind are fingle ; but fmell very 
fweet ; which renders it worthy of a 
Place in every good Garden. 

The four Sorts lalt - mentioned 
are not fo common in the Englijb 
Gardens at prefent, as thofe before 
enumerated ; but they are equally 
hardy, and may be propagated in 
the lame manner. 

PALIURUS, Chrift's Thorn. 
The Characters are ; 

// hath long foarp Spines : the 
Flower confijls of jive Leaves, which 
expand inform of a Rofe : out of the 
Flower- cup (which is divided into 
feverat 



P A 

federal Segments) rifes the Pointal, 
which becomes a Fruit Jhafd like a 
Bonnet, having a Shell almojl globu- 
lar , which is divided into three Cells, 
in each of which is contain d one 
roundijh Seed. 

We have but one Species of this 
Plant ; viz. 

Paliurus. Dod. Chrift's Thorn. 
This Plant is ranged in the Genus 
of Rhamnus by Dr. Linnaeus, who 
has alfc joined the Frangula of 
Tournefort, the Alaternus and Zizi- 
fbus, to the fame Genus ; but if the 
Fruit of thefe Plants are admitted as 
a characterise Note in diftinguifh- 
ing the Genera, thefe cannot be 
brought together. 

This is by many Perfons fuppos'd 
to be the Plant from which the 
Crown of Thorns, which was put 
upon the Head of our Saviour, was 
compos'd : the Truth of which is 
fupported by many Travellers of 
Credit, who affirm, that it is one of 
the moft common Shrubs in the 
Country of Judea ; and from the 
Pliablenefs of its Branches, which 
may be eafily wrought into any Fi- 
gure, it may afford a Probability. 

This Shrub grows wild in mod 
Parts of the Levant, as alfo in Italy, 
Spain, Portugal, and the South of 
France, efpecially near Montpelicr, 
from whence their Seeds may be 
procured ; for they do not ripen in 
Xngland. ThefeSeeds mould be fown 
as foon as po'iTible, after they arrive, 
in a Bed of light Earth, and the 
Plants will come up the following 
Spring : but when the Seeds are 
kept out of the Ground till Spring, 
they will not come up till the next 
Year, and very often fail : therefore 
it is much the beft way to fow them 
in the Autumn. Thefe Seedling, 
plants may be tranfplanted the fol- 
lowing Seafon into a Nurfcry to get 



P A 

Strength, before they are planted 
out for good. 

It may alfo be propagated by lay- 
ing down its tender Branches in the 
Spring of the Year; which, if care- 
fully fupply'd with Water in dry 
Weather, will take Root in a Year's 
time, and may then be taken off from 
the old Plants, and tranfplanted w here 
they are to remain. 

'The belt time for tranfplanting 
this Plant is in theAutumn, foon af- 
ter the Leaves decay, or the Begin- 
ning of April, juft before it begins 
to ihoot, obferving to lay fome 
Mulch upon the Ground abont their 
Roots to prevent them from drying, 
as alfo to refrefli them now-and- 
then with a little Water, until they 
have taken frefti Root, after which 
they will require but very little 
Care. They are very hardy, and 
will grow to be ten or twelve Feet 
high, if planted in a dry Soil, and 
a warm Situation. There is little 
Beauty in this Plant ; but it is kept 
in Gardens as a Curiofity. 

PALMA, The Palm-tree. 
The Characters are ; 

It hath a fingle unbranch]d Stalk ; 
the Leaves are difpos^d in a circular 
Form on the Top, which when they 
wither, or fall off with Age, new 
ones always arife out of the middle of 
the re?nai?iing ones ; among which, 
certain Sheaths or Spikes break forth, 
opening from the Bottom to the Top, 
very full of Flowers, and Chiflert of 
Embryoes. 

The Species are ; 

1. Palm a major. C.B.P. The 
greater Palm, or Date-tree. 

2. Palm a minor. C. B. P. The 
Dwarf Palm, with prickly Footftalks. 

3. Palm a Brajilienfs prunifera 9 
folio plicatili feu fabelliformi, c au- 
di ce fquamato. Rail Hifl. The Pal- 
metto-tree, 

4. Palma 



P A 

4. Palm a altiftima non fpinqfa, 
fruclu pruniformi minore racemofo 
fparfo. Sloan. Cat. The Cabbage- 
tree. 

5. Palm a foliorum pediculis fpi- 
nofts, fruftu pruniformi luteo oleofo. 
Sloan. Cat. The oily Palm-tree. 

6. Pal ma tot a fpinofa major, f ru- 
Bu pruniformi. Sloan. Cat. The great 
Macaw- tree. 

7. Palma bumilis daclylifera, ra- 
dice repentijftma fobolifera, folio fla~ 
belliformi, pedunculo <vix fpinofo. 
Boerb. Ind. The Dwarf Palm, with 
fcarce any Prickles upon the Foot- 
italks. 

8. Palma foliis longijftmis pendu- 
lis, abfque ullo pedunculo ex caudice 
glabro enatis. Boerb. Ind. The Dra- 
gon-tree. 

9. Palma Japonica>fpinofis pedi- 
culis, polypodii folio. Par. Bat. The 
Palm-tree from Japan, with prickly 
footftalks, and a Leaf like Poly- 
pody. 

10. Palma cujus fruclus fejplis 
Faufel dicitur. C. B. P. The Palm- 
tree, whofe Fruit is called Faufel. 

1 1 . Palma altijjima non fpinofa, 
fruclu oblongo. Houjl. The talleft 
fmooth Palm-tree, with oblong Fruit, 
called Mountain Cabbage. 

12. Palma coccifra, compile ato 
folio, fruclu minore. H. L. The nut- 
bearing Palm, with a folded Leaf, 
and fmaller Fruit. 

13. Palma Malaharica, ficfculis 
fiellatis, fruclu longo Jquamato. Plum. 
Palm-tree of Malabar, with fmall 
ftarry Flowers, and a long fcaly 
Fruit. 

14. Palma daclylifera, fruttu 
ucerrimo. Plum. Date-bearing Palm- 
tree, with a (harp Fruit. 

1 5* Palma montana Malaharica, 
folio magna complicato acuto, fore al- 
io racemofo, fruclu rotunda. Plum. 
Mountain Palm-tree of Malabar, 
with a large (harp folded Leaf, white 



p A 

Flowers growing in Bunches, and 2 
round Fruit. 

16. Palma prunifera Japonenfs. 
H. L. B. Plum - bearing Palm of 
Japan. 

17. Palma daclylifera tjf <vini- 
fera. Plum. Date and wine-bear- 
ing Palm-tree. 

18. Palma daclylifera aculeata 
minima. Plum. The leaft prickly- 
date- bearing Palm-tree. 

19. Palma cocci fera, c of arum la~ 
teribus aculeatis. Plum. Nut- bear- 
ing Palm-tree, with Spines growing 
on the Stalks. 

20. Palma daclylifera latifolia. 
Plum. Broad -leav'd date -bearing 
Palm-tree. 

zi. Palma In die a coca fera atrgu- 
lofa. C. B. P. The Cocoa-nut, 
*vulgo. 

The tenth Sort here mentioned is 
a Native of the E aft- Indies : the 
Fruit of this Kind is directed by the 
College of Phyficians to be ufed in 
Medicine ; but it is rarely brought 
to England. The eleventh Sort was 
difcovered by the Jate Dr. Houftoutt, 
growing on the Hills near La Vera 
Cruz : the Fruit of this Kind is about 
an Inch and an half in Length, and 
near two Inches in Circumference. 
The Flower-buds, which are pro- 
duced in the Centre of the Plants, 
are by the Natives cut, and boiled 
to eat with their Meat, and are by 
them calFd the Mountain Cabbage. 

The twelfth Sort grows plenti- 
fully in feveral Parts of the Spanifh 
Weft -In di.es, from whence I have re- 
ceived the Fruit. Thefe Fruit are 
hhap'd exactly like the Cocoa-nut, 
and are inclosM in a Shell in the 
fame manner as that; but thefe are 
not fo large as a Man's Fifr, where- 
as the Cocoa-nuts are larger than a 
Man's Head. 

The thirteenth, fourteenth, fix. 
teenth s feventeench, eighteenth, and 

nine- 



P A 

nineteenth Sorts grow in feveral 
Places in the Eaft and IVeJl-lniics ; 
for by the feveral Writers they are 
mentioned to grow in the EaJI, and 
I have receivVl Fruit of all thefe Sorts 
from the Weji-Jndies. 

Thefe Plants may be eafily pro- 
duced frOm the Seeds (provided they 
are frefh) ; which mould be fown in 
Pots filrd with light rich Earth, and 
plunged into an Hot-bed of Tanners 
Bark ; which fhould be kept in a 
moderateTemper, and the Earth fre- 
quently refrefh'd with Water. 

When the Plants are come up, they 
Jhould be each planted into a fepa- 
rate fmall Pot filPd with the fame 
light rich Earth, and plunged into 
an Hot-bed again, obfcrving to re- 
frefli them with Water, as alfo to 
let them have Air in proportion to 
the Warmth of the Seafon, and the 
Bed in which they are placed. Du- 
ring the Summer-time they fhould 
remain in the fame Hot-bed ; but in 
Jiuguft you mould let them have a 
great Share of Air to harden them 
againft the Approach of Winter ; 
for if they are too much forc'd, they 
will be fo tender as not to be pre- 
ferv'd thro' the Winter without 
much Difficulty, cfpecially if you 
have not the Conveniency of a Bark 
.flove to keep them in. 

The Beginning of Qftoher you 
muft remove the Plants into the 
Stove, placing them where they may 
have a great Share of Heat (thefe 
being fomewhat tenderer, while 
young, than after they haveacquir'd 
fome Strength) ; tho' indeed they 
may be fometimes preferv'd alive in 
a cooler Situation, yet their Progrefs 
would be fo much retarded, as not 
to recover their Vigour the fucceed- 
ing Summer. Nor is it worth the 
Trouble of raifing thefe Plants from 
Seeds, where a Perfon has not the 
Conveniency of a good Stove to for- 



P A 

ward their Growth ; for where this 
is wanting, they will not grow to 
any tolerable Size in eight or ten 
Years. 

Whenever thefe Plants are re- 
moved (which mould be done once a 
Year), you muft be very careful not 
to cut or injure their large Roots, 
which'is very hurtful to them ; but 
you mould clear off all the fmall 
Fibres which are inclinable to 
Mouidinefs ; for if thefe are left on, 
they will in time decay, and hinder 
the frefh Fibres from coming out, 
which will greatly retard the Growth 
of the Plants. 

The Soil in which thefe Plants 
mould be planted, muft be compofed 
in the following manner ; <viz. A 
third Part of frefh light Earth taken 
from Pafture-ground ; a third Part 
Sea-fand ; and the other Part rotten 
Dung, or Tanners Bark : thefe 
mould be carefully mixed, and laid 
in an Heap three or four Months at 
leaft before it is ufed ; but mould be 
often turn'd over, to prevent the 
Growth of Weeds, and to fweetert 
the Earth. 

You mould alfo obferve to allow 
them Pots proportionable to the 
Sizes of the Plants; but you muft 
never let them be too large, which 
is of worfe Confequence than if 
they are too fmall. During the 
Summer-feafon they lhould be fre- 
quently refrefhed with Water ; but 
you muft be careful not to give it in 
too great Quantities ; and in Win- 
ter they muft be now-and-then re- 
frefhed, efpecially if they are placed 
in a warm Stove; otherwife they 
will require very little Water at that 
Seafon. 

Thefe Plants are moll of them 
very flow Growers, even in their 
native Countries, notwithftanding 
they arrive to a great Magnitude ; 
for it has been often obferved by fe- 

* veral 



P A 



veralofthe old Inhabitants of thofe 
Countries, that the Plants of fome of 
thefe Kinds have not advanced two 
Feet in Height in twenty Years ; fo 
that when they are brought into 
thefe Countries, it can't be expected 
they fliould advance very fall, efpe- 
cially where there is not due Care 
taken to preferve them warm in 
Winter : but however flow of 
Growth thefe Plants are in their na- 
tive Countries, yet they may be 
with us greatly forwarded, by p!ace- 
ing the Pots into an Hot bed of Tan- 
ners Bark ; which mould be renew- 
ed as often as is necefiary, and the 
Plants always prefcrved therein both 
Winter and Summer, obferving to 
fliift them into larger Pots as they 
advance in Growth, as alfo to fup- 
ply them with Water : in which 
Management I have had feveral of 
them come on very fall; for I ob- 
ferve the Roots of thefe Plants are 
very apt to root into the Bark, if 
their Pots 1 remain a considerable 
time without fhifting, where they 
meet with a gentle Warmth ; and 
the Moifture anfing from the Fer- 
mentation of the Bark doth preferve 
their Fibres plump and vigorous. 

The Date-palm is of very flow 
Growth with us ; but is cafily pro- 
duced from Seeds taken out of the 
Fruit, which are brought into Eng- 
iand'm great Plenty ; but there are 
very few of thefe Plants of any con- 
fiderable Size at prefent in the Eng- 
iijb Gardens. 

The Dwarf Palm, with prickly 
•Footftalks, as alfo that with few 
Prickles, are of humble Growth in 
their native Countries, feldom rifing 
above four or five Feet high; but 
extend their Roots very far, and in- 
creafe thereby in the fame manner as 
the common Fern doth ; fo that the 
wafte Ground, which is not culti- 
vared, is over run with the Plants j 
• Vol. nr. 



the Leaves of which the Inhabitant s 
cut, and fend into thefe Countries t° 
make Flag - brooms. Thefe grow 
in Spain, Portugal, and Italy ; and 
are much hardier than any of the 
other Sorts. 

The Palmetto - tree is brought 
from the Wefi-Indies, where it grows 
to be a very large Tree ; the Leaves 
of whicji the Inhabitants thatch 
their Houfcs withal ; for which 
Purpofe they are very ufeful in thofe 
Countries. The Leaves, before 
they are expanded, are cut, and 
brought into England to make Wo- 
mens plaited Hats, which were, a 
few Years fmce, greatly in Fafliion ; 
and the Berries of thefe Trees were 
formerly much in Ufe in Eng'and 
for Buttons. Thefe were fome of 
the chief Commodities which the 
Bermuda- IJlandi did afford for Ma- 
nufactory ; but, at prefent, they are 
both difus'd in England. 

The Cabbage-tree is very com- 
mon in the Canbbes- ljlands, where it 
grows to a prodigious Height : Li- 
gon, in his HtJIory of Barbados, fays, 
There are fome of thefe Trees above 
two hundred Feet high, and that it 
is commonly an hundred Years be- 
fore they arrive at Maturity enough 
to produce Fruit : the Leaves of 
this Tree envelope each other; fo 
that thofe which are inclos'd, being 
deprived of the Air, are blanch'ci, 
which is the Part the Inhabitants cut 
for Plait for Hats, (Sc. and the Gem* 
or young Shoots, are pickled, 
and fent into England, by the Name 
of Cabbage : but whenever this 
Part is cut out, the Trees are de- 
ftroyed ; nor do they rife again from 
the old Roots ; fo tha: there are very 
few Trees left remaining ne?.r Plan- 
tations, except for Ornament ; for 
their Stems being exceeding ftrait, 
and their Leaves being produced ve- 
ry regularly at Top, afford a moft 
S { i beautif ul 



P A 

beautiful Profpeft ; for which Rea- 
fon thePianters generally fpare two or 
three of them near their Habitations. 

The oily Palm grows in great 
Plenty on the Coaft of Guiney, as al- 
fo on Cupe Verd Ifland, where they 
grow as high as the Main-matt of a 
Ship : but thefe Trees have been 
tranfplanted to Jamaica and Barba- 
dos, in both which Places they thrive 
very well. The Inhabitants make 
an Oil from the Pulp of the Fruit, 
and draw a Wine from the Body of 
the Trees, which inebriates ; and 
with the Rind of thefe Trees they 
make Mats to lie upon. This Sort 
will eafily rife from Seeds ; and, if 
kept warm, will grow much falter 
than the Date-palm. 

The Macaw-tree is very common 
in the Caribbee-Ijlands, where the 
Negroes pierce the tender Fruit, from 
whence flows out a pleafant Liquor, 
of which they are very fond; and the 
Body of the Tree affords a folid 
Timber, with which they make Ja- 
velins, Arrows, &c . and is by fome 
fuppofed to be a fort of Ebony. 
This Tree grows very flow, and re- 
quires to be keptvery warm inWinter. 

The Dragon-tree is very common 
in the Madeira's, and the Canary- 
JJIands, where they grow to be large 
Trees ; from the Bodies of which it 
is fuppofed the Dragon's Blood doth 
flow. This Plant arifes very eaflly 
from theSeeds ; and, when it has ac- 
quired fomeStrength,is prettyhardy. 

The Japan Palm-tree if, at pre- 
sent, very rare in England, being 
only in two or three curious Gar- 
dens : it will come up from Se:ds, 
if they are frefli : but the Plants muft 
be kept very warm, efpecia'iy while 
young, otherwife they will not live 
thro' our Winters. 

The Cocoa - nut is cultivated in 
moil of the inhabited Parts of the 
Eafi and Wtfi'lntim ; but is fttppo- 



P A 

fed aNative of the Maldives, and the 
defartlllands of the Eajl-lndies: from 
whence it is fuppofed it hath been 
tranfported to all the warm Parts of 
America ; for it is not found in any 
of the inland Parts, nor any-where 
far diiiant from Settlements. It is 
cne of the mod ufeful Trees to the 
Inhabitants of America, who have 
many of the common Neceflaries of 
Life from it. The Bark of the Nut 
is made into Cordage, the Shell of 
the Nut into Drinking-bowls ; the 
Kernel of the Nut affords them a 
wholfome Food ; and the Milk 
contained in the Shell, a cooling Li- 
quor. The Leaves of the Trees are 
ufed for thatching their Houfes, and 
are alfo wrought into Bafkets, and 
moil other things which are made of 
Ofiers in Europe. 

This Tree is propagated by plant- 
ing of the Nuts, which in fix Weeks 
or two Months after planting will 
come up, provided they are frefli, 
and thoroughly ripe, which is what 
few of them are, which are brought 
to England ; for they always gather 
them before they are ripe, that they 
may keep during their Paflage : fo 
that the belt Way to bring the Nuts 
to England for Planting, would be 
to take fuch of them as are fully 
ripe, and put them up in dry Sand 
in a Tub, where the Vermin may 
not come to them j and thefe wifl 
often fprout in their Paflage, which 
will be an Advantage, becaufe then 
they may be immediately planted in 
Pots of Earth, and plunged into the 
Bark-bed. 

Thefe Plants in the hot Iflands oi 
America make confiderable Progief: 
in their Growth ; in which Place 
there are fome Trees of very grea 
Magnitude: but in Europe this Plarj 
is of much flower Growth, bein I 
many Years before it advances tl 
any confiderable Height : but as tl j 

your' 



P A 

young Leaves of thefe Plants are 
pretty large, they make a good Ap- 
pearance amongfl other tender Exo- 
tic Plants, in one or two Years tim?: 
This Plant is preferved in Come cu- 
rious Gardens in England, for Va- 
riety, where it mult be placed in the 
Bark-ftove, and managed as hath 
been directed for the other Kinds of 
Palms ; obferving, as often as they 
are tranfplanted, not to cut their 
llrong Roots ; which is generally 
Death to molt of the Palm kind. 
Thefe Plants mutt not be too much 
confined in their Roots ; for if they 
are, they will make but little Pro- 
grefs : therefore, when the young 
Plants have filled the Pots with their 
Roots, they fhould be fhifted into 
Tubs of a moderate Size, that their 
Roots may have room to extend : 
but thefe Tubs mufl be kept con- 
ftantly plunged into the Bark-bed, 
otherwife the Plants will not thrive. 
The Method of raifing thefe Plants 
From the Nuts, when they are plant- 
ed before they have fprouted, is ful- 
ly defcribed under the Article of raif- 
ing Exotic Seeds. 

All the Sorts of Palm trees are 
Male and Female, in different Trees; 
and it hath been always fuppofed 
neceffary, that the two fhould grow 
near each other, that the Male Tree 
might impregnate the Female, in or- 
der to render the Female fruitful : 
and where it has fo happened, that 
a Female Tree grew fingly, it has 
been afferted, that the Inhabitants 
\ have carried Branches of the Male 
Flowers, taken from Trees which 
\ grew at a Diftance, and have faften- 
W «d them to the Female Trees, with- 
m out which they have infilled, that 
ff the Female Trees would not produce 
m any Fruit : but this is refuted by Fa- 
4 ther Labat, who affirms that he 
i knew a fmgleTree of the date-bear- 
W ing Palm, which grew by the Side 



PA 

of an antient Convent in Martinico, 
which produe'd a large Quantity of 
fair Fruit annually ; tho' there was 
not any other Palm-tree which grew 
within two Leagues of this : but he 
alio affirms, that the Stones of thefe 
Dates would not grow; for they had 
planted many of them for feveral 
Years fucceffively, without ever 
raifing a fingle Plant ; and were af- 
terwards obliged to procure fome 
Dates from Barbary, in order to 
propagate them : fo that he con- 
jectured, that all the Female Trees 
may produce Fruit, which may ap- 
pear very fair to the Eye ; but, upon 
Examination, they will be found to 
want the Germ or Bud, which is the 
Embryo of the future Plant. 

This may account for the Fruit of 
the different Sorts of Palms not 
growing when they are brought to 
England ; for if they are gathered 
from a Tree growing fingly, having 
no Male Tree near it to impregnate 
the Ovary, it may be the trueCaufe 
why they do not fucceed : therefore 
thofe Perfons who collect thefe Fruit 
to propagate them, fhould always 
obferve to take them from fuch Trees 
as grow in the Neighbourhood of 
the Male. 

Ail the Sorts of Palms are worthy 
of being preferved by thofe who are 
curious m maintaining Exotic Plants, 
for the fingular Structure of their 
Parts, and Beauty of their Leaves, 
which make an agreeable Variety 
amongfl other curious Plants. 

PANCRATIUM, Sea-daffodil. 
The CharaSiers are ; 

It hath a tubulous lily-fhaptd F!o<vj~ 
er, confifiing of one Leaf, 'which it 
deeply cut into fx Parts : in the Mid- 
dle is a Cup, nvhich is bcll-Jfcaped and 
fxeorncred, having a Chi'oe proceed- 
ing from each Corner ; and is joined 
thereto as a Part of the Cup, being of 
the fame Colour at Bottom ; but the 

S f f 2 Pert, 



P A 

Part immediately under the Apex is 
green : in the Centre rifcs the Potntal, 
rwhich extends beyond the Chives: 
the Empaiement ajter-ioard becomes a 
rcundijb Fruit, which is triangular, 
and divided tnro three Parts, con- 
taining many fiat or roundijb Seeds. 
The Species are ; 

1. Pancratium Mcnfpefulanum, 
tnultis Scilla aim parva. J. B. Sea- 
daffodil of Montpelier, by many 
called, The lefier- white Squiil. 

2. Pancratium fioribus rjtbris. 
Lob. Pan. Sea - daifodil with r^d 
Flowers. 

3. Pancratium Illyricum, fiori- 
bus albis. Sea-daffodil of Illyricum, 
commonly called, The third Nar- 
ciflus of Matthiolus. 

4. Pancratium Americanum, fio- 
ribus niveis, odore baljami Peru"Jiani. 
American Sea-daffod,!, with fnowy 
Flowers, fmelling like the Balfam of 
Peru. 

5. Pancratium Americanum,fo- 
liis Ltijfimis, fioribus niseis majori- 
bus, odore balfatni Perwviani. Ame- 
rican Sea - daffodil, with very broad 
Leaves, and large fhowy Flowers, 
fmelling like the Balfam of Peru. 

6. Pancratium alter urn <vemum 
Indtc km. J. B. Another Indian Sea- 
daffodil of the Spring. 

7. Pancratium Zeylanicum, flcre 
albo odorato. Sea-daffodil of Ceylon, 
with white fweet-fnelling Flowers. 

The firit Sort is very common on 
the Seacoafts of the Mediterranean, 
wnere it grows in the Sands: it alio 
grows plentifully on the Sea-fnore at 
Minorca ; from whence I have re- 
ceived the Roots and Seeds : this Sort 
Eowers in England the Beginning of 
AugM.fi ; and the green Leaves remain 
all the Winter; fo that the belt time 
to tranfplant the Roots is in the 
Spring, as foon as the Leaves de- 
cay : but th;s Sort fhould not be of- 
ten* removed j for that will prevent 
, their Flowering. 



P A 

The fecond is a Variety of the 
fkft, differing only in the Colour of 
its Flower. 

The third Sort grows plentifully 
on the Sands near Naples, and in 
Sicily ; as alfo in feveral Iflands of 
the Archipelago, but particularly in 
Zant, where all the Ditches are 
ftored wi.h it. 

Thefe Plants are very hardy in re- 
fpect to Cold, and may be propaga- 
ted by OrT-fets from the Roots ; for 
tho' the third Sort, will produce ripe- 
Seeds in England, yet, as the Seed- 
ling-plants are many Years before 
. they come to flower, they are feldom 
propagated that way. Thefe Roots 
lhoald be tranfplanted in July, after 
the Leaves and Flower-Hems are de- 
cayed : they mould be planted in an 
Eaft Border, where they will thrive 
very well, and continue longer in 
Flower, than when they are more 
expofed to the Sun: but in every 
other refpect they may be treated as 
hath beendire&ed for the better Sort 
of NarcilTus. 

The other four Sorts are very 
tender, and will not live in England, 
uniefs they are preferved in the 
warmeft Stoves. Thefe may be 
procured from the Countries of their 
natural Growth, from whence their 
Bulbs may be eafily brought, if they 
are taken out of the Ground when 
their Leaves begin to decay ; and 
after crying them in the Shade, they 
mould be put up in Nets or Bags, 
and hung up, that the Vermin may 
not come to them. 

The fourth Sort is very commo: 
in Jamaica, and molt of the lflanc 
of America. The fifth Sort w< 
brought from the Bahama - Ifiana 
The fixth is very common in tl 
Spanijb IV efi -Indies : and the feven 
is a Native of the Iftand of Ceylon. 

Ail thefe Plants increafe by C- 
fets from th'jir Roots, and flovr 



P A 

extremely well, if they are planted 
in Pots filled with light rich Earth, 
and plunged into the Bark - bed in 
the Stove, and managed as hath 
been directed for the tender Sorts of 
Amaryllis. 

PAKSIES. Vide Viola Tricolor. 

PANICUM, Panic. 
The Characters are ; 

It is a Plant of the Mill t '-fond \ 
differing from that, by the Difpofi- 
tion of the Flowers and Seeds ; which, 
of this, grow in a clofe thick Spike. 
The Species are ; 

J. Panicum Germanicum, five 
panicula mi nor e fiava. C.B.P. Yellow 
German Panic, with a fmaller Spike. 

2. PANICUM Germanicum, five 
patiUuIa minore alba. C. B. P. White 
German Panic, with a fmaller Spike. 

3. Panicum Germanicum, five 
panicula minore purpurea. C. B. P. 
Purpte German Panic, with a (mail- 
er Spike. 

4. Panicum It ali cum, five pani- 
cula ?najore. C. B. P. Italian Panic, 
with a larger Spike. 

5 . Panicum Indicum, fpica obi u fa 
cccrulea. C. B. P. Indian Panic, with 
a blue obtufe Spike. 

6. Panicum Indie urn, fpica longif 
fima. C. B. P. Indum Panic, with a 
very long Spike. 

7. Panicum Americanum, fpica 
ebtufii brcvi. Jnfi. R. H. American 
Panic, with a fhort obtufe Spike. 

8. Panicum Americanum, fpica 
hngiore acuta. Inf. R. H. American 
Panic, with a longer-pointed Spike. 

g. Panicum Indicum altifjimum, 
fpicis fimplicibus mollibus, in foliorum 
a! is Lngijpmis pediculis infidentibus. 
Inf. R. H. The taileft Indian Panic, 
with a foft fmgle Spike, which is 
produced on a long Footilalk from 
the Wing of the Leaf. 

The three firil Sorts are only Va- 
rieties, which differ in the Colour of 
the Grain. Thefe arc fovved in fe- 



PA 

veral Parts of Europe, in the Field?, 
as Corn, for the Suftenance of the 
Inhabitants : but it is reckoned not 
to afford fo good Nourifhment as 
Millet; however, it is frequently 
ufed in fome Parts of Germany, to 
make Puddens, Cakes, and Bread. 
This is not fo much eiteemed as the 
Italian Sort ; but as it will ripen 
better in cold Countries than that, 
it is generally cultivated where a 
better Sort ofGrain will not fucceed. J 

The Seeds of thefe Sorts may be 
fown in the Spring, at the fame time 
as Barley is fown, and may be ma- 
naged exactly in the fame Way : but 
this lhould not be fown too thick ; 
for thefe Seeds are very fmall, and 
the Plants grow ftronger ; therefore 
require more room. The German 
Sort doth not grow above three Feet 
high, unlefs it is fown on very rich 
Land ; in which Cafe it will rife to 
be four Feet high ; but the Leaves 
and Stems of this Corn are very 
large; fo require to ftand four or 
fivelncheo apart ; otherwife they will 
grow up weak, and come to little. 
Thefe large - growing Corns mould 
be fown in Drills at about eighteen 
Inches apart, fo that the Ground 
may be hoed between the Rows of 
Corn, to keep them clear from 
Weeds ; and the ftirring of the 
Ground will greatly improve the 
Corn. Jn July the Corn will ripen, 
when it may be cut down and dried; 
and then mould be houfed. 

The Italian Panic grows much 
larger than the German, and pro- 
duces much larger Spikes ; fo this 
mould be allowed more room to 
grow, otherwife it will come to lit- 
tle. This is alio later before it ri- 
pens ; fo it is not very proper for 
cold Countries. 

The other Sorts are Natives of 
very warm Countries, where they 
are ufed by the Inhabitatns to make 

S f f 3 Bread. 



P A 



Bread. Thefe grow very large, 
and require a good Summer, other- 
wife they will not ripen in this 
Country. The Seeds of thefe Kinds 
fhould be fown the Latter-end of 
March, or the Beginning of April, 
on a Bed of light rich Earth, in a 
warm Situation. They fhould be 
fown in Drills about three Feet 
afunder ; and when the Plants come 
up, they Draft be kept clear from 
Weed?, and thinned where they are 
too clofe. When the Plants are 
grown pretty tall, they mould be 
fupported by Stake?, otherwife the 
Winds will break them down : and 
when the Corn begins to ripen, the 
Birds muft be kept from it, other- 
wife they will foon deftroy it. Thefe 
Sorts are prefcrved in fome curious 
Gardens for the fake of Variety ; 
but they are not worth cultivating 
for Ufe in Er. gland. 
PAPAVER, Poppy. 

The Characters are ; 
The Flower, for the mofl part, 
tariffs of four Leaves^ which are 
-placed orbicularly, and expand in form 
of a Rofe ; cut of whofe Flower- cup 
( which confjls of two Leaves J rifes 
the Pointal, which afterward be- 
comes the Fruit or Pod, which is oval 
cr oblong, and adorned with a little 
Head ; under which, in feme Species, 
is opend a Series of Holes quite round, 
into the Ca vity of the Fruit, which is 
defended lengthwife with various 
heaves or Plates ; to which a great 
Number of very J mall Seeds adhere. 

The Species are ; 

1. Papaver hortenfe, femine al- 
bo, fativum Dio/coridis, album Pli- 
nio. C. B. P. Garden Poppy, with 
white Seed-. 

2. Papauer. hortenfe, femine r.i- 
gro,flvefre Dio/coridis, nigrum Pli- 
nio. C. B. P. Garden Poppy, with 
black Seeds. 

3. Pap aver fere pUno, ruhrum. 



Hort. Ef. Double rt d Poppy. 

4. Pap aver fore pleno, album. 
C. B. P. Double white Peppy. 

5. Pa paver fiore pleno purpurco. 
C. B. P. Double purple Poppy. 

6. Pa paver pleno fore, nigrum. 
C. B. P. Black double - flower'd 
Poppy. 

7. Pa paver laciniatis for thus. 
C B. P. Peppy with jagged Flowers. 

8. Pa paver fore pleno laciniato 
eleganter firiato. Hort. Ed. Double 
jagged Poppy, with beautiful Uriped 
Flowers. 

9. Pap aver Orient ale hirfutijp- 
mum, fore magno. Tourn. Cor. Very 
rough oriental Poppy, with a large 
Flower. 

10. Papaver erraticum mo] us, 
po:d( Diofcoridi, Plinio, Thcophi afo. 
C. B. P. Red Peppy, or Corn- 
rofe. 

11. Pa Paver erraticum majus, 
foliis forum varicgatis. H, R. Par. 
Great wild Poppy, whofe Flower- 
leaves are variegated. 

12. Pa paver erraticum, fore fle- 
vo. C. B. P. Double wild Poppy, 
commonly called, The Dwarf Poppy. 

I 3. Papaver erraticum, fore ple- 
no miniato. H. R. Par. Wikl Peppy, 
with a double vermilion - coloured 
Flower. 

1 4 . P a P a V E R erraticum , fore p lev» 
igneo. H. R. Par. Wild Poppy, with 
a double firy Flower. 

15. Papaevr erraticum, fore ple- 
no igneo, marginibus candidis. H. L. 
Wild Poppy, with a double firy 
Flower, edged with Whice. 

16. Papaver erraticum, fore pie. 
xc fhaeniceo, unguibus albis. H. R. 
Par. Wild Poppy, with a double 
parpie Flower, and white Bottom. 

17. Papaver erraticum minus. C. 
B. P. Leffer wild Poppy, or Dwarf 
Poppy. 

18. Papaver lutcum perenne, la- 
ciniato fclio, Gambro - Britannicum. 

Rati 



P A 

Raii Syn. Weljb, or Yellow wild 
Baftard Popny. 

The firltSort is cultivated in Gar- 
dens for medicinal Ufe, and is by 
fome fuppofed to be the Plant from 
whence the Opium is procured : of 
this there are feveral Varieties, which 
chiefly differ in the Colour of their 
Flowers ; but they are no more than 
feminal Variations ; and therefore 
not worth enumerating in this Place. 

The black Poppy grows wild in 
divers Parts of England: the Seeds 
of this Kind are fold to feed Birds, 
by the Name of Maw-feed. Of this 
Sort there are a vaft Number of Va- 
rieties ; fome of which produce ex- 
ceeding large double Flowers of 
various Colours, and beautifully 
ftrip'd : but thefe are apt to vary 
from Seed ; therefore you mould' 
never fave the Seeds of any fuchasare 
not very double, and well-colour'd ; 
from which you may always expect 
to have good Sorts produce. 

The Oriental Poppy is an abiding 
Plant, which produces a large fingle 
Flower in May, which makes a beau- 
tiful Appearance : this may be pro- 
pagated from Seeds, or by parting 
their Roots : the beft timetotranfplant 
them is AtMicbaeimas : this mull have 
a light Soil, and a warm Situation. 

The red Poppy, or Corn-rofe, is 
never propagated in Gardens ; but 
is very common upon chalky dry 
f«)ils in almolt every Part of Eng- 
land, where the Plants come up 
amongft the Corn, and are very 
troublefome : the Flowers of this 
Kind are brought into the Markets 
for medicinal Ufe. There are many 
Varieties of this Plant with double 
Flowers, which are cultivated in the 
Flower garden ; but efpscially the 
Dwarf Sort, of which there are fome 
wi h very double Flowers, which are 
beautifully edged with White : thefe 
are by many Perfons fown for Edg- 



p A 

ings to the large Borders of the Plea- 
fure-garden ; tho' I think them no- 
ways proper for this, fince their 
Flowers are but of a fhort Duration; 
and the Plants, when their Seeds are 
perfected, immediately decay ; fo 
that they appear unfightly : befides, 
where they grow very clofe, the 
Flowers are generally fmall : but if 
they are fown in Patches upon the 
Borders, and, when the Plants come 
up, are thinned out, fo as to leave 
but three or four in each Place, they 
will flower very well, and look very 
beautifully. 

All the Sorts of Poppies mould 
be fown in Autumn ; for, when they 
are fown in the Spring, the Plants 
have not time enough to get Strength 
before the hot Weather caufes them 
to run up to flower ; fo that their 
Flowers are never fo large or double 
as thofe fown in Autumn. When 
the Plants come up, they mould be 
carefully cleared from Weeds, which 
is all the Culture they require, ex- 
cept to pull them up where they are 
too thick; for they thrive better 
when they are fuffered to remain 
where they were fown, than if they 
were tranfplanted : but you fhould 
obferve to let them have room in 
proportion to the Growth of the 
Plants. The Sort firit- mentioned 
grows very large and tall; therefore 
lhould be not clofer than eight or 
ten Inches : but the black Sort may 
ftand fomeu hat nearer ; tho' this ap- 
pears handfomer when the Plants 
ltand fingle; therefore it is the bet- 
ter way to flatter the Seeds of thofe 
which havt beautiful Flowers very 
thin over the Borders of the Flower- 
garden : and, when the Plants come 
up, they may be pulled out where 
they are not well fituated, leaving 
here-and there a Plant, as the other 
Flowers in the Borders will admit ; 
where, at the Scafonof their Flower- 

S f f 4 ing, 



P A 



ing, they will make a pretty Variety 
amongft the Flowers : but they are 
of mort Duration ; and having an ill 
Scent, they are lefs efteemed of late 
Years, fmce the Plenty of other more 
valuable Flowers. 

PAPAVER CORNICULA- 
TUM. Vide Glaucium. 

PAPAVER SPINOSUM. Vide 
Argemone. 

PAPAYA, Papaw-tree. 
The Characters are ; 

// hath a fimple Stalk : the Flom- 
ers are Male and Female in different 
Plants : the Male Flowers f tobich 
are barren J are tubulous, conjijling of 
cne Leaf and expand in the Form of 
a Star : the Ft male Flowers con f ft cf 
federal Leaves, which expand in form 
of a Rofe, out of ivho/e Flower- cup 
rifes the Fointal 9 which afterward 
becomes a fl'Jhy Fruit, Jhaped like a 
Cucumber or Melon, containing many 
Jmall obiong furrow d Seeds. 
The Species are ; 

1. Papaya f rutin meloprponis rjf- 
gie. Plum. The Female Papaw-tree, 
bearing a Fruit like the Melopepo. 

2. Pa fa y a frudu maxima, pepo- 
nis effgie. Plum. The Female Pa 
paw tree, bearing a Fruit like the 
Pumkin. 

3 . P a P a y a mas. Bcerh Ind. The 
Male Papaw-tree. 

Thefe Plants are very common in 
the Caribbee Jjlands, where they arife 
from Seeds, and will produce Fruit 
in eight or ten Months after. 

The Fruit is cut before it is ripe, 
and afterwards fliced, and foak'd in 
Water until the milky Juice be out, 
and then boii'd and eaten as Tur- 
neps, or baked as Apples ; and when 
ripe, it is eaten as Melons, with Pep- 
per and Sugar, by the Inhabitants 
of thofe Countries. 

The Flowers of the Male Sort, as 
alfo the Fruit of the Fcpale, are j?re- 



ferved, and fent over as a Sweetmeat 
to Europe, and are faid to be very 
cooling and cordial. 

In England thefe Plants are pre- 
ferved as Curiofitits, by fuch as de- 
light in Exotics : they are eafily raif- 
ed from the Seeds (which are gene- 
rally brought from the Wtjl-lndies ' 
in plenty every Year), which fhould 
be fown upon an Hot-bed in Febru- 
ary or March and when the Plants 
are come up, they mould be planted 
each in a feparate fmall Pot filPd 
with rich light Earth, and plunged 
into a moderate Hot bed of Tanners 
Bark, obferving to water and made 
.them until they have taken Root ; 
after which, you mould let them 
have Air in proportion to the 
Warmth of the Seafon, by raifmg 
the GhlTes with Bricks, i$c. and you 
muft often refrefh them with Water. 

When the Plants have grown fo 
as to fi.i the Pots with their Roots, 
they mud be fhaken out of them, 
prefer ving the Earth as in tire as pof- 
fible to their Roots, and placed in 
larger Pots ; which mould be filled 
with the fame light Earth, and plung- 
ed again into the Hot-bed ; obferv- 
ing to give them Air and Water, as 
was before directed : and thus from 
time to time, as the Plants increafe 
their Stature, you fnouid fliift them 
into larger Pots, which will caufe 
them to be very Itrong; and if you 
keep them in the Hot- bed all rj it 
Summer, and give them due Attend- 
ance, they will rife to fix or feven 
Feet high before Winter. 

In Goober they mould be placed 
into a new Hot-bed in the Bark- Hove 
with other tender Exotic Plants, 
where, during the Winter - feafon, 
they mufr be carefully look'd after, 
to water and cleanfe them well from 
Vermin and Filth ; and the Stove 
mould be kept nearly to die A na- 
na 's 



P A 

na's Heat, as mark'd on the Bota- 
nic Thermometers, in which they 
will thrive, and retain their beauti- 
ful large Leaves all the Winter : and 
the Male Sort will continue to pro- 
duce frefh Flowers all that Seafon, 
provided you do not keep them too 
dry. The fecond Year the Female 
Sort will flower, and, if duly at- 
tended, will perfect the Fruit the 
following Spring. 

Thefe Plants make a very beauti- 
ful Appearance (when grow large) 
amongft other Exotics in the Stove, 
and deferve a Place in every Colle- 
ction of rare Plants. 

PARIETARIA, Pellitory. 
The Characters are ; 

It hatb an apetalcus Flower, whofe 
Flovcer-cup is divided into four Parts ; 
•which is fometimes bcll-jhapcd, and 
at other times flmped like a Funnel, 
with four Stamina (or Threads ) fur- 
rounding the Pointal ; which Pointal 
• becomes, for the mofl part, an oblong 
Seed, Jurroundcd by the Flower -cup : 
to which may be added, 7 he Flowers 
are produced from the Wings of the 
Leaves. 

The Species are ; 

1. Pari BT aria offcinarum, iff 
Piofcoridis. C B. P. Pellitory of the 
Wall. 

2. Parietaria minor, ocy mi fo- 
lio. C. B. P. Letter Pellitory, with 
a Bafil-leaf. 

The firft of thefe Plants is fup- 
pofed to be the true Sort, which is 
recommended by Diofcorides for me- 
dicinal Ufe : this is the molt com- 
mon in Germany, and fome other 
Countries ; but it is very different 
from that which grows wild in Eng- 
land, which is more like the fecor.d 
Sort, tho 1 I can't pofitively affirm it 
to be the fame. 

Thefe Plants grow wild upon old 
Walls and Buildings in great Plenty ; 
but may be cultivated by fowing 



P A 

their Seeds in Autumn, upon a dry 
gravelly or Irony Soil ; where they 
will thrive much better than in a rich 
Soil, and are preferable for Ufe to 
thofe which grow in a moift rich 
Ground ; for though in fuch Places 
they will often be very rank, yet 
they are not near fo ftrongjy fcent- 
ed. 

PARIS, Kerb Paris, True-love, 
or One-berry. 

The Characters are ; 

The Empalement of the Flower is 
compofedcf four Leaves which expand 
in form of a Crcfs ; the Flower alfo 
hath four Leaves, which fprcad open 
in the fame manner : in ti e Centre of 
the Flower is Jltuatedthcfquare Poin- 
tal, attended by eight Stamina, each 
being crown d with an oblong ereel 
Summit : the Pointal afterward 
changes to a round'/fl) Berry, having 
four Cells, whitb are filed with 
Seeds. 

We know but one Species of this 
Genus; viz. 

Paris foliis quaterms. Lin. Ver. 
Herb Paris, True - love, or One- 
berry. 

This Plant grows wild in moifl: 
fhady Woods, in divers Parts of 
England, but efpecially in theNorth- 
ern Counties ; and it is with great 
Difficulty preferred in Gardens. 
The only Method to procure it is, 
to take up the Plants from the Places 
where they grow wild, preferving 
good Bails of Earth to their Roots, 
and plant them in a mady moift 
Border, where they may remain un- 
difturbed : in which Situation they 
will live fome Years ; but as it is a 
Plant of little Beauty, it is rarely 
prefer ved in Garden?. 

PARKINSONIAN 
The Characters are ; 

It hath a polypetalous anomalous 
Flower, confifting of fve dijimilar 
Leaves, from whofe Cup arifes the 
Pointaly 



P A 



P A 



Pchfal, which afterward becomes a 
rough jointed Pod ; each Knot or "Joint 
containing ofie kidney -Jb of 'd Seed. 

We know but one Species of this 
Plant ; which is, 

Parkinsonia aculeata^foliis mir.u- 
tis y uni cofi<e adnexis. Plum Hov.Gen. 
Prickly Parkinfonia, with very fmall 
Leaves, fattened to one middle PJb. 

This Plant was difcover'd by Fa- 
ther Plunder in America ; who gave 
it this Name, in Honour to the 
Memory of Mr. John Pariin/ok,who 
pubiinYd an univerfal Hiftory of 
Plants in Englijh, in the Year 1640. 

It is very common in the Spanijh 
W4 ft -Indies ; but of late Years it has 
been introduced into the EngHJh 
Settlements in America, for the Beau- 
ty and Sweetnefs of its Flowers. 
Jliis, in the Countries where it 
grows, naturally riles to be a Tree 
of twenty Feet high, or more; and 
bears long llender Bunches of yel- 
low Flowers, which hang down af- 
ter the fame manner as the Labur- 
num. Thefe Flowers have a moft 
agreeable fweet Scent, fo as to per- 
fume the Air to a confiderable Di- 
fiance round about the Trees ; for 
which Reafon the Inhabitants of the 
Weft-Indies plant them near their 
Habitations. And though this 
Plant has not been introduced many 
Years into the Englijh Settlements, 
yet it is now become fo common in 
all thelfiands, that but few Houfes 
are without fome of the Trees near 
it ; for it produces Flowers and 
Seeds in plenty, in about two Years, 
from Seed ; fo that it may foon be 
made common in all hot Countries : 
but in Europe it requires a Stove, 
otherwife it will not live through 
the W inter. 

This Plant is propagated bySeeds, 
which mould be fown in fmall Pots 
filled with light frefti Earth early in 
tiic Spring ; and the Pots mult be 



plunged into an Hot bed of Tanner 1 

Bark, where, in about three Weeks 
or a Month's time, the Plants will 
come up ; when they fhould be kept 
clear from Weeds, and frequently 
refrefned with Water. In a little 
time thefe Plants will be fit to tranf- 
plant ; which mould be done very 
carefully, fo as not to injure their 
Roots. They muft be each planted 
into a feparate Halfpeny Pot filled 
with frefh light Earth, and then 
plunged into the Hot-bed again, ob- 
ferving to ftir up the Tan; and if 
it hath loft its Heat, there mould be 
fome frehh Tan added, to renew the 
Heat again : then thePlants fhould be 
fcreened from theHeat of theSun, un- 
til they have a newRoot ; after which 
time they mould have frem Airadmitt- 
ed to them every Day,in proportion to 
the Warmth of the Seafon ; and they 
muft be conftantly fupplied with 
W^ater every other Day, in warm 
Weather. With this Management 
the Plants will grow fo faft, as to fill 
the Pots with their Roots by the Be- 
ginning of July : at which time they 
fhould be fhifted into Pots a little 
larger than the former, and plunged 
again into the Bark-bed, provided 
the Plants are not too tall to remain 
under the Frame, without Danger of 
being fcorched by the GlafTes ; in 
which Cafe they muft be plunged 
into the Bark-bed in-the Stove, where 
they may have room to grow. But 
before the Weather becomes cold, 
it will be the beft way to inure the 
Plant? by degrees to bear the open 
Air, that they may be harden'd be- 
fore Winter ; for if they are kept 
too warm in Winter, the Plan's will 
decay before the next Spring. The 
only Method by which I have fuc- 
cee'ded in keeping thefe Plants thro' 
theWinter, was by har: er^rg them 
in July and Augujl to bear the open 
Air ; and in September I placed them 

on 



P A 

on Shelves in the dry Stove, at the 
greatefi Diftance from the Fire, fo 
that they were in a very temperate 
Warmth ; and there they retained 
their Leaves all the Winter, and 
continued in Health, when thofe 
which were placed in a warmer Si- 
tuation, as alfo thofe in theGreen- 
houfe, were intirely deltroyed. 
PARNASSIA.Grafs ofParnafus. 

The Characters are ; 
It hath a rofe-foaped Flower, con- 
fifiingof 'five Leaves, at the Bottom 
ef which are fmali frir.ged Leaves, of 
a greenijh Colour, which are placed 
orbicularly : out of the Flower - cup 
rifes the Pointal, which afterward 
turns to a membranaceous Fruit,which 
is cval, having but one Cell, which 
is filled with Seeds, that, for the mojl 
part, adhere to a fourfold Placenta. 
The Species are ; 

1. ?ARKASSiApalufiris& vulga- 
ris, hft. R. H. Common Marili- 
g'rafs of Parnajfus. 

2. Parnassia vulgaris, fore ple- 
na. Common Grafs of Parnajfus, 
with a double Flower. 

The former of thefe Sorts grows 
wild in moift Meadows, in feveral 
Parts of England, but particularly in 
the North ; but it doth not grow in 
the Neighbourhood of London, any 
nearer than on the other Side of 
Watford, in the low Meadows by 
Caffioberry, where it is in pretty 
great Plenty. 

The other Sort is an accidental 
Variety of the former; which has 
been difcovered wild, and tranfplant- 
ed into Gardens. This is but rarely 
to be found, being in very few Gar- 
dens at prelent. 

Thefe Plants may be taken up 
from the natural Places of their 
Growth, with Balls of Earth to their 
Roots, and planted into Pots filled 
with pretty ftrong frelh undung'd 
' Earth, and placed in a fhady Situa- 



p A 

tion, where, if they are conftantly 
watered, they will thrive very well, 
and flower every Summer : but if 
the Plants are planted in the full 
Ground, it fhould be in a very moift 
lhady Border, otherwife they will 
not live ; and thefe mould be as du- 
ly watered, as thofe in the Pots in 
dry Weather, to make them produce 
ftrong Flowers. 

They may be propagated by part- 
ing of their Roots, which fhould be 
done in March, before they put out 
new Leaves : but the Roots Ihould 
not be divided too fmall ; for that 
will prevent tneir flowering the fol- 
lowing Summer : thefe Roots fhould 
always be planted in pretty ftrong 
frefti Earth ; for they will not thrive 
in a light rich Soil. In the Spring 
they muft be conftantly watered, if 
the Seafon mould prove dry, other- 
wife they will not flower; nor fhould 
they be parted oftener than every 
third Year, to have them ftrong. 
Thefe Plants flower in July, and 
their Seeds are ripe the latter End of 
Jugufi. 

It is called Parnajfus, frcm Mount 
Parnajfus, on which it was fuppofed 
to grow; and from the Cattle feed- 
ing on it, it w.ns called a Grafs, 
though the Plant has no Refemblance 
to any of the Grafs-kind ; but is 
more l;ke to theRanunculus in Flow- 
er ; and the Leaves are pretty broad, 
oblong, and fmooth. 

PARONYCHIA, Mountaia 
Knot-grafs. 

The Characters are ; 

It hath an apetalous Flower, coi*- 
fifing of feveral Chives, which rife 
from the Flower-cup, which is Jhaped 
like the Pelvis, and cut into five Parts, 
for the mofi part like a Crown : the 
Pointal aftervjard becomes a round 
Seed, wrapt up in a five corneredHuJk, 
which was before the Flower -cup. 
The Species are ; 

I. Paro- 



P A 



P A 



1. Paronychia Hifpanica. Chi/. 
H'fip. Spanijb Mountain Knot grafs. 

2. Paronychia Narbonenfis ere- 
£a. Infl. R. H. Upright Mountain 
Knot- grafs of Nar bonne. 

3. Paronychia Hifpanica fupina 
Alfine folia, capitulis minus compaclts. 
lift. R. H. Low Spanijb Moun- 
tain Knot-grafs, with a Chickwecd- 
leaf, and the Heads lefs compact. 

4. Paronychia Hifpanica fru- 
ticofa, myrti folio. Inft. R. H. Shrub- 
by Spanijb Mountain Knot-grafs, 
With a Myrtle-leaf. 

5. Paronychia L»fitanica t poly- 
gon folio, capitulis ecbinatis. bift.R. 
H. Portugal Mountain Knot-grafs, - 
with prickly Her.ds. 

6 . Paronychia Orient a lis burnt - 
fu/a, ferpylli folio. Tourn. Cor. 
Dwarf Ealtcrn Mountain Knot-grafs, 
with a Mother-of-thyme-leaf. 

The five Sorts firft - mentioned 
grow wild in Spain, Portugal, and 
the South of France, where they ge- 
nerally are found near the Sea, on 
the Sides of Banks; but the fixth 
Sort was difcovered by Dr. Tourm- 
fort in the Levant. They are all 
(except the fecond and fourth Sorti) 
low Plants, which trail on the 
Ground, in the fame manner as our 
common Knot-grafs ; but continue 
&veral Years. 

Thefe Plants are preferved by 
thofe who are curious in Botany, for 
the fake of Variety ; but are feldom 
admitted into other Gardens; though 
*he rirft Sort may have room in eve- 
ry good Garden, for the fine x^p- 
pearance it makes in Autumn, when 
the filvery fcaly Heads, which are 
produced at every Joint of the 
Branches, make a goodly Shew. 

They may all be propagated by 
Cowing their Seeds on a Bed of light 
frefh Earth, in an open Situation, 
about the Middle or Latter- end of 



March ; and when the Plants come 
up, they Ihould be carefully weed- 
ed ; and if the Seafon ihould prove 
dry, they mult be now-and-then wa- 
tered. When the Plants are large 
enough to tranfplant, they mould 
be carefully taken up, and fome of 
them planted in Pots, and the others 
on a warm Border, where they may 
be fheltered in Winter ; otherwiie 
they will not live in this Country. 
Thofe which are planted in Pots, 
mould be placed under an Hot-bed- 
frame, where they may be fcreened 
from hard Frofl: ; but fhould have 
as much free Air as poflible in mild 
Weather. With this Management 
the Plants may be preferved many 
Years, and will flower every Seafon; 
but they rarely produce any Seeds ia 
this Country. 

PARSLEY. Vide Apium. 

PARSNRP. Vide Paftinaca. 

PARTHENIUM, Baftard Fever- 
few. 

The Characters are ; 
7/ hath a radiated difcous Flower, 
confifing of fever al Florets, which oc- 
cupy the. Difk, but are barren : the 
Half -florets, which are Jhaped like an 
Heart, are fucceeded by black Seeds, 
which are naked, having no Down 
adhering to them : to which may be 
added, The Flower-cup is fimple, and 
cut into five Parts in the Bottom. 
The Species are ; 

1. Parthenium foliis compefito 
tnultif.dis. Lin. Hort. Cliff. Baftard 
Feverfew, with a Mugwort-leaf. 

2. Parthenium foliis ova t is 
crenatis. Lin. Hort. Cliff. BaO.ard 
Feverfew, with an Elecampane- 
leaf. 

3. Parthenium foliis lanceolatis 
fcrratis. Lin. Hort. Cliff. Shrub- 
by Ballard Feverfew, with fpcar- 
fhnp'd Leaves, by fome falfly cali'd, 
The Jcfuits Bark-tree. 

Tfa* 



P A 

The firft Sort grows wild in great 
Plenty in the Ifland of Jamaica, and 
in fome other of the Englijb Settle- 
ments in the Weft -Indies, where it 
is called wild Wormwood, and is 
ufed by the Inhabitants as a vulne- 
rary Herb. 

The fecond Sort grows plentiful- 
ly in feveral Parts of the Spanijb 
Weft- Indies ; from whence the Seeds 
have been brought to Europe. 

The firft is an annual Plant,which 
may be propagated by fowing the 
Seeds on an Hot-bed early in the 
Spring; and when the Plants are 
come up, they fhould be tranfplant- 
ed on another Hot-bed, at about 
five or fix Inches Diftance, observ- 
ing to water and (hade them until 
they have taken new Root ; after 
which time they mull have a pretty 
large Share of frefh Air in warm 
Weather, by raifing of the Glaffes 
of the Hot-bed every Day; and they 
"mud be duly watered every other 
Day at leaft. When the Plants have 
grown fo as to meet each other, 
they mould be carefully taken up, 
preferving a Ball of Earth to their 
Roots ; and each planted into a fe- 
parate Pot filled with light rich 
Earth ; and if they are plunged into 
a moderate Hot-bed, it will greatly 



facilitate their taking frefn Root ; 
but where this Convemency is want- 
ing, the Plants mould be removed 
to a warm-lheltered Situation, where 
they muft be {haded from the Sun 
until they have taken new Root ; 
after which time they may be expo- 
fed, with other tender annual Plants, 
in a warm Situation ; where they 
will flower in July, and their Seeds 
will ripen in September. But if the 
Seafon ihould prove cold and wet, it 
will be proper to have a Plant or 
two in Shelter, either in theStove,or 
under tall Frames, in order to have 
gocd Seeds, if thole Plants which 
6 6 



P A 

are expofed mould fail, whereby the 
Species may be preferved. 

The fecond Sort is a perennial 
Plant,which dies to the Ground eve- 
ry Autumn, and moots up again the 
following Spring. The Seeds of 
this Sort were fent me by my good 
Friend Dr. Thomas Dale, from South- 
Carolina, where the Plants grow 
wild. This may be propagated by 
parting of the Roots in Autumn, and 
may be planted in the full Ground, 
where it will abide the Cold of our 
ordinary Winters very weil. This- 
Sort flowers in July, but feldom 
produces good Seeds in England. 

The third Sort has been many 
Years preferved in the Englifi Gar- 
dens. This was brought from Ame- 
rica for the true Jefuits Bark-tree ; 
but it hath been fmce difcovered, 
that the Tree from whence that 
Bark is taken, is of a different Ge- 
nus from this ; and, by the Seed vef- 
fels, appears to be near akin to the 
Juftiaa. 

This Plant was generally preferv- 
ed in Pots, and hoofed in the Win- 
ter ; but, of late Y ear. c , it hath been 
planted in the open Air, where it 
thrives, and endures the Cold very 
well, provided it is planted in a 
fheltered Situation. It may be pro- 
pagated by Cuttings, which fhouM 
be planted in March, upon a Border 
of loamy Earth ; and if the Spring 
mould prove dry, they muft be often 



watered, otherwife the Cuttings ■will 
fail : but if they are properly ma- 
nag'd, they will be well rooted by 
the Autumn, and may then be trans- 
planted. It may alio be propagated 
by Layers, which will be well roottd 
in one Year ; or from Suckers, 
which are often produced in plenty 
from the Roots of the old Plants : 
but as there is little Beauty in the 
Plant, and as the Shoots are very 
irregular, and thinly difpofed j fe v 
Per Ions 



P A 

Perfons care to preferve the Plants, 
unlefs it be for the fake of Variety. 

PASQUE-FLOWER. JaAPuI- 
fatilla. 

PASSE RINA, Sparrow- wort. 

This Title was applied by Tragus 
to a Plant of another Genus ; but 
Dr. Linnaeus has conftituted a new 
Genus by this Name. 

The Characters are ; 

The Flower hath no En:palemeni, 
and confijis of one Leaf, which is tu- 
bulous, and cut into four Parts at the 
Brim : in the Centre of the Flower 
is fituated the Pointal, attended by 
tight Stamina : the Pointal afterward 
changes to an oval Fruit, having one 
Cell, in which is lodged one oval- 
-pointed Seed. 

The Species are ; 

t. Passerina foli is linearihus. 
Lin. Hort. Cliff. Sparrow - wort 
with very narrow Leaves. 

2. Passerina foli is lanceolatis. 
Lin. Hort. Cliff. Sparrow - wort, 
with fpear-fhap'd Leaves. 

The fir ft Sort hath been mention- 
ed by fome Authors under the Title 
of Thyme lea tomtntofa, &c. and the 
fecond Sort under the Title of Erica 
Jfricana, Sec. and both of them 
have had feveral Names applied to 
them ; which were fo confufsd, as 
render it very difficult to know the 
Plants they mentioned. 

Thefe Plants grow to the Height 
of four or five Feet, in England, and 
may be trained up very regular ; and 
as they are ever green, there may 
be a Plant or two of each Sort al- 
lowed to have a Place in the Green- 
houfe, where a Collection of rare 
Plants is maintained. 

Thefe are both propagated by 
Cuttings, which mould be planted 
in the Spring, upon a moderate Hot- 
bed ; where, if they are duly wa- 
tered, and fcreened from the Sun, 
they will take Root in about three 



p A 

Months, fo as to be fit to remove J 
when they mould be each tranfplant- 
ed into a Imall Pot filled with frefti 
light Earth, and placed in a fhady 
Situation until they have taken 
Root ; after which time, they may 
be placed in a fheltered Situation* 
with other hardy Exotic Plants, till 
October ; when they muft be remo- 
ved into the Green-houfe for the 
Winter feafon, and may be treated 
in the fame manner as hath been di- 
rected for Hermannia's. 

PASSION-FLOWER. Vide Gra^ 
nadilia. 

PASTINACA, Parfnep. 
The Characlers are ; 

// is a Plant with roje and umbel- 
lated Fhwers, conffing of many Pe- 
tals or Leaves placed orbicularly, and 
rejling on the Empalement ; which 
turns to a Fruit, conipofed of two Seeds, 
which are oval, large, thin, border d, 
and generally cajiing off their Cover ; 
to thefe Marks muji be added, That tht 
Leaves are winged and large. 
The Species are ; 

J. Pastinaca fativa latifolia. 
C.B. P. Garden Parfnep. 

2. Pastinaca fylveflris latifolia, 
C. B. P. Wild Parfnep. 

5. Pastinaca fylveftris alt iff ma. 
To urn. The talleft wild Parfnep, or 
Hercules'* All-heal. 

The fecond Sort grows wild in di- 
vers Parts of England, upon theSides 
of dry Banks; and is by fome affirm- 
ed to be no- ways different from the 
firft Sort, but by Cultivation : 
which is a very great Miltake; for 
1 have fown the Seeds of both Sores 
in the fame Bed for feveral Years ; 
but could not find, that either Sort 
alter'd in the leaft,the fecond Rill re- 
taining the fame Smooth nefs in the 
Leaf, and the fame pale Colour, and 
Largenefs of Root ; as did the 
firft its ufcai Roughnefs, dark-green 
Colour, and nender Roots : nor do 



P A 

I believe either Sort will alter, i/ 
they were cultivated ever fo long. 

The Root and Seedi of the fecond 
Sort is fometimes ufed in Medicine; 
but it is feldom cultivated in Gar- 
dens, the Markets being fupplied 
from the Fields : yet the Druggilts 
commonly fell the Seeds of the Gar- 
den- kind for it ; which they may 
purchafe at an eafy Price, when it is 
too old to grow. 

The firit Sort is cultivated in 
Kitchen-gardens ; theRoots of which 
are large, fweer, and accounted very 
nouriming. They are, propagated 
by Seeds, which mould be iown in 
February or March, in a rich mellow 
Soil ; which muit be well dug, that 
their Roots may run downward ; the 
greateft Excellency being the Length 
andBignefs of theRoots. Thefcmaybe 
fownalone,or withCarrots,as is prac- 
tifed by the Kitchen- gardeners near 
London ; fome of whom alfo mix 
Leeks, Onions, and Lettuce, with 
their Parfneps : but this 1 think very- 
wrong ; for it is not poiiible, that 
fo many different Sorts can thrive 
well together, except they are al- 
lowed a considerable D.itance ; and 
if fo, it will be equally the fame to 
low the different Sorts feparate. 
However, Carrots and Parfneps 
may be fown very well, efpecially 
where the Carrots are defigned to 
be drawn off very young ; becaufe 
the Parfneps generally fpread meft 
toward the Latter-end of Summer, 
which is afcer the Carrots are gone ; 
fo that there may be a double Crop 
upon the fame Ground. 

When the Plants are come up, 
you Ihould hoe them out, leaving 
them about ten Inches or a Foot a- 
funder ; obferving at the fame time 
to cut up all the Weeds, which, if 
permitted to grow, would foon over- 
bear the Plants, and choak them : 
this rouft be repeated three or fear 
times ia the Spring, according as you 



P A 

find the Weeds grow ; but in ths 
latter Part of Summer, when the 
Plants are fo itrong as to cover the 
Ground, they will prevent the 
Growth of Weeds ; fo that after 
that Seafon they will require no far- 
ther Care. 

When the Leaves begin to decay, 
the Roots may be dug up for Uie ; 
before which time they are feldom 
well tafted : nor are they good for 
much late in the Spring, after they 
are mot out again : fo that thofe 
who would prelerve thefe Roots for 
Spring-ufe, fliould dig them up in 
the Beginning of February, and bu- 
ry them in Sand, in a dry Place, 
where they will remain go 3d until 
the middle of April, or later. 

If you intend to fave the Seeds of 
this Plant, you mould make cho ce 
of feme of the longeft, ilraiteft, and 
largeft Roots ; which mould be 
planted about two Feet afunder, in 
ibme Place where they may be de- 
fended frorn the itrong South and 
Weft Winds ; for the Stems of thefe 
Plants commonly grow to a great 
Height, and are very fubjee! to be 
broken by itrong Winds, if expofed 
thereto : they mould be conftantly 
kept clear from Weeds ; and if the 
Seafon Ihould prove very dry, you 
muit give them fome Water twice a 
Week, which will caufe them to pro- 
duce a greater Quantity of Seeds ; 
which will be much fironger than if 
they were wholly neglected To- 
ward the Latter-end of Augufi, or 
the Beginning of September, the 
Seeds will be ripe ; at which time 
you mould carefully cut off the 
Heads, and fpread them upon a 
coarfe Cloth for two or three Days, 
to dry ; after which, the Seeds ifeould 
be beaten off, and put up for Ufe : 
but you muft never truffi to thefe 
Seeds after they are a Year old j for 
they will feldom grow beyond that 
Age. The 



' P A 

The third Sort isprefervM in Bo- 
tanic Gardens, amongft fome other 
Sorts of thefe Plants, for Variety ; 
bat is feldom propagated for Ufe. 
This is by many fuppofed to be the 
the Panaces Syriacum of the Antients, 
from whence the Opopanax is taken, 
which is fuppofed to be the concrete 
Juice of this Plant ; as is the Affa 
fcetida fuppofed to be the concrete 
Juice of one Species of this Genus. 

All thefe Sorts may be cultivated 
by fowing their Seeds early in the 
Spring, or in Autumn, foon after 
they are ripe ; and fhould be ma- 
naged as the Garden - kind, with 
this Difference ; vi$s. the Plants 
fhould not Hand nearer than two 
Feet and an half Diftance ; but then 
they need not be reduced to this 
until the fucceeding Spring. Thefe 
Roots arc perennial, and may be re- 
moved with Safety at any time after 
their Leaves are decay'd : they fel- 
dom produce Seeds until the third 
Year after they are fown. 

PA VI A, The Scarlet Flowering 
Horfe-cheftnut, vulgo. 

The Charaders are ; 

The Leaves are like thofe of the 
Horfe-c heft nut : the Flower is of an 
anomalous Figure, and confijls of five 
Leaves, vohich are fo dfpofed as to 
refemble a Lip-fower : the tvjo upper- 
mod are united, and form a fort of 
Helmet : the three undermoft appear 
fomenuhat like a Mouth gaping : thefe 
Flowers are difpofed into a Spike, and 
are of a beautiful fear let Colour : the 
Ovary, which rifes in the Centre of 
the Flower-cup, afterward becomes an 
oblong pyramidal Fruit, divided into 
three Cell:, in each of which is Udgd 
one globular Seed. 

There is but one Species of this 
Tree ; viz. 

Pavia. Beerh. Lid. The Scar- 
let Flowering Horfe-cheftnut, vul- 
go. . 



P A 

This Tree is a Native of Ameri- 
ca, from whence the Seeds were 
nrft brought into Europe : it grows 
in great Plenty in the Woods of 
South-Carolina, but is very hardy, 
enduring the fevereft Cold of our 
Climate in the open Air. 

It may be propagated by fowing 
the Seeds in the Spring, upon a warm 
Border of light fandy Earth ; and 
when the Plants come up, they 
mould be carefully clear'd from 
Weeds : but they mull not be tranf- 
planted until the Year following. 
Butas thefeSeedling-plants are tender 
while they are young, fo they fhould 
be cover'd with Mats the next Win- 
ter; and this mould be carefully 
perform'd in Autumn, when the 
early Fro lis begin : for as the Top 
of thefe young Plants will be very 
tender, fo a fmall Froft will pinch 
them ; and when theTops are kill'd, 
they generally decay to the Ground; 
and when this happens, they feldom 
make good Plants after. Therefore 
this mould be conilantly obferv'd 
for two Years, or three at moft, by 
which time the Plants will have got- 
ten Strength enough to refill the 
Froft ; when they mould be remov'd 
juft before they begin to moot, and 
placed either in a Nurfery to be 
tram'd up, or elfe where they are to 
remain ; cbferving, if the Seafon be 
dry, to water them until they have 
taken Root, as alfo to lav fome 
Mulch upon the Surface of the 
Ground, to prevent the Sun and 
Wind from drying it too fall : and 
as the Plants advance, the lateral 
Branches mould be pruned off, in 
order to reduce them to regular 
Stems. 

You mud alfo obferve to dig the 
Ground about their Roots every 
Spring, that they may be loofe, ro 
admit the Fibres of the R; ots, 
which, while young, are too tender 



P E 

to penetrate the Ground* if it be ve- 
ry hard. 

With this Management the Plants 
will greatly advance, and in four or 
five Years will produce Flowers and 
Fruits, which in warm Seafons are 
perfected enough to grow ; fo that 
the Plants maybe multiplied there- 
from very fait. 

This Tree may alfo be propaga- 
ted by budding or inarching it upon 
the common Horfe-cheftnut ; which 
is the common Method practifed by 
the Nurfery-men : but the Trees 
thus raifed will never arrive to near 
the Size of thofe which are produ- 
ced from Seeds ; nor will they grow 
near fo fait. 

Such of thefe Trees as are raifed 
from Seeds, if planted in a good 
Soil, will grow to twenty - five or 
thirty Feet high, and produce great 
Numbers of beautiful red Flowers, 
which commonly appear the ttcgiti- 
ning of "June ; at which Seaion it 
makes a beautiful Appearance a- 
mongft other hardy Tree*. 

PEACH. Vide Pcrfica. 

PEAR. T/^Pyrus. 

PEAS. Vide Pifum. 

PEAS EVERLASTING. Vlk 
Lathyrus. 

PEDICULARIS, Rattle, Cocks- 
comb, or Loufewort. 

There are four different Kinds of 
this Plant, which grow wild in Paf- 
tures in feveral Parts of Engl and ^\ 
in fome low Meadows are very 
troublefome to the Paitures ; efpeci- 
ally one Sort with yellow Flowers, 
which rifes to be a Foot high, or 
more, and is often in fuch Plenty, as 
tot)e the molt predominant Plant : 
but this is very bad Food for Cattle; 
and when it is mowed with the Grafs 
for Hay, renders it of little Value. 
The Seeds of this Plant are general- 
ly ripe by the time the Grafs is mow- 
ed : fo that whenever Perfons take 

Vol. III. 



P E 

Grafs-feed for fowing, they mould be 
very careful, that none of this Seed 
is mixed with it. As thefe Plants 
are never cultivated, I lhall not 
trouble the Reader with their feve- 
ral Varieties. 
PELECINUS. 

The Characlers are J 
// hath a -papilionaceous ( cr Pea- 
bloom J Flower, out ofnvhofe Empale- 
merit rifes the Point al, <which after- 
tvard becomes a plain bicapfular and 
bivalve Pod, indented on each Side 
like a SaiVf and filled ivith plain kid- 
ney Jhapcd Seeds. 

We know but one Species of this 
Plant ; vtXi 

PelECINUS vulgaris. Infi . R. H. 
Common Pelecinus. 

This Plant is preferv'd in Botanic 
Gardens, for the fake of Variety : 
it is an annual Plant ; fo the Seeds 
fhould be fown early in April, on a 
Bed of frefh light Earth, in Drills 
about eighteen Inches afunder : and 
when the Plants are come up, they 
mould be carefully clcar'd from 
Weeds ; and where they are too 
clofe, they fhould be thinn'd, leav- 
ing them fix or eight Inches Diftance 
in the Rows, and obferve always to 
keep them clear from Weeds, which 
is all theCuhure they require. Thefe 
Plants fpread on the Ground, and 
from the Wings of the upper Leaves 
the Flowers are produced on (lender 
Footflalks, which are fmall, and of 
a dirty red Colour ; thefe are fuc- 
ceeded by Pods, which are fiat, and 
indented on both Sides, refembling 
the Saw of the Saw-fifh. 

PEL LITORY OF THE 
WALL. Vide Parietaria. 

PENTAPHYLLOIDES. Vide 
Porenrilla. 

PENY-ROYAL. Vide Pulegi- 
um. 

PEONY. Vide Paconia. 
PEPO, Pum ion. 

T t t The 



P E 

The Characlers are ; 

The Flower confijls of one Leaf, 
which is bell fhapcd, expanded at the 
Top y and eut imo fever al Segments : of 
thefe Flowers fome are Male, and fome 
are Female, as, in the Cucumbers and 
Melons : the Female Flowers grow 
ujon the Top of the Embryo, which 
ajterwardbtccmes an oblong or round 
fejhy Fruit, having fome times an hard, 
rugged ', or uneven Rind, with Knobs 
and Furrows ; and is often dividi d In- 
to three Parts, inclofngflat Seeds, that 
are edged or rimmed about, as it were, 
with a Ring, and fix'd to a Jpongy 
Placenta. 

The Species are ; 

1. Pepo oblongus. C.S.P. The 
greater oblong Pumpion. 

2. Pepo vulgaris. Rati Hi jl. The 
common Pumpion. 

3. Pepo rotund us, aurantii forma. 
C B. P. Orange- fhap'd Pumpion. 

4. Pepo fruciu parvo pyri/ormi. 
fount. Pear-fhap'd Pumpion. 

5. Pefo fruciu mini mo fphserico. 
Tcurn. Pumpion with a very fmall 
fpherieal Fruit. 

There are feveral other Varieties 
of thefe Fruits, which feem to be 
only feminal Variations ; fo that it 
would be needlefs to mention them 
all in this Place, fince the Seeds taken 
from any one of the Sorts will not 
continue the fame three Years toge- 
ther, if fown in the fame Garden, as 
I have feveral times experienced. 

The two firft Sorts are by fome 
Perfons cultivated for their Fruit ; 
which, when ripe, they cur. open, 
and take out the Seeds, and then 
Jlice fome Apples into the Shells, 
mixing them with the Pulp of the 
Fruit and Sugar : this they bake in 
an Oven, and afterwards eat itfpread 
upon Bread and Butter : but it is 
too flrong for Perfons of weak Sto- 
machs, and only proper for Coun- 



p E 

try - people, who ufe much Exer* 
cife. 

The Seeds of thefe Plants are ufed 
as one of the four cold Seeds m 
Medicine. 

The other Sorts are preferved by 

fome curious Perfons, .for Variety ; 
but are of little Ufe, being good for 
nothing when grown old ; but while 
they are very fmall, feme Perfons 
gather and boil them, likeTurneps, 
or a^ they do the Squafhes ; and are 
very fond of them. 

Thefe may be propagated in the 
fame manner as was direcled for the 
Gourds ; to which I fhall refer the 
Reader, to avoid Repetition. 

PERESKIA, Barbados Goofeber- 
ry, vulgo. 

The Characters are ; 

// hath a rcfe-Jiaped 1 'lower con* 
filing of feveral Leaves, which are 
placed orbicularly ; whofe Cup after* 
ward becomes a foft fl'jby globular 
Fruit, befet with Leaves : in the 
middle of the Fruit are many fiat 
roundifh Seeds, incl".d:d in a Muci- 
lage. 

We know but one Species of this 
Plant i viz. 

Pereskia aculeata, fore albo, 
fruciu fiavefcente. Plum. Nov. Gen. 
Prickly Perelkia, with a white 
Flower, and a yellowilh Fruit. 

This Plant grows in fome Parts of 
the Spanijh W ?Jl -Indies, from whence 
it was brought to the EngLJl) Settle- 
ments in America, where it is call'd 
a Goofeberry, and by the Dutch it is 
call'd Blad-app!c. This Plant hath 
many (lender Branches, which will 
not fupport themfelves ; fo muft be 
fupported by Stakes, otherwife they 
will trail on whatever Plants grow 
near them. Thefe Branches, as alfo 
the Stem of the Plant, arc* befet with 
long whitifh Spines, which are pro- 
due'd in Tufts. The Leaves are 
roundim, 



P E 

tbundifh, Very thick and fucculenr; 
and the Fruit .„ about the Size of a 
Walnut, having Tufts of fmall 
Leaves on it, and hath a whitila 
mucilaginous Pulp. ■ 

It may be propagated by planting 
the Cuttings during any ol the Sum- 
mer-months: thefeCuttmgs mould be 
planted in Pots filled with frcftt light 
Earth, and plunged into a moderate 
Hot-bed of Tanners Bark, oblerving 
t to fhade them from the Heat of the 
Day, as alfo to refrefh them every 
third or fourth Day with Water. 
In about two Months the Cuttings 
will have made good Roots, whin 
they may be carefully taken out of 
the Pots, and each planted in a fe- 
parate Pot fill'd with frefh Earth, 
and then plunged into the Hot-bed 
again, where they may remain du- 
ring the Summer-feafon ; but ?xMi- 
chaelmas, wheri the Nights begin to 
be cold, they fliould be removed in- 
to the Stove, and plunged into the 
Bark-bed. During the Winter-fea- 
fon, the Plants mull be kept warm, 
and lhauld be waterM twice a Week; 
but in cold Weather it mould not 
be given in large Quantities. In 
Summer they muit have a large 
Share of Air, and mufl: be more 
plentifully water'd : but they mould 
conihntly remain in the Stove ; for 
though they will bear the open Air 
in Summer, in a warm Situation} 
yet they will make no Progrefsj if 
they are placed abroad ; nor do they 
thrive near lb well in the Dry- (love, 
as when they are plunged in the 
Tan ; fo that the bell Vyay is to fet 
them next a Trellace, at the Back of 
the Tan-bed, to which their Branches 
may be fattened, to prevent their 
trailing on other Plants. ThisFlant 
has not as yet produced either Plott- 
ers or Fruit in England; but as there 
are feveral Plants pretty well grown 
in the Gardens of the Curious, fo 



p E 

we may expeft fome of therri will 
Mower in a inort time. 

PERICLYMENUM, Trumpet- 
honey fuck le, njulgo. 

The Characters are ; 
It bath the whole Appearance of 
the. Honeyfuckle ( from which it differs 
in the Shape of the Flower); which 
is tubulofe cr hell Jbaped; and expands 
at the Top, where it is cut into Aye* 
ral alnmjl t sua! Segments . 
The Specie* arc ; 

1. Pehjclymenum Virainianum. 
fmifr n ir ens Cjf flor ens. H. L. Vir- 
ginian Scarlet Honeyfuckle, <vulgo. 

2. Periclymenum ratemofum, 
flore Jlcvefcente, fraclu niwo. Plum. 
Tab. Hort. Elth. Branching Trum- 
pet - honeyfuckle, with a yellow 
Flower, and a fnowy Fruit, com- 
monly call'd in Barbados, Snowber- 
ry-bufn. 

3. Periclymenum arbor cfcens, 
ramulis infiexis, fiore luteo. Plum. 
Cat. Tree-like Trumpet - honey- 
fuckle, with a yellow Flower. 

4 . P E R 1 c L Y m e N u m a liud arbor e- 
fcenSy ramulis infiexis, fiore cor alii no. 

Plum. Cat. Tree-like Truriipet- 
honeyfuckle, with a coralline Fiow- 
cr. 

The firfl Sort is a Siirub greatly 
efteem'd for the Beauty of its Flow- 
ers, which are of a fine fcarlet Co- 
lour, the Leaves continue all the 
Year green, and it continues flower- 
ing mod Part of the Summer. 

It may be propagated by laying 
down the tender Branches in the 
Spring, obferving in dry Weather to 
refreih them with Water, which 
will greatly facilitate their Rooting : 
the Spring following, they will be 
ht to tr.mfpUnt ; when they ihould 
be cut off from the old Plants, and 
carefully taken up, fo as not to in- 
jure their Roots.. The Belt time to' 
remove them is in March, before 
they moot out ; but you mull ob- 
T 1 i 2 fei ve, 



P E 

ftrve, if the Seafon mould prove dry, 
to water them, and lay a littleMulch 
upon the Surface of the Ground 
near their Stems, to prevent the 
Ground from drying too faft. It 
mould have a flrongmc irt Soil, and 
be expofed to the >outh-eart Sun ; 
but mull have the Afhitanct of a 
Wall or Pale to fupport the tranch- 
es, otherwile they will trail upon 
the Ground. 

This Plant, although a Native of 
Virginia, yet, if planted in a clear 
Air, will endure the fevereft Cold 
of our Climate very well ; but it 
will not thrive in cloie Places, or too 
near the City, the Smoke arifing 
from the Sea-coal Fires being very 
pernicious to it. 

The fecond Sort is pretty com- 
mon in Barbados and Jamaica, where 
the Inhabitants give it the Name of 
Snowberry-bufn, from the extreme 
Whitenefs of the Fruit. The third 
and fourth Sorts were difcover'd by 
Father Plurr.it> in fome of the Fr neh 
Settlements in America \ and fince 
by the late Dr. Houfloum at La Vera 

Cruz. 

Thefe are all of them very tender 
Plants; fo mull conftantly remain in 
the Bark-ftove, otherwife they will 
not thrive in this Country. They 
may be propagated by Seed?, which 
fhould be brought over either in 
Sand or Earth, otherewife they fel- 
dom fucceed : when they arrive, the 
Tubs of Earth, in which the Seeds 
\verefcwn,lh9uld be plunged into an 
Hot-bed of Tanners Bark, obferving 
frequently to water them : and when 
the Plants are come up, they mould 
be carefully tranfplanted into fepa- 
rate fmall Pots filled with frelh rich 
Earth, and plunged into the Hot-bed 
again ; where they may remain till 
about Michaelmas, when they mould 
be plunged into the Bark-bed in 
the Stove, and treated as other ten- 



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der Exotic Plants from the fame 
Countries ; and in two or three 
Years the Plants will flower, when 
they will make an agreeable Varie- 
ty- 

PERIPLOCA, Virginian Silk, 

a 

The Characters are ; 
The Flower covjifls of one Leaf, 
which is more expanded at the Brim 
than thofc of the Apocynum ; the 
Point al> which rifes jn the Centre cf 
the Flower - cup, becomes a Fruit fo 
nearly refmbling that of the Apocy- 
num, as rot to be diftinguifh 'd there- 
from, hut by <very curious Obfervers :■ 
to which Jhould be added, It hath 
climbing Stalks. 

The Species are ; 
I Pe r i p to c h foliis oblongis. Tourn. 
Periploca with oblong Leaves. 

2. Plriploca Monfpeliaca, foliit 
rotundioribus. Tourn. Periploca of 
Monfpelier, with rounder Leaves. 

3. Periploca foliis iblongis an* 
gvjlioribus. lnjl . R H. Longer and 
narrow er-leav'd Virginian Silk, or 
Climbing Dogs-bane. 

4. Periploca MonfpK'liaca, fcl'is 
acutioribus. In ft. R. H. . Climbing 
Dogs-bane of MontpeLer, with fharp- 
pointed Leaves. 

5. Periploca Americana, fruBu 
mo I liter echinato. heft. R. H. Ameri- 
can Climbing Dogs -bane, with a 
prickly Fruit. 

6. Periploca Americana latifo- 
Ha, fllqv.n dura oblovga, tumida & 
glabra. Inf. R. H. Broad - leav'd 
American Climbing Dogs bane, with 
a long hard fmooth fweiling Pod. 

7. Perii-loca Americana fcan- 
dens y falicis, angufif ?no folio, fore 
aibo. Plum. Climbing American 
Dogs-bane, with a narrow Willow- 
leaf, and a white Flower. 

8. Periploca Americana repent 
umbeUata, foliis citri, fore coccineo. 
Plan. Creeping American Dogs- 

bane, 



P E 

bane, with a Citron -leaf, and fear- 
let Flowers, growing in an Umbel. 

9. Periploca Americana Jean- 
dens, folio citri, fruclu maxims. 
Plum. American Climbing Dogs- 
bane, with a Citron-leaf, and a large 
Fruit. 

10. Periploca Americana f can- 
dens, folia convolvuli, fruclu alato. 
Plum. American Climbing Dogs- 
bane, with a Convolvulus-leaf, and 
a winged Fruit. 

The firit Sort hath woodyBranches, 
which twift themfelves about each 
other, or whatever Support is near 
it, and will rife to the Height cf 
thirty Feet or upwards : this pro- 
duces its ftarry - fhap'd Flowers in 
Clutters from the Footftalks of the 
Leaves ; which are of a dark purple 
Colour, but have no . cent. 

This may be propagated by lay- 
ing down its Branches in the Spring, 
which will t:;ke Root in a Year's 
time ; when the Layers may be taken 
off, and tranfplanted where they are 
to remain ; which mould be either 
againft a lofty Wall or Building, or 
cite placed in Wildernefs-q'iarters 
amongft other tall-flowering Trees, 
where they mould be fupported by 
ftrong Poles, about which thefe 
Plants will twine, and rife to a great 
Height. This Sort is hardy, and 
will endure the Cold of our Wimers 
very well, provided it is planted in 
a dry Soil. 

It producer its Flowers in "June 
and July ; but rarely perfects its 
Seeds in England. The Flowers are 
riot very beautiful ; but, for their 
Oddnefs, may have a Place amongil 
other hardy Shrubs in every good 
Garden. 

The fecond, third, and fourth 
have annual Stalks, but pertnnial 
Proofs, wh ch grow to the Size of a 
Parfnep, and will continue many 
Years. Thefe will live in the full 



p E 

Ground in England, if they are 
planted in a dry SoH, and have a 
warm SitU3tion : their Branches de- 
cay in Autumn, and frelh are fent 
out from their Roots in the Spring, 
which twift in the fame manner as 
Hops, to wha'ever is near them, and 
grow to the Height of fix or feven 
Feet : the Flowers are of a greenim- 
whiteColour ; fo there is little Beauty 
in them. 

The other feven Sorts are render, 
being Natives of the warm Parts of 
America. The Seeds of all thefe 
Sorts were fent to England by the 
late Dr.HouJioun, who collected them 
in Jamaica, at Campcchy, and Car- 
thagena, where they grow in great 
Plenty, and twift themfelves round 
whatever Trees grow near them ; 
and fome of them rife to the Height 
of forty or fifty Feet, or more. Some 
of thefe Sorts produce very large 
warted Pods, which are fall of ob- 
long flit Seeds ; to which is fattened 
a very long loft white Down, which 
helps to convey the Seeds to a great 
Diftance when ripe. This Down,, as 
alfo that of the Apocynum, have of 
late Years been ufed to ftuiT Pillows, 
MattreiTes, and Quilts, for which 
Purpofcs there is nothing fo proper ; 
for it is fo exceedingly light, that a 
Quilt of great Th ; cknefs is hardly to 
be felt, when fpiead over a Bed ; 
which is of great Advantage to thofe 
Perfons who are troubled with the 
Goat, and cannot bear any Weight 
on the Part affected. It hath alio a 
very great Elalticity, fo that it is 
not apt to flick together. This 
Down is calPd in French, De la 
Wadde, and is greatly in Ufe among 
the Q^alitv in France. 

All thefe Plants may be propaga- 
ted by Seed^, which fhould be fown 
on an Hot-be 1 enrly in the Spring y 
and when the Plants are come up fit 
to tranfplant, they mould each be 

T t t 3 planted 



P E 

planted into a feparate Pot fill'd with 
tre{h Earth, and plung'd into a mo- 
derate Hot-bed, obferving to fhade 
them from the Sun every Day until 
they have taken new Root ; after 
which time they mould have a large 
Share of Air in warm Weather, and 
mufc have plenty of Water. In about 
fix Weeks or two Months after 
planting, the Plants will get up to 
reach the GhfFes of the Hot- bed ; 
when they mould be fhifted into 
larger Pots, and plunged into the 
$ark-bed in the Srove; where they 
mutt be lupponed by an Efpalier, 
otherwife they will twill thcmieives 
round whatever Plants grow near 
them . 

Thefe Plants will bear the open 
Air in Summer ; but they never 
make any Progrefs when they are 
f xpos'd, and rarely flower : there- 
fore, in order to have thefe Plants in 
Beauty, they fhoqld conftantly re- 
main in the Stove, and mull have a 
large Share of free Air in mild 
Weather. When they are thus 
managed, they will rife to the Height 
of thirty Feet, or more, and wil? 
produce Flowers every Summer. 

The fourth Sort hath been by 
fome Perfons taken for Scammony ; 
and is by fome Authors titled Mont- 
pelier Scammony ; the Routs and 
Branches abounding with a milky 
Juice : but the true Turky Scammony 
is a Species of Convolvulus, under 
which Article it is before mention- 
ed. 

PEPJWINCLE. f/Vfr Pervinca. 

PERSEA, The Avocado, or Ayp- 
gato Pear. 

The Characters are ; 

it bath a rofe-Jhapcd ' Flower , con- 
fining of fc feral Leaves, nvbicb are 
ranged in a Circle', from ivbofe Mid- 
dle arifes the Poinial, ivbicb after- 
ward becomes a foft fltjby pcar-Jbaped 
fruit, in rjjbch is an bard Stone or 



P E 

Sefd, having two Lobes, which is 
included in a Membrane or Pericar- 
pium. 

We know but one Species of this 
Plant ; viz. 

Perse a. Cluf. Hift. The Avoca- 
do, or Avogato Pear. 

This Tree grows in great Plenty 
in the Spanijb Weft Indies t as alfo in 
the Ifland of Jamaica ; and hath 
been tranfplanted into molt of the 
Englifi Settlements in the IVcfl- In- 
die , on account of its Fruit ; which 
is not only efteemed by the Inhabit- 
ants as a Fruit to be eaten by way 
of DefTert, but is very necefiary for 
the Support of Life. The Fruit of 
itfelf is very infipid ; for which 
Reafon they generally eat it with the 
Juice of Lemons and Sugar, to give 
it a Piquancy. It is very nourilhing, 
and is reckon'd a great Incentive to 
Venery. Some People eat this Fruit 
with Vinegar and Pepper. 

This Tree, in the warm Coun- 
tries, where it is planted, grows to 
the Height of thirty Feet, dr more ; 
and has a Trunk as large as our 
common. Apple-trees : the Bark is 
fmcoth, and of an Am-colour ; the 
Branches are befet with pretty large 
oblong fmooth Leaves, like thofe of 
Laurel, which are of a deep green 
Colour, and continue on the Tree 
throughout the Year: the Flowers 
and Fruit are, for the mcft part, 
prodae'd toward the Extremity of 
the Branches. 

In Europe this Plant is preferved 
as a Curiofity, by thofe Perfons who 
arefkilful in collecting Exotic Plants: 
and tho' there is little Hope of its 
producing Fruit, yet, for the Beauty 
of its mining green Leaves, which 
continue thro' the Winter, it de- 
ferves a Place in every curious Col- 
lection of Plants. 

It is propagated by Seeds, which 
mould be obtained as frelh as pof- 
- ' iibk, 



P E 

fible, from the Countries of its 
Growth ; and if they are brought 
over in Sand, they will be more 
likely to grow, than fuch as are 
brought over dry. Thefe Nuts or 
Seeds fhould be planted in Pots fill- 
ed with light rich Earth, and plung- 
ed into an Ho:- bed of Tanners 
Eark, which mould be kept pretty 
warm. The Pots mould be alio 
frequently watered, when the Earth 
appears dry, which will greatly fa- 
cilitate the Vegetation of the Seed, 
provided the Water is not given in 
large Quantities, which would rot 
them. In about a Month or five 
Weeks the Plants will come up t 
when they mult be treated very ten- 
derly ; for the Bed mult be kept in 
a due Temperature for Heat ; and 
when the Day proves warm, the 
frefh Air fhould be admitted to the 
Plants, by raifing the GiaiTes a little. 
When they have grown about four 
Inches high, they ihould be care- 
fully tram planted ; and where there 
are feveral Plants in one Pot, they 
muft be parted, being careful to 
preferve a Ball of Earth to the Root 
of each, and planted into leparate 
fmall Pots fi.H'd with light rich 
Earth, and then plunged into an 
Hot-bed of Tanners Bark ; obferv- 
ing to (hade them until they have 
taken new Root ; after which time 
they mould have frefh Air admitted 
to them in proportion to the Warmth 
of the Seafon : toward Mickaihnas 
the Plants muft be removed into the 
Stove, and plunged into the Bark- 
bed, where, dunng the Winter- fea- 
fon, they fhould be kept very warm, 
and mull be genii y watered twice a 
Week. In the vSpring the Plants 
fhouid be fhifted into Pots a Size 
larger than the former, and the 
Bark-bed mould be then renewed 
with trefh Tan, which will fet the 
plants in a growing State early, 



p E 

whereby they will make a fine Pro- 
grefs the following Summer. Thefe 
Piants muft be constantly kept in the 
Stove ; for they are too tender to 
bear the open Air in this Country at 
any Seafon. 

PERSIC A, The Peach tree. 
The Char a c?ers are ; 

// hath long narrow Leaves : the 
Flower tcrji/h of fi<veral Leaves, 
which are piactd in a circular Or- 
der, and expand in farm cf a Rcfe : 
the Pointal, which ri/es from the 
Centre of the fhwercup, becomes a 
roundifb f-fyFruit, having a longitu- 
dinal Fj r$w 4 inclfng a rough rugged 
Stone, whicv is deeply fwrvwd, by 
which it is dijlinguiflid from the 
Almond. 

There are a great Variety of 
thefe Trees, which are cultivated in 
the Gardens of thofe who are curi- 
ous in collecting the feveral Sorts cf 
Fruit in the different Parts of Europe: 
I (hall therefore firit beg Leave to 
mention two or three Sorti, which 
are cultivated for the Beauty of their 
Flowers ; after which, I mall enu- 
merate the feveral Sorts of good 
Fruit which have come to my 
Knowiege. 

1. Persica vulgaris, fore pleno. 
Toum. Peach-tree with double 
Flowers. 

2. Persica African a nana, fore 
incarnato fimplici. T. Dwarf Al- 
mond, with fmgle Flowers, vulgo. 

3. Persica dfricana nana, fore 
incarnato pleno. T. Double-flower - 
ing Dwarf Almond, vulgo. 

The firit of thefe Trees is a very 
great Ornament in a Garden early 
in the Spring, the flowers being 
very large, double, and of a beauti- 
ful red or purple Colour. This may 
be planned in Standards, and, if in- 
termix^ amongft o f her flowering 
Trees of the fame Growth, makes 
a very agreeable Variety ; or it may 

T t t 4 be 



P E 

be planted againft the Walls of the 
fMeafare- garden, where the beauti- 
ful Appearance of its Flowers early 
in the Spring will be more accept- 
able in fuch Places than the choiccft 
Frjits, which mull be expofeJ to 
Servants, and others fo that they 
feldom can be preferv'd in large Fa- 
milies until they are ripe. This 
Tree may be propagated by budding 
it on the Almond or Plum-Ptocks in 
the fame manner as the other Sort of 
Peaches ; and mould be planted in 
». good frefti Soil, that is not over- 
moilt. 

The other two Sorts are of hum- 
bler Growth, feldom rifing above 
five Feet high : thefe may be budded 
upon Almond-flocks, or propagated 
by Layers ; they will alfo take upon 
Plum-floeks ; but they are very apt 
to canker, after they have flood four 
or five Years upon thofe Stocks, 
efpecially that with double Flowers, 
which is tenderer than the other, 
which fends out Suckers from the 
Root, whereby it may be eafily 
propagated. 

Thefe Shrubs make a very agree- 
able Variety amongft low-flowering 
Trees, in fmall Wildernefs - quar- 
ters. The lingle Sort flowers in the 
Beginning of April, and the double 
is commonly a Fortnight or three 
Weeks later. 

I mall now proceed to mention 
the feveral Sorts of good Peaches 
which have come to my Knowlege : 
and though perhaps a greater Num- 
ber of Sorts may be found in fome 
Catalogues of Fruits, yet I doubt 
whether many of them are not the 
fame K'nds call'd by difFerenrNames : 
for, in order to determine the vai ions 
Sorts, it i.i neceiTai v to obferve the 
Shape and Size of the Flowers, as 
well as the d liferent Parts of the 
Fruit ; for this does fometimes de- 
termine the Kind, when the Fruit 



p E 

alone is not fufficicnt : befides, there 
is a vatt Difference in the Size and 
Flavour of the fame Peach, when 
planted on different Soils and Af- 
pects ; fo that it is almoft impoffible 
for a Perfon who is very converfant 
with thefe Fruits to diflinguifri them, 
when brought from various Gar- 
dens. 

The prefent Confufion of the 
Names of Fruits hath been many 
times owing to the bringing over 
Trees from France ; for the Perfons 
who are generally employed to bring 
over thofe Trees for Sale, are intire- 
ly ignorant of their various Sorts, 
and do themfelves take them upon 
Truft, from Che Perfons who make 
it their Bufinefs to propagate great 
Quantities, to fupply the Markets of 
France, whither they are brought in 
Waggons, and fold out in Parcels to 
thofe Perfons who bring them into 
England. It alfo happens many 
times, if they are received by right 
Names, that thefe, in Length of 
Time, are loft, or the Trees come 
into the PofTeiTion of other Perfons, 
who, not knowing the true Name of 
the Fruit, do often give them new 
Names, whereby there is fuch a 
Confufion in the Names of Fruit, as 
is impoffible to rectify ; and hence 
fome Perfons have fuppofed a much 
greater Variety of Peaches than 
there is in reality ; tho' as the 
grea'eft Part of thefe have been ob- 
tained from Seeds, fo their Varieties 
may be multiplied annually, until 
there be no End of the Sorts. How- 
ever, I fhall content myfelf with 
enumerating the principal Sorts now 
known in England, which are fuf- 
ficient for any Gentleman to make 
a Collection to continue thro' the 
whole Seafon of Fruit. 

i. The white Nutmeg (call'd by 
the Fiencb, V A<vam Pecbe Blanche j : 
This Tree has fawed Leaves ; but 

gene- 



P E 

generally moots veryvvcak,unlefs it is 
budded upon an Apricot : the Flow- 
ers are large and open : the Fruit is 
fmall and white, as is alfo the Pulp 
at the Stone, from which it fepa- 
rates : it is a little mufky and fugary ; 
but is only efteemed for its being the 
firil Sort ripe : it is in eating pretty 
early in July, and foon becomes 
mealy. 

2. The red Nutmeg (call'd by the 
Fr, nch, UA<vant Feche de Troyes J : 
This Tree has fawed Leaves : the 
Flowers are large and open : the 
Fruit is larger and rounder than the 
white Nutmeg, and is of a bright 
vermilion Colour : the Flefh is white, 
and very red at the Stone : it has a 
rich mufky Flavour, and parts from 
the Stone: this Peach is well efteem- 
ed : it ripens toward the End of 
7«!y. 

3. The early or fmall Mignon 
(.call'd by the French, La Double de 
Troyes, or -Mignonette) : This Tree 
has fmall contracted Flowers : the 
Fruit is of a middling Size, and 
round : it is very red on the Side 
next the Sun : the Flelh is white, 
and feparates from the Stone, where 
it is red : the Juice is vinous and 
rich : it is ripe the End of July, or 
Beginning of Augujl. 

4. The yellow Alberge : This 
Tree has fmooth Leaves : the Flow- 
ers are fmall and contracted : the 
Fruit is of a middling Size, fome- 
what long: the Flefh is yellow, and 
dry : it is feldom well-flavoured, 
but mould be perfectly ripe before 
it is gathered; otherwife it is good 
for little : it is ripe early m Augujl. 

5. The white Magdalen: This 
Tree has fawed Leaves : the Flowers 
are large and open : the Wood is 
generally black at the Pith : the 
Fruit is round, of a middling Size : 
the Flefh is white to the Stone, from 
'which it feparates : the juice is fel- 



p E 

dom high-flavoured : the Stone is 
very fmall : this ripens early in 

Augujl. 

6. The early Purple (calPd by the 
French, La Pourpree bati<ve) : This 
Tree has fmooth Leaves : the Flow- 
ers are large and open : the Fruit is 
Jarge, round, and of a fine red 
Colour: the Flelh is white, but very- 
red at the Stone; is very full of 
Juice, which has a rich vinous Fla- 
vour \ and is by all good Judges 
efteemed an excellent Peach : this 
is rips before the Middle of Aw ' 

7. The large or French Mignon: 
The Leaves of this Tree are fmooth: 
the Flowers are large and open : 
the Fruit is a little oblong, and ge- 
nerally fuelling on one Side : it is of 
a line Colour: the Juice is very 
fugary, and of an high Flavour: 
the Flefh is white, but very red at 
the Stone, which is fmall : this is 
ripe in the Middle of Augujl, and is 
juftly efteemed one of the beft 
Peaches : this fepqrates from the 
Stone. This Sort of Peach is ten- 
der, and will not thrive on a com- 
mon Stock ; fo is generally budded 
upon fome vigorous (hooting Peach, 
or an Apricot, by the Nurfery-men, 
which enhances the Price of the 
Trees. But the beft Method is to 
bud this Peach into fome old healthy- 
Apricot, which is planted to a South 
or South -eaft Afpecl, and to cut 
away the'Aprjcot when the Buds 
have taken, and made Shoots : upon 
fome Trees which I have feen, thus 
managed, there has been a much 
greater Quantity of fairer, and bet- 
ter flavoured Fruit, than I have ever 
obferved in any other Management ; 
and the Trees have been much more 
healthy. 

8. The Chevreuje or Belle Che- 
yrtmfi: This Tree has fmooth 
Leaves ; the Flowers are fmall and 

con- 



P E 

cantra&ed : the Fruit is of a mid- 
dling Size, a little oblong, of a fine 
red Colour : the Flelh is white, but 
very red at the Stone, from wh'eh 
it feparates : it is very full of a rich 
lugary Juice, and ripens toward the 
End of Augujl : this is a very good 
Bearer, and may be ranged with the 
good Peaches. 

9. The red Magdalen (call'd by 
tie French about Paris> Madeleine de 
Ccurfon ) : The Leaves of this Tree 
are deeply fawed : the Flowers are 
large and open : the Fruit is large 
and round, of a fine red Colour : 
the Flelh is white, but very red at 
the Stone, from which it feparates : . 
the Juice is very fugary, and of an 
extjuifite Flavour : the Fruit is ripe 
the End of Augujl : k is one of tiie 
beft Sort of Peaches. 

1 o.The early Neivington (or Smiths 
tfewfagton J : This is very like, if 
not the fame, with what the French 
call he Pa'vie blanc i this Tree has 
fewed Leaves : the Flowers are 
large and open : the Fruit is of a 
middling Size, is of a fine Red on 
the Side next the Sun : the Flelh is 
firm and white, but very red at the 
Stone, to which it clofely adheres : 
it hath a fugary Juice, and is ripe 
the End of Augujl. 

1 1 . The Montauhan : This Tree 
has fawed Leaves : the Flowers are 
large and open : the Fruit is of a 
middling Size, of a deep-red, in- 
clining to purple next the Sun ; but 
of a pale Colour toward the Wall : 
the Flelh is melting and white to the 
Stone, from which it feparates : the 
Juice is rich, and the Tree is a good 
Bearer: it ripens the Middle of Au- 
gujl, and is well efteemed. 

12. The Malta (which is very 
like, if not the fame, with the Ita- 
lian Peach) : This Tree has fawed 
Leaves : the Flowers are lar^e and 
spen : the Fruit is of a- middling 



v E 

Size, of a fine Red next the Sun : 
the Flefh is white and melting, but 
red at the Stone, from which it fe- 
parates : the Stone h flat and point- 
ed : the Tree is a good Bearer : this 
ripens the End of Augujl. 

13-ThcNobIeft : This Tree has 
fawed Leaves : the Flowers are large 
and open : the Fruit is large, of a 
bright-red next the Sun: the Flefh 
is white and melting, and feparates 
from the Stone, where it is of a 
faint-red Colour: the Juice is very 
rich in a good Seafon : it ripens the 
End of Augujl. 

1 4. The Chancellor : The Leaves 
of this Tree are fmooth : the Flow- 
ers are fmall and contracted : the 
Fruit is lhaped fomewhat like the 
Belle Cbe'vrcufe, but is rounder : the 
Flefh is white and melting, and fe- 
parates from the Stone, where it is 
of a fine red Colour : the Skin is 
very thin, and the Juice is very rich: 
it ripens about the End of Augujl, 
and is efteemed one of the beft Sort 
of Peaches. This Tree is very ten- 
der, and will not fucceed on com- 
mon Stocks ; fo is budded twice as 
the Mignon ; and if budded on Apri- 
cots, as was directed for that Sort, 
will thrive much better than in any 
other Method. 

15. The Bellcgarde (or as the 
French call it, the Gallande ) : This 
Tree has fmooth Leaves ; the Flow- 
ers are fmall and contracted : the 
Fruit is very large and round, of a 
deep-purple Colour on the Side to 
the Sun : the Flelh is white, melt- 
ing,* and feparates from the Stone, 
where it is of a deep-red Colour : 
the Juice is very rich: this ripens 
the Beginning of Sfptemher y and is 
an excellent Peach ; but at prefent 
not common. 

16. The LiJIe (or as the French 
Call it, La petite Violette hat'vve ) : 
This Tree has fmooth Leaves : the 

Flowers 



J* E 

Flowers are fmajl and contracted : 
the Fruit is of a pale-yellow, and 
melting ; bat adheres to the Scone, 
where it is very red : the Juice, is 
very vinous: this ripens the Begin- 
ning of September. 

I 7. The Sourdine : This Tree has 
fmooth Leaves : the Flowers are 
fmall and contracted : the Fruit is 
large, round, and of a fine red Co- 
lour next the Sun r the Fiem is 
white, melting, and feparates from 
the Stone, where it is of a fine red 
Colour : the Juice is vinous and rich: 
this ripens the Beginning of Septem- 
ber, and is greatly efteemed by the 
Curious. The Tree bears plenti- 
fully, and will produce Fruit in 
Standards very well. 

1 8. The Rnffiinna : This Tree has 
fmooth Leaves : the Flowers are 
fmall and contracted : the Fruit is 
large, a little more long than the 
Alberge : the Flcftt is yellow, and 
feparates from the Stone, where it 
is red : the Juice is rich and vinous: 
this ripens the Beginning of Septem- 
ber, and is efteemed a good Peach. 
This is the fame with what fome 
call the Purple, and others the red 
Alberge, it being of a fine purple 
Colour on the Side next the Sun. 

19. The Admirable : This Tree 
has fmooth Leaves : the Flowers 
are fmall and contracted : the Fruit 
is large, round, and red on the Side 
next the Sun : the Fleih is white, 
melting, and feparates from the 
S'.one, where it is of a deep-red Co- 
lour : the Juice is fugary and rich : 
this ripens the Beginning of Sep- 
tember. This is by fome calTd the 
early Admirable : but is certainly 
what the French call V Admirable ; 
and they have no other of this Name 
which ripens later. 

20. The old Newington: This 
Tree has £awed Leaves : tfce Ffow- 
gro ?re large and open : the Fruit is 



P E 

fair and large, of a beautiful red 
Colour next the Sun : the Flefh is 
white, melting, and clofely adheres 
to the Stone, where it is of a deep- 
red Colour ; the Juice is very rich 
and vinous. This is efteemed one 
of the belt Sort of "avies r it ripens 
about the Middle of September. 

2 1 . The Rambouillet (commonly 
call'd the Rumbullion ) : This Tree 
has fmooth Leaves : the Flowers are 
large and open : the Fruit is of a 
middling Size, rather round than 
long, deeply divided by a Sulcus or . 
Furrow in the Middle : it is of a fine 
red Colour next the Sun ; but of a 
light -yellow next the Wall: the 
Flcfh is melting, of a bright-yellow 
Colour,and feparates from the Stone, 
where it is of a deep red Colour : 
the Juice is rich, and of a vinous 
Flavour : this ripens the Middle of 
September, and is a good Bearer. 

22. The Bel/is (which I believe 
tf> be what the French call La Belle 
de Vitry): The Leaves of this Tree 
are fawed : the Flowers are fmall 
and contracted : the Fruit is of a 
middle Size, round, and of a pale- 
red next the Sun : the Flem. is white, 
and adheres to the Stone, where it 
is red : the Juice is vinous and rich : 
this ripens in the middle of Septem- 
ber. 

23. The Portugal: This Tree 
has fmooth Leaves : the Flowers arc 
large and open : the Fruit is large, 
and of a beautiful red Colour to- 
ward the Sun : the Skin is generally 
fpotted : the Flefli is firm, white, 
and clofely adheres to the Stone, 
where it is of a faint-red Colour : 
the Stone is fmall, but full of deep 
Furrows : the Juice is rich and vi- 
nous : this ripens the Middle of Sep- 
tember. 

24. Le Tetorr Venus (or Venus 's 
Breaft), fo call'd from its having a 
Riling like a Dug, or Bubby : This 

Tree 



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Tree has fmooth Leaves : theFlowers 
are fmall and contracted : the Fruit 
is of a middling Size refembling the 
.Admirable, of a pale-red Colour 
next the Sun : the Flefli is melting, 
white, and feparates from the Stone, 
where it is red : the Juice is fugary 
and rich : this ripens late mScpte/nbtr. 

25. La Pourpree for as the French 
call it Pourpree tardive, i. e. the late 
Purple) : This Tree has very large 
Leaves, which are fawed : the Shoots 
are very ftrong: the Flowers are. 
fmall and contracted : the Fruit is 
large, round, and of a fine purple 
Colour : the Flefli is white, melting, 
and feparates from the Stone, where 
it is red : the Juice is fugary and rich: 
this ripens late in September. 

26. The Nivette : This Tree has 
fawed Leaves: the Flowers are fmall 
and contracted : the Fruit is large, 
fomewhat longer than round, of a 
bright-red Colour next the Sun, and 
of a pale-yellow on the other Side : 
the Flefli is melting, and full of a 
rich Juice; and is very red at the 
Stone, from which it feparates : this 
is efteemed one of the beft Peaches : 
it ripens in the middle of September. 

27. The Royal (La Roy ale ) : This 
Tree has fmooth Leaves : the Flow- 
ers are fmall and contracted : the 
Fruit is large, round, and of a deep- 
red on the Side next the Sun, and of 
a paler Colour on the other Side : 
the Flefli is white, melting, and full 
of a rich Juice : it parts from the 
Stone, where it is of a deep-red 
Colour : this ripens the middle of 
September', and, when the Autumn 
is fine, is an excellent Peach. 

28. The Perfique: This Tree 
has fawed Leaves : the Flowers are 
fmall and contracted : the Fruit is 
large, oblong, and of a fine red Co- 
lour next the Sun : the Flefli is 
melting, and full of a rich Juice; it 
feparates from the Stone, where it 



p E 

is of a deep-red Colour : the Stalk 
has a fmall Knot upon it : this makes 
a fine Tree, and is a good Bearer : it 
ripens the End of September. Many 
Gardeners call this the Ninette. 

29. The monftrous Pavy of Pom- 
ponne (cail'd by the French Le Pahtit 
rouge de Pomponne ) : the Leaves of 
this Tree are fmooth : the Flowers 
are large and open : the Fruit is very 
large and round, many times four- 
teen Inches in Circumference : the 
Flefli is white, melting, and clofely 
adheres to the Stone, where it is of 
a deep-red Colour : the Outfide is a 
beautiful red next the Sun, and of a 
pale Flefli colour on the other Side : 
this ripens the End of OJlober, and, 
when the Autumn is warm, is an ex- 
cellent Peach. 

30. The Catharine: This Tree 
has fmooth Leaves : the Flowers are 
fmall and contracted : the Fruit is 
large, round, and of a dark-red Co- 
lour next the Sun: the Flefli is white, 
melting, and full of a rich Juice : it 
clofely adheres to the Stone, where 
it is of a deep-red Colour : it ripens 
the Beginning of October ; and in 
very good Seafons is an excellent 
Peach : but being fo very late ripe, 
there are not many Situations where 
it ripens well. 

31. The Bloody Peach (cail'd by 
the French La Sangainolle J : This 
Peach is of a middling Size, of a 
deep-red next the Sun : the Flelh is 
of a deep- red quite to the Stone; and 
from thence is, by fome Gardeners, 
cail'd the Mulberry - peach. This 
Fruit rarely ripens in England ; fo is 
not often planted : but this Fruit 
bakes and preferves excellently ; for 
which, as alfo the Curiofity, one or 
two Trees may be planted, where 
there is Extent of Walling. 

There are fome other Sorts of 
Peaches which are kept in fome of 
the Nurferies; but thofe which are 

here 



P E 

here enumerated, are the Sorts moft 
worth planting ; and in the Lift the 
choicer* only mould be planted : but 
I (hall juft mention the Names of 
thofe Sorts omitted, for the Satif- 
faclion of the Curious 

The Sion ; the Bourdeaux ; the 
Swatch or Dutch ; the Carlijle ; the 
Eton ; thePecbt dt P«»;YeJl0w Admi- 
rable ; the Double-flower. This laft 
Sort is generally planted more for the 
Beauty of the Flowers, than for the 
Goodnefsof the Fruit; of which fome 
Years the Standard -trees produce 
great Plenty ; but they are late ripe, 
and have a cold watry infipid Juice. 
The dwarf Peach isalfo preferved in 
fome Places as a Curiofiry. This is 
a very tender Tree, making very 
weak Shoots, which are very full of 
Flower - buds. The Fruit is not fo 
large as a Nutmeg, and not good, 
nor will the Tree laft any time ; fo 
it is not worth cultivating. 

"And indeed, from thefe thirty-one 
above-named, there are not above 
ten of them which I would advife to 
be planted ; becaufe when a Perfon 
can be furnifhed with thofe which 
are good, or has the bell of the Sea- 
fon, it is not worth while to plant 
any which are middling or indiffer- 
ent, for the fake of Variety : there- 
fore the Sorts which I mould prefer 
are thefe after-mentioned : 

The early Purple ; the Grofe Mig- 
non ; Belle Cht<vreufe ; Red Magda- 
len ; Chancellor ; Bellegarde ; Bour- 
din RoJJ'anna ; Rambouillet ; and 
Ninette. Thefe are the Sorts bell 
worth planting ; and as they fucceed 
each other, fo they will furnifh the 
Table thro' the Seafon of Peaches ; 
and where there is room, and the 
Situation very warm, one or two 
Trees of the Catharine Peach mould 
have Place ; for in very warm Sea- 
fons it is an excellent Fruit. 

The French diftinguiih thofe we 



P E 

call Peaches into two Sorts ; *v!x. 
Pavies and Pi aches ; thofe are cali'd 
Peaches which quit the Stone; and 
thofe whofe Flem clofely adheres 
to the Stone, are call'd Pavies : thefe 
are much more efteem'd in France 
than the Peaches ; tho' in England 
the latter are preferr'd to the former 
by the generality of Perfons. 

The French alfo diftinguifh them 
into Male and Female ; the Pavies 
they make to be the Male, and the 
Peaches the Female: but this Di- 
ftin&ion is without Foundation, fince 
the Kernels of both Sorts will pn - 
duce Trees equally : for the Flow- 
en of Peach trees are generally Her- 
maphrodite, and have all the Parts 
of Generation in them ; fo that there 
is no Neceffity of fuppofing any of 
them to be intircly Ma'e or Female : 
but it is likely, that this Dillinclion 
is of long (landing, before Perfons 
had a perfecl Notion of Male and 
Female in Plants, or at lead they did 
not know how to diftinguilh them 
al under. 

The Nectarines (as I have in an- 
other Place faid) are by the French 
calFd Brugnonsy which differ from 
the other two Sorts, in having a firm 
hard Flelh, and the Skins quite, 
fmooth, without any Down upon 
them. The Sorts of thefe I have al- 
ready mention'd under the Article 
Neclarinrs y to which the Reader may 
readily turn : therefore I (hall not 
repeat them in this Place. 

I fhall now fet down the good 
Qualities of Peaches, by which any 
Perfon may judge of their Worth. 

A good Peach ought to have a 
firm Flem : the Skin mould be thin, 
of a deep or bright-red Colour nexc 
the Sun, and of a yellowilh Caft next 
the Wall : the Flem mould be of a 
yellowifh Colour, full of Juice, 
which mould be high-flavour'd : the 
Stone fmall, and the Pulp or Flem 

very 



P E 

Very thick. When a Peach hafch all 
tr-:fe Qualities, it may be efteem'd 
a valuable Fruit. 

All the different Sorts of Peaches 
have been originally obtain'd from 
the Stones ; which, being planted, 
produce new Varieties, as do the 
, Seeds of all other Fruits ; fo that 
where Peri'ons have Garden enough 
to allow room for propagating thefe 
Fruits from Seeds, there is no doubt 
but many good Sorts may be ob- 
tain*d, which will be better adapted 
to our Climate than fuch as are 
brought from warmer Countries ; 
thy it is true, that there will be 
mmy pf ihem good for nothing;, as 
is the Cafe of moll Fruits and Flow- 
ers which are produe'd from Seeds, 
amongit which there may be fome 
valuable Kinds, fuperior to thofe 
from whence the Seeds were taken ; 
yet there is always a great Number 
which are little worth : but if we 
can obtain only two or three valu- 
able Sorts, it is fufricient to make 
amends for the Trouble of raifing 
them : but where Perfona are fo 
cUfious as to plant the Stones of thefe 
Fruits, great Regard mould be had 
to the Sorts ; and if the Fruit were 
permitted to remain upon the Trees 
until they dropped oft", the Kernels 
would be fitter for planting, and more 
likely to grow. The belt Sorts for 
lowing are thofe whofe Flelh is firm, 
and cleaves to the Stone ; and from 
amongtt thefe you mould choofe fuch 
as ripen pretty early, and have a rich 
vinous Juice ; from which Sorts fome 
good Fruit may be expected. 

Thefe Stones mould be planted in 
Autumn, on a Bed of light dry 
Earth, about three Inches deep* and 
four Inches afunder ; and in the 
Winter the Beds mould be cover'd, 
to protect them from the Froft, 
which, if permitted to enter deep 
into the Ground, will deftroythem : 



P E 

in the Springi when the Plants come 
up, they mould be carefully clear'd 
from the Weeds, which mould alf6 
be obferv'd throughout the Summer; 
• and if the Spiing mould prove very 
dry, if you re/refh them now-and- 
then with a little Water, it will 
greatly promote their Growth : in 
this Bed they mould remain until 
the following Spring, when they 
mould be carefully taken up, fo a? 
not to break their tender Roots, and 
tranfplanted into aNurlery, inRows 
three' Feet alund-.r, and e-'ghteen 
Inches diftaat Plant from Plant in 
the Rows ; obfervmg to lay a little 
Mulch upon the Surface of the 
Ground about their Roots, to pre- 
vent its drying too fafl : and if the 
Spring fhoild prove very dry, you 
mould give them a little Water 
once a Week, until they have taken 
Root ; after which, they mould be 
conlrantly kept clear from Weeds, 
and the Grourd between the Rows 
carefully dug everySpring, to loofen 
it, fo as that the tender Fibres may 
ftrike out on every Side. 

In this Nurfery they may con- 
tinue two cr three Years ; after 
which, they mould be tranfplanted 
where they are to remain, to pro- 
duce Fruit. 

In removing thefe Trees, you 
mould obferve to prune their down- 
right Roots (if they have any) pret- 
ty fhort, and to cut eft all bruifed 
Parts of the Roots, as alfo all the 
fmall Fibres, which do generally 
dry, and, when left upon the Roots 
after planting again, grow mouldy, 
and decay ; fo that they aro injuri- 
ous to the new Fibres which are ihot 
out from the Roots, and very often 
prevent the Growth of the Trees : 
but you mould by no means prune 
their Heads ; for the Plants which 
are produced from Stones, are gene- 
rally of a mere fpongy Texture, and 

fo 



V E 

fo more liable to decay when cat, 
than thofe which are budded upon 
other Stocks. Befides, as thefeTrees 
are defigned for Standards (for it is 
not proper to plant them againft 
Walls, until you fee the Produce of 
their Fruit, to fhew which of them 
deferves to be cultivated), fo they 
will never require any other Prune- 
ing, but oniy to cut out decayed 
Branches, or fuch as (hoot out very 
irregular from the Sides ; for more 
than this, is generally very injuri- 
ous to them. 

In planting thefe Tree?, it will be 
the better way to difpofe them fin- 
gly in the Quarters of the Kitchen- 
garden, where they will thrive, and 
produce Fruit, much better than if 
they are planted pretty near each 
other in Rows ; and as they are thus 
fwgly difpofed, they will not do 
much Injury to the Crops which 
grow under them. 

When they have produced Fruit, 
you will fcon be a Judge of their 
Goodnefs : therefore fuch of them 
as you diflike, may be dcftroy'd ; 
but thofe which are goo*d, may be 
propagated by inoculating them 
upon other Stocks, which is the 
common Method now pra&ifed to 
propagate thefe Fruits : therefore I 
lhall now proceed to treat of that 
more particularly ; in doing which, 
I mall fet down the Metnod now 
commonly prattifed by the Nuriery- 
gardeners ; and then propofe fome 
few Things of my own, as an Im- 
provement thereon, for fuch Perfons 
who are very curious to have good 
Fruit. But, firft, 

You mould be provided with 
Stocks of the Mufcle and White 
Pear - plums, which are generally 
efleem'd the two beft Sorts of Plums 
for Stocks to inoculate Peaches and 
Nectarines upon i. as aifo fome Al- 



p E 

mond and Apricot-ftock% for fome 
tender Sorts of Peaches, which will 
not grow upon Plum iiocks : thefe 
fhould be all produced from the 
S:one (as hath been already directed 
in the Article of a Nurferj), and 
not from Suckers, for the R'-afons 
there laid down. 

When thefe Stocks have grown 
in the Nurfery two Years, they will 
be lirong enough to bud ; the Sea- 
fon for which is commonly about 
Midfummer, or any time in Juiy^ 
when the Rind will eafily feparate 
from the Wood ; when you lhould 
make choice of fame good Cuttings" 
of the Sorts of Fruit you intend to 
propagate, always obferving to take 
them from healthy Trees, and fuch 
as generally produce a good Quanti- 
ty of well-tailed Fruit ; for it is ve- 
ry certain, that any Sort of Fruit 
may be fo far degenerated, where 
this Care is' wanting, as not to be 
like the fame Kind. Befides, when* 
ever a Tree is unhealthy, the Buds 
taken from that Tree will always 
retain the Diftemper, in a greater or 
left Degree, according as it hath im- 
bibed a greater or lefs Quantity of 
the diiiemper'd Juice. Thus, for 
Inlhnce, where a Peach or Necta- 
rine-tree hath been greatly blighted, 
fo as that the Shoots have grown 
bulled, and the Leaves curled up to 
a great degree, that Diikmper is 
feldom recover'd again by the 
greatell Art, or at lead not under 
feveral Years Management ; for let 
the Seafons prove ever fo favourable, 
yet thefe Trees will continually 
mew the fame Diftemper ; which 
many Perfons are fo weak as to 
fuppofe a frefh Blight; whereas in 
reality it is no other but the Re- 
mains of the former Sicknefs, 
which are fpread and intennix'd 
with all the juices of the Tree ; fo 

that 



P E 

that whatever Buds are taken from 
fuch Trees, will always retain a Part 
of the Diftemper. 

Upon the Care which is taken in 
the Choice of the Buds, the whole 
Succefs depends ; therefore a Perfon 
who is curious to have good Fruit, 
cannot be too careful in this Parti- 
cular : for, in general, no more is 
regarded by thofe Nurfery - men 
who are the moft careful in propa- 
gating the feveral Sorts of Fruit- 
trees, than the taking their Buds or 
Grafts from the true Kinds of Fruit- 
trees : but there is iliil more Care re- 
quired to have found healthyTrees, 
ffpecially in this ofPeach andNecla* 
rines : for if the Buds are taken from 
young Plants in the Nurfery, which 
have not produced Fruit, the Shoots 
of which are generally very ftrong 
and vigorous, thefeBuds will have 
fo vicious an Habit, as rarely to be 
corrected, and brought into good 
Order : for they will moot more 
like the Willow than the Peach ; the 
Joints being extended to a great 
Diftance from each other, the Shoots 
very grofs, and the Wood pithy : 
therefore where the Practice of take- 
ing the Buds from Nurfery -trees is 
long continued, there can be little 
Hopes of the Trees fo raifed. I 
would therefore recommend it to 
all curious Perfons, to procure their 
Buds from fuch Trees as have been 
long growing, whofe Fruit are well- 
flavoured, and the Trees perfectly 
found ; as alfo never to make choice 
of the ftrongeft or moft luxuriant 
Shoots of thefe Trees, but fuch 
Shoots as are weli-condition'd, and 
whofe Buds grow pretty clofe toge- 
ther. And altho' thefe do not make 
fo ftrong Shoots the following 
Year, as thofe which are taken from 
luxuriant Branches, yet they will be 
better difpofed to bear Fruit, and 
will make ijiuch better Trees. 



p E 

The Cuttings with which you &t€ 
thus to be provided, mould always 
b2 taken from the Trees either in a 
Morning or Evening, or elfe in a 
cloudy Day ; for if they are cut oft 
when the Sun is very hot, the 
Shoots will perfpire fo freely, as to 
leave the Buds deftitute of Moift- 
ure ; which is often the Caufe of 
their mifcarrying : and the fooner 
they are ufed when cut from the 
Trees, the better they will take. The 
manner of this Operation being ful- 
ly explain'd under the Article of 
Inoculation, I (hall not repeat it in 
this Place. The Management of 
thefe Trees, during their remaining 
time in the Nurfery, is likewife ful- 
ly fet down under that Article. I 
mail therefore proceed to the Plant- 
ing of thefe Trees, either again ft 
Walls, Efpaliers, or for Standards. 
But as the future Succefs of thefe 
Trees in a great meafure depends 
upon the Soil in which they are 
planted, I fhall briefly fet down the 
Method of preparing the Earth for 
the Borders where they are defigned 
to grow. , 

The'beft Earth for Peach-trees is 
fuch as is taken from a Pafture- 
ground, that is neither too ft iff and 
moift, nor over-dry ; but of a mid- 
dling Nature. This fhould be dug 
from the Surface of the Ground 
about t?n Inches deep, taking the 
Turf with it ; and fhould be laid in 
Heaps eight or ten Months at leaft ; 
but that which is prepared oneYear, 
is ftilt better before it be ufed ; uu- J 
ring which time it fhould be often f 
turn'd, to rot the Turf, and break 
the Clods ; whereby it will be ren- 
der'd very light, and eafy to work ; 
and about the Beginning of Septem- 
ber you fhould carry ic into the 
Garden, and make the Borders, 
which muft be raifed in Height pro- 
portionable to the Moift u re of the 
Garden } 



P E 

Garden ; for if the Ground be very 
wet, it will be advifeable to lay 
fome Rubbifh in the Eottom of the 
Border to drain off the Moifture, and 
to prevent the Roots of the Trees 
from running downward ; then raife 
the Border of Earth at leaft a Foot, 
or in very wet Land two Feet, 
above the Level of the Ground, fo 
that the Roots of the Trees may al- 
ways remain dry : but if the Ground 
be pretty dry, the Borders mould 
not be raifed abovefix oreightlnch- 
es higher than the Surface ; which 
will be fufficient to allow for their 
finking. 

As to the Breadth of thefe Bor- 
ders, that can't be too great ; but 
they mould never be lefs than fix 
or eight Feet broad where Fruit- 
trees are planted : for when the 
Borders are made very narrow, the 
Roots of the Trees will be fo con- 
fin'd in four or five Years time, that 
they will feldom thrive wel! af:er. 
The Depth of thefe Borders fhould 
not be greater than two Feet ; for 
where they are prepared to a great 
Depthj it only entices the Roots of 
the Trees downward, which may be 
the Caufe of their future Barren nefsj 
for their Roots, being got down be- 
low the Influences of the Sun and 
Showers, imbibe a great Quantity 
of crude Juices ; which only add to 
the luxuriant Growth of the Trees, 
and deftroy their Fruitfulnefs : be- 
fides, whatever Fruit are produced 
from fuch Trees, are not near fo 
1 well-tufted, as are thofe which grow 
upon thofe Trees whofe Roots lie 
near the Surface, and enjoy the 
kindly Benefit of the Sun's Heat, to 
correct and digeft whatever Crudi- 
ties there may be in the Earth. 

Your Borders, being thus prepa- 
red, fhould lie about three Weeks or 
a Month to fettle ; by which time 
the Seafon forPlanting will be ccme, 

Vol. III. 



P E 

which fhould be performed as foon 
as the Leaves begin to decay, that 
the Trees may take Root before the 
Froft comes on to prevent them. 
In the Choice of the Trees, if they 
are to be procured from a Nurfery, 
never take fuch as have large luxuri- 
ant Shoots, or that ftand in the Mid- 
dle of the Nurfery ; but rather thofe 
which grow near the Outfide, whofe 
Shoots are generally of a redCoIour, 
and the Joints clofe together : for 
thofe which have produced very 
large Shoots, when they are cut 
down, very often die after the 
Knife; or if they do moot, they 
commonly produce luxuriantBranch- 
es, winch are not difpofed forBear- 
ing. Then you fhould carefully take 
up the Trees out of the Nurfery, fo 
as net to break or bruife their*Roots ; 
and with a fharp Knife you muft 
prune the extreme Parts of them, 
and cut off fmooth any brok'.n or 
bruifed Roots ; as alfo all the ftnall 
Fibres Ihould be taken off, for the 
Reafons before given. 

And having thus prepared your 
Trees, you fhould meafure out their 
Diftance, which ought never to be 
lefs than twelve Feet ; but where 
the Ground is very good, they 
fhould be planted fourteenFeet afun- 
der. This, I doubt not, will be 
thought too great a Diftance by ma* 
ny Perfons, efpec'ally fince it is con- 
trary to the general Practice at this 
time : but I am fatisfied, whoever 
fhall try the Experiment, will find 
it no more than is fufficient for thefe 
Trees, where they are rightly ma- 
naged ; for if they take kindly to 
the Soil, their Branches may be fo 
train'd, as to furni(h all the lower 
Part of the Wall in a few Years ; 
which is what fnould be principally 
regirded, and not, as is too oft n 
the Pradice, run up the Shoots in 
Height, and leave all the lower 
V o il Part 



P E 

Part of the Tree deftitute of bear- 
ing Wood ; fo that, in a few Years, 
there will not be any Fruit but upon 
the upper Part of die Trees ; which 
alfo mull be the Cafe where they 
are planted too dole ; becaufe there 
being no room to extend the Branch- 
es on either Side, they are obliged 
to lead them upright ; which pro- 
duces the before - mentioned ill 
Effeft. 

There may alfo be fome Perfons, 
who may think this Diftance too 
fmall for thefe Trees ; becaufe 
Plums, Cherries, and moft other 
Sort of Fruit-trees, require much 
more rcom : but when it is confi- 
der'd, that Peach andNe&arine- trees 
produce their Fruit only upon the 
former Year's Wood, fo that the 
Shoots of thefe Trees mull be annu- 
ally (horter.cd in every Part of them, 
to obtain bearing Wcod, therefore 
the Trees may be kept in much lefs 
Compafs than thole of any other 
Sort of Fruit, and thereby every 
Part of the Wail may be conltantly 
fupplied with bearing Branches: for 
when the Trees are planted at a 
great Diftance, the Branches are of- 
ten extended to fuch Lengths, as to 
leave the Middle of the Trees na- 
ked. 

And here I can't help taking no- 
tice of ar.other very great "Error in 
planting Wall-fruit ; which is, the 
placing Standard or Half-ftandard- 
trees between the others, to cover 
the upper- Part of the Wall, and to 
produce Fruit, until the Trees un- 
derneath are grown up fufficient to 
furnifti the Walls, when the Stan- 
dards are to be taken away. This 
is done without cor,fidermg, that the 
greater Number of Trees which are 
planted in a fmall Compafs, the lefs 
Nourimment they can receive, and 
fo, confequently, mult be the weak- 
er ; -for the fame Space of Ground 



p E 

can't r.ouriin twenty Trees equal!/ 
as well as it could ten : fo that what- 
ever Strength the Standard - trees 
may have, the Dwarfs will be pro- 
portionably weaker : and it is a 
common Obfcrvation, that molt 
Trees extend toheir Roots as far un- 
der-ground, as their Branches fpread 
above ground ; fo that there mould 
always be the fame Allowancegiven 
to the W all-trees, if we would have 
them ftrong and vigorous ; therefore 
the building very high Walls for 
Fruit is to no Purpoie ; for a ten 
or twelve FeetWall will be fufficient 
for moil Sons of Fruit, except 
Pears. 

But to return to Planting: After 
you have mark'd out the Places 
where each Tree is to Hand, you 
mult with your Spade makeanHole 
wide enough to receive the Roots of 
the Tree ; then you mould place it 
down, obferving to turn the Bud 
outward, that the wounded Part of 
the Stock may be hid ; and let the 
Stem of the Tree be placed about 
four or five Inches from the Wall, 
with its Head inclining thereto; then 
fill in the Earth with your Hands, 
obferving to break the Clods, that 
the Earth may fall in between the 
Roots, fo as no void Spaces may be 
left about them. You mould alfo 
gently make the Tree with your 
Hands, to fettle the Earth down the 
better ; then with your Foot gently 
prefs down the Earth about the 
Stem ; but do not tread it down too 
hard, which is many times a very 
great Fault : for when the Ground 
is inclinable to bind, the treading of 
it ciofe doth often render theGround 
fo hard, as that the tender Fibres of 
the Roots can't ftrike into it; where- 
by the Tree remains at a Stand foi 
fome time ; and if the Earth be no 
locfcn'd in time, it frequently dies 
fo that, whenever )ou obftrve th| 

Eartl 



P E 

Earth of your Border to be bound, 
either by great Rains, or from any 
other Caufe, you lhould fcrk and 
loofen it again ; obferving always 
to do it in dry Weather, if in Win- 
ter or Spring ; but in Summer it 
fhould be done in a moilt Seafon. 

Although I have here given Di- 
rections for the Choice of Trees 
from the Nurfery, after the ufual 
Method of planting thefe Trees ; 
which is, that of taking fuch as have 
made one Year's Shoot ; yet I would 
prefer thofe which were budded the 
preceding Summer, and have made 
no Shoot ; for if the Bud is found 
and plump, and the Bark • of the 
Stock well clofed, where the Bud is 
inferted, there will be no Danger of 
its growing ; and wh^n the Bud has 
(hoc to the Length of five or fix Inch- 
es, if it is ftopp'd by p nching off the 
Top, it will put out lateral Branches, 
which may be trained to the Wall ; 
and this will prevent any cutting off 
the Head : for thefe Trees do not 
care for thofe large Amputations, 
efpecially fome of the more tender 
Sorts. And by this Method of 
planting thefe Trees in Bud, no time 
will be loll i when it is confidcred, 
that the Trees which have (hot, mult 
be cut down, and there is an Hazard 
of their mooting again : therefore I 
am convinced from Experience, that 
it is the belt Method. 

After you have thus planted your 
Trees, you (hq lid fatten their Heads 
to the Wall, to prevent their being 
fhaken by the Wind ; which would 
diiturb their Roots, and break off 
the tender Fibres foon after they 
were produced, to the no fmall Pre- 
judice of the Trees : you mould al- 
fo lay fome Mulch upon the Sur- 
face of the Ground about theirRoots, 
before the Frolt fets in, to prevent it 
from penetrating the Ground ; which 



p E 

would injure, if notdeilroy, the fmall 
Fibres. 

Thefe Things being duly obferv- 
ed, they will require no farther Care 
till ihzFtbruary following ; toward 
the Latter-end of which Month, or 
the Beginning of March, according 
as the Seafon is earlier or later, you 
muit cut off the Heads of the new- 
planted Trees, leaving only four or 
five Eyes above the Bud ; in doing 
of which, you mult be very careful 
not to diiturb their Roots : to pre-, 
vent which, you fhould place your 
Foot down clcfe to the Stem of the 
Tree, and take fait hold of that Part 
of the Stock below the Bud with one 
Hand, to hold it fteady, while with 
the other Hand you gently Hope off 
the Head of the Tree vvitli a fharp 
Knife at the intended Place, which 
mould always be j aft above an Eye: 
this mouid always be done in dry 
Weather ; for if there mould be 
much Rain foon after it is done, the 
Wet will enter the wounded Fart,and 
carnage the Tree : nor mould it be 
done in frolty Weather, for the fame 
Reafon ; for that would enter the 
wounded Part, and prevent its heal- 
ing over. After you have headed 
the Trees, you fhould gently loofen 
the Earth of the Borders, to admit 
the Fibres of the Roots : but you 
mult be very careful, in doing of 
this, not to cut or bruife their new 
Roots, which would alio da- 
mage them : and if the Mulch which 
was laid about their Roots in Au- 
tumn be rotten, you may dig it into 
the Border at fome Diitance from 
the Roots of the Trees ; and when 
the dry Weather comes on, you 
fhould pare off fome Turf from a 
Failure - ground, which mould be 
laid upon the Surface of the Border 
about the Roots of the Trees, turn- 
ing the Grafs downward : which 
Unit 2 will 



P E 

will preferve a gentle Moifture In 
the Earth, better than any other 
Sort of Mulch: and this will not 
harbour Infe£ls, as mod Sorts of 
Dung and Litter do, to the no fmall 
Detriment ot the Trees. 

Inwateri g of thefe Trees, you 
mould obferve to do it with aNoflel 
upon the Watering-pot, fo as to let 
it out in Drops : for when it is natti- 
ly pour'd down, itcaufes the Ground 
to bind ; and if you water over the 
Head of the Tree, it will be of great 
Service to it. Your Waterings 
mould not be repeated too often, 
nor Ihould they be given in great 
Quantity ; both which are very in- 
jurious to new-planted Trees. 

In the middle of May, ".hen thefe 
Trees will have feveral Shoots fix 
or eight Inches in Length, you 
mould nail them to the Wall; ob- 
ferving to train them horizontally, 
rubbing off all fore-right Shoots, or 
fuch as are weak, whereby thofe 
which are preferved will be much 
ftronger : but if there are not more 
than two Shoots produced, and thofe 
very ftrong, you Ihould at the fame 
time nip off their Tops ; which will 
caufe each of them to pufh out two 
or more Shoots, whereby the Wall 
will be better fupplied with Branch- 
es : you muft alio continue to re- 
frefh them with Water in dry. Wea- 
ther, during the whole Seafon, other- 
wife they will be apt to fuffer ; for 
their Roots having but little hold of 
the Ground the firft Year after 
tranfplanting, if the Seafon fhould 
prove very dry, it will greatly re- 
tard their Growth, if due care be 
not taken to water them. 

In the Beginning of OBoher, 
when you obferve the Trees have 
r*one (hooting, you Ihould prune 
them ; in doing of which, you mull 
fhorten the Branches in proportion to 
liit Strength of the Tree ; which, 



? E 

if ftrong, may be left eight Inches 
long; but if weak, mould be fhort- 
en'd to four or five : then you mould 
train them horizontally to the Wall 
(as was before directed), fo that the 
Middle of the Trees may be void of 
Branches ; for that Part of the Tree 
will be eafily furnimed with Wood 
afterwards; whereas, if the Shoots 
are train'd perpendicularly to the 
Wall, thofe which are the ftrongeft 
will draw the greateft Share of the 
Sap from the Roots, and mount up- 
ward : fothat the Side-branches will 
be deprived of their Nourishment, 
and grow weaker, until they, many 
times, decay ; and this is the Rea- 
fon, that we fee fo many Peach-trees 
with one upright Stem in the Mid- 
dle, and the two Sides wholly un- 
furniihed with Branches ; whereby 
the Middle of each Tree cannot 
produce any Fruit, that being fill'd 
with large Wood, which never pro- 
duces any bearing Shoots : nor can 
the two Sides of the Trees be regu- 
larly fill'd w;th fiuitful Branches, 
when this Defect happens to them ; 
therefore this Method mould be 
carefully obferv'd in the training up 
young Trees ; for when they are 
permitted to run into Diforder at 
firft, it will be impoffible to reduce 
them into a regular healthful State 
afterward, the Wood of thefeTrees 
being too foft and pithy to admit of 
being cut down again (as may be 
pradiis'd on many other hardy 
Fruit-trees, which will moot out 
vigorouily again) ; whereas thefe 
will gum at the Places where they 
are wounded, and in a few Years in- 
tirely^lecay. 

The Summer follcrwing, when the 
Trees begin to ihoot, you ihould 
carefully look over them, to rub off 
ail fore right Buds, or fuch as are 
ill-placed, and train thofe which are 
defigifdto remain horizontally to] 



P E 

the Wall, in their due Order as they 
are produced ; for this is the princi- 
pal Seafon when you can bdl order 
the Trees as you would have them ; 
whereas, if they are neglected until 
Midfummer, as is the common Prac- 
tice, a great Part of the Nourith- 
ment will be exiiaulled by fore-right 
Shoo's, and other ufelefs Branches, 
which mull afterward be cut ofF ; 
and hereby the remaining Shoots 
will be render'd very weak, and per- 
haps fome Part of the Wall be in- 
tirely unfurnihYd with Branches ; 
which might have been eafily fup- 
plied in the Beginning of May, by 
flopping fome of the llronger Shoots 
in fuch Parts of the Tree where 
there is a Neceffity for more Branch- 
es ; which would caufe each of them 
to (hoot out two or more Side- 
branches below the Ends of the 
Shoot?, which may be guided into 
the vacant Parts of the Tree, as they 
axe produced, fo as that every Part 
may be regularly furnifiVd with 
proper Wood ; which is the greateft 
Beauty and Excellency of Wall- 
trees : but you fliould always forbear 
flopping the Shoots in Summer, 
where there is not a Necemty for 
Branches to fill the Wall ; for there 
cannot be a greaterFault committed, 
than that of multiplying the Num- 
ber of Shoots, fo as to caufe a Con- 
fufion, whereby the Branches will 
be too weak to \ roduce good Fruit : 
befides, when they are too clofe laid 
in upon the Wall, the Air is exclu- 
ded from the Shoots by the great 
Number of Leaves, fo that they 
are never duly ripen'd ; and confe- 
quently, what Fruit is produc'd 
thereon, can't be fo well-tailed as 
thofe which are produc'd upon fuch 
Trees where the Shoots receive all 
| the Advantages of Sun and Air to 
maturate them. 



p E 

Thus having fet down the Method 
of training up young Trees, 1 (hall 
now proceed to their Pruning, and 
future Management . which, being 
the fame as with full-grown Trees, 
will ferve for general Directions how 
to manage thefe Sorts of Fruit. 

In the Pruning of Peach and 
Nectarine-trees (which require the 
fame Management), the two follow- 
ing Rules mould be ftrictly obferv- 
ed ; <vix. Firft, That every Part of 
the Tree be equally furnifti'd with 
bearing Wood ; and, Secondly, That 
the Branches are not laid in too 
clofe to each other, for the Reafons 
before laid down (with fome others 
which will be hereafter inferted). 
As to the firft, it mull be obferv'd, 
That all thefe Trees produce their 
Fruit upon the young Wood, either 
of the preceding Year, or, at moll, 
the two Years Shoots, after which 
Age they do not bear : therefore 
the Branches fliould be pruned fo 
as to caufe them to produce new 
Shoots annually in every Part of the 
Tree ; which cannot be done in the 
ordinary Method of Pruning, where 
Perfons neglect their Trees at the 
Seafon when they are moil capable 
of Management, which is in Jpri/, 
May, and June ; at which time the 
luxuriant Growth of Branches may 
be check'd by pinching, and new 
Shoots produc'd where they are 
wanting, by Hopping the neighbour- 
ing Branches; which Shoots, being 
produc'd at that Seafon, will have 
time enough to ripen, and gain 
Strength, before the Autumn comes 
on; whereas all thofe Shoots wh>ch 
2re produc'd after the middle of 
June, will be crude and pithy ; and 
though th^y may fometimes pro- 
duce a few BlofTcrns, yet thofe rarely 
bring Fruit ; nor are the future 
Branches good which are produced 
U u u 3 from 



P E 

from fuch Wood, the Veffels being 
too large to itrain the Juices, fo that 
they eaiily admit of great Quantities 
of crudeNourifhment to pafs through 
them. Therefore thofe Perlbns who 
only regard their Wa!l-trcts at two 
different Seafons, viz. the Winter 
and i'viidfummer Pruning, cannot 
poiiibiy have them in good Order; 
for when all the Branches which were 
produced in the Spring, are permit- 
ted to remain until tbe Middle or 
Latter-end of June (as is the com- 
mon Practice), fome of the mofl vi- 
gorous will draw the greaceft Part 
of the Nouriftiment from the weaker 
Branches ; which, when the ftrong 
ones are taken off, will be too weak 
to produce fair Fruit ; and hereby 
the Strength of theTreesis exhauii:- 
ed, to nourifh the ufelefs Branches, 
which are annually cut off again : 
and thus are too many Trees ma- 
nagVl, and at the fame time Com- 
plaints made of their Luxuriancy ; 
becaufe two or three Shoots, by 
drawing in the g*eate# Share of the 
Nourifnment, grow very llrong and 
woody (whereas, if the Nouriftiment 
had been equally, diltributed to a re- 
gular Quantity of Branches, there 
would be no Sign of their too great 
Strength); until, by often cutting 
off thefe vigorous Branches, theTrees 
are either intirely deilroy'd, or, at 
leaft, render'd fo weak as not to be 
able to produce Fruit : for although 
by thus weakening the Branches, it 
is often the means to produce a gocd 
Number of BloiToms (as may many 
times be obferv'd alfo upon autum- 
nal Shoots) ;yet the utmolt of their 
Strength is fpent in ' expanding the 
Flowers, fo that they rarely produce 
Fruit ; and very often the greateft 
Part of the Branches die foon after ; 
which is fuppofed to be occafion'd 
by a Blight as I have elfewhcre faid) 
when in 1 tality it is no:hing left than 



p E 

the' Fault of thofe who have the 
Management of the Trees. It is 
therefore of the greatelKJonfequence 
to the Wall- trees, efpecialiy of thefe 
Sorts, to go over them two or three 
times in the Months of May and 
June to rub off all irregular Shoot?, 
and to train in the Branches that are 
left in due Order to the Wall, that 
each Shoot may have an equal Ad- 
vantage of Sun and Air ; both of 
which are abfolutely necclTary to ri- 
pen and prepare the Wood for the 
next Year's Bearing. 

And by duly observing the Trees 
at this Seafon, there will not be Oc- 
cafion for fo much Cutting, as is 
often practiced on Peach-trees, to 
their great Injury ; for their Wood- 
branches are generally loft, tender, 
and pithy, which, when greatly 
wounded, are not healed over again 
fo foon as many other Sorts ofTrees; 
and the Wet, infinuat:ng into the 
wounded Parts, doth often caufc the 
Branches to canker and die ; which 
may be intirely avoided by the 
gentle, eafy Method of pinching 
and rubbing off the B-uds in the 
Spring-feafon, which never makes 
any Wounds on the Tree : and 
hereby a vail deal of Labour is fa- 
ved ; for onePerfon, who is ready at 
this Bufinefs, will go over a great 
Quantity of Walling in a Day ; 
whereas if the Trees are permitted 
to grow rude all the Spring, they 
will require fix times the Labour to 
reduce them into Order : befides, it 
is a^great Difadvantage to the Fruit, 
in permitting the Branches of the 
Trees to extend from the Wall, and 
fhade them : and when they have 
grown under the Shelter of thefe 
Branches and Leaves all the Spring, 
until Midfnmner, then by pruning 
off and fliorter.ing moil of thefe 
Shoots, and nailing the ethers clofe 
to the Wall, the Fruits are fuddenly 
expofed 



P E 

expofed to the Sun and Air, whereby 
they receive a very great Check, and 
are not only retarded in their 
Growth, but often rendered ill- 
tailed ; and have tough Skins. 

The Diltance which the Branches 
of thefe Trees lhould be allow'd 
againft the Wall, muft be propor- 
tion'd to theSizeof theFruit, or the 
Length of the Leaves : for if we 
obierve how the Branches of Trees 
are naturally difpofed to grow, we 
fhall always find them placed at a 
greater or !efs Diftance, as their 
Leaves are larger or fmaller, as f 
have already obferved under the Ar- 
ticle of Leaves: and there is no furer 
Guide to a curiousArtift chanNature, 
from whence a Gardener mould al- 
ways be directed in every Part of 
his Profeffion.; fmce his Bufinefs is 
to aid and afiilt Nature, where file is 
not capable of bringing her Produc- 
tions to Maturity ; or where there 
is room, to make confiderable Im- 
provements by Art j which cannot 
be any otherwise effected, than by 
gently afiilling her in her ownWay. 

But to return to Pruning of thefe 
Trees : The Branches being care- 
fully trained in, as before directed, 
in the Spring and Summer-feafons, 
ivecome now to treat of the Winter- 
pruning, which is commonly per- 
formed in F:bruary or March : but 
the beil Seafon for this Work is in 
p&ober, when their Leaves begin to 
fall, which will be early enough for 
their Wounds to heal, before the 
Frofi: comes on ; fo that there will 
; be no Danger of their being hurt 
thereby: and the Branches of the 
Trees being proportion'd to the 
Strength of the Roots at that Sea- 
fon, all the afcending Sap in the 
Spring will be employed to nourifh 
only thofe ufeful Parts of the 
Branches which are left ; whereas, 
if they are left unpruned till Februa- 



p E 

ry, the Sap in the Branches being 
then in Motion, as may be obferved 
by the fwelling of the Buds, the 
greateil Part of it will be drawn up 
to the extreme Parts of the Branch- 
es, to nourifh fuch Bloflbms as muft 
be afterwards cut off : and this may 
be eafily known by obferving the 
ftrongelt Shoots at that Seafon, when 
you will find the extreme Buds to 
fwell falter than molt of the lower 
ones ; for there being no Leaves 
then upon theBranches, to detain the 
Sap to nourifh the lower Butis, the 
upper ones will always draw from 
thofe below. 

But it is a conflant Practice a- 
mongft Gardeners, founded upon 
long Experience, to prune weak 
Trees early in the Winter, and 
luxuriant Trees late in the Spring, 
in order to check their Luxurian- 
cy. Now it is evident, that this 
Check does not proceed from any 
confiderable Lofs of Sap a: the 
Wounds of the pruned Tree (ex- 
cepting a few of the bleeding Trees, 
when cut at that Seafon) ; but muft 
arife from fome other Caufe ; for by 
feveral Experiments made by the 
Rev. Dr. Hates % in fixing Mercurial 
Gauges to the Stems of frefh cut 
Trees, he found thofe Wounds were 
contiantly in an imbibing State, ex- 
cept theVine in the Bleeding-feafon. 

When a weak Tree is pruned 
early in the Beginning of Winter, 
the Orifices of the Sap-veffels are 
clofed up long before the Spring ; 
and confequendy, when, in the 
Spring and Summer, the warm Wea- 
ther advances, the attra&ing Force 
or the perfpiring Leaves is not then 
weakened by many Inlets from frefh 
W T ounds ; b'ut is wholly exerted in 
drawing Sap from the Root : where- 
as, on the other rund, when a luxu- 
riant Tree is pruned Late in the 
Spring, the Force of its Leaves to 
U u u + attract 



P E 

attract Sap from the Root w'.ll b? 
much fpent and loft, at the feveral 
frefh cut Inlets. 

Befides, if it were no Advantage 
to the Trees to prune them at this 
Seafon (which I think no one will 
have Reafon to doubt, after making 
the Trial) ; but that it only fucceeds 
as well as the Spring-pruning ; yet 
there is a great Advantage in doing 
of it at Michaelmas ; for that being 
a much more leifure Seafon with 
Gardeners than the Spring, they will 
have more time to perform it care- 
fully ; and then they will not have 
too many Things come together, 
which may require to be immedi- 
ately executed : for the Spring be- 
ing the principal Seafon for cropping 
their Kitchen-gardens, and attend- 
ing their Hot-beds, if tr.ey are dif- 
engaged from the Bufmefs of Prune- 
ing at that time, it will be of great 
Advantage, efpecially where there 
is a great Quantity of Walling. And 
there is alfo another benefit in Prune- 
ing at this Seafon ; which the 
having the Borders at Liberty to dig 
and make clean before the Spring ; 
fo that the Garden may not appear 
in Litter at that Seafon. 

Having faid thus much concerning 
the time of Pruning, I mail now 
proceed to give fome ceneral 
Directions how it is to be performed 
on Peach and Ne£larine-trees,which 
require a very different Manage- 
ment from moft other Sorts of 
Fruits. 

In Pruning of thefe Tree?, you 
mould always obferve to cut them 
behind a Wood-bud, which may be 
eafily diftinguifhed from the B!of- 
fom-buds, that are morter, rounder, 
and more turgid, than the Wood- 
buds : for if the Shoot have not a 
leading Bnd where it is cut, it is ve- 
ry apt to die down to the next lead- 
ing Bud j fo that what jfruit may 



P E 

Le produced above that, will come 
to nothing, there being always a 
NeceHity of a leading Bud to attract 
the Nourifhment ; for it is not fu in- 
dent that they have a Leaf-bud, as 
fome have imagined, f nee that will 
attract but a fmall Quantity of 
Noiirifhment ; the great Ufeof the 
Leaves being to perfpire away fuch 
crude Juices as are unfit to enter 
the Fruit : the Length you mould 
leave thefe Branches, mould be pro- 
portion^ to the Strength of theTree, 
which, in an healthy ftrongTree, 
may be left ten Inches or more ; 
but, in a weak one, they mould not 
be more than fix Inches : however, 
in this you muft be guided by the 
Portion of a leading Bud ; for it is 
better to leave a Shoot three cr four 
Inches longer, or to cut it two or 
three Inches fhorter, than we would 
choofe to do, provided there be one 
of thefe Buds; it being abfoluteiy 
neceffarv for the future Welfare of 
the! ree : you mould alfo cut out in- 
tirely all weak Shoots, tho' they may 
have many Bloffum - buds upon 
them ;" for thefe have not Strength 
enough to nourifh the Fruit, fo as 
to give it a kindly Flavour ; but 
they will weaken the other Parts of 
the Tree. 

In nailing the Shoots to the Wall, 
you muft be careful to place them at 
as equal Diftances as poffible, that 
their Leaves, when come out, may 
have room to grow, without fhading 
the I ranches too much ; and you 
mould never nail them upright, if it I 
can be prevented ; for when they 
are thus trained, they are very fub- 
ject to fhoot from the uppermoft 
Eyes^ : and the lower Part of the I 
Shoots will thereby become naked, f 

There is not any thing in th< 
Bufmefs of Gardening, which ha- 
more exercifed the Thoughts of thi 
Cuhou.s, than how to preierve thei • 

tend el 



P E 

tender Sorts of Fruit from being 
blighted in the Spring of the Year ; 
and yet there has been little written 
upon this Subject, which is worth 
Notice. SomePerfons have p:opofed 
MattrefTes of Straw or Reeds to be 
placed before the Fruit-trees againft 
Walls, to prevent their being blaft- 
ed : others have directed the fixing 
horizontal Shelters in their Walls, 
to prevent the perpendicular Dew or 
Rain from falling upon the Bloffoms 
of the Fruit-trees, which they fup- 
pofed to be the chief Caufe of their 
Blighting : but both thefe Contri- 
vances have been far from answer- 
ing the Expectations of thofe Perfons 
who have put them in Practice, as I 
have elftwhere (hewn ; therefore it 
may not be improper to repeat fome 
Things in this Place, which I have 
before mentioned, in relation to this 
Matter. And, 

. Firit, I have already faid, that 
the Blights, which are fo often com- 
plained of, do not fo much proceed 
from any external Caufe, or Incle- 
mency in the Seafon, as from a Dif- 
t^mper orWeaknefs in theTrees : for 
if we obferve theTrees at that-eafon, 
where they are the moll fubject to 
what is called a Blight, we mall find 
the Branches very fmall, weak, and 
not half ripen'd, as alfo trained in 
very dole to each other ; thefe 
Branches are, for the moft part, full 
of Blofibm-buds (which is chiefly 
occafion'd by ^heirwant ofStrength). 
Thefe Buds do indeed open ; and, to 
Perfons not fkilTd in Fruit trees, (hew 
a great Profpedt of a plentiful Crop 
of Fruits ; whereas the whole 
Strength of the Branches is fpenc in 
nourishing the Flowers ; and, being 
unable to do any more, the Blof- 
foms fall off, and the fmall Efforts of 
the Leaf- buds are check'd ; fo that, 
many times, the greateft Part of the 
Branches die away ; and this is call- 



P E 

ed a great Blight : whereas at the 
fame time it may be often obferv'd, 
that fome Trees of a different Sort, 
nay, even fome of the fame Sort, 
which were ftronger, tho' placed in 
the fame Soil, expofed to the fame 
Afpect, and fubject to the fame In- 
clemency of Air, have efcaped very 
well, when the weak Trees have ap- 
peared to be almoft dead ; which is a 
plain Indication, that it proceeds 
from fome Caufe within the Tree, 
and not from any external Blight : 
a'l this will therefore be remedied, 
by obferving the foregoing Directi- 
ons in the Pruning and Management 
of the Trees, fo as never to over- 
burden them with Branches, nor to 
fuffer any Part of the Trees to ex- 
hauft the wholeNourifhment from the 
Root, fo as to caufe the other Parts 
to be very weak ; but to distribute 
the Nourishment equally to every 
Shoot, that there may be none too 
vigorous, at the fame time that 
others are too weak ; and by conti- 
nually rubbing off ufelefs or fore- 
right Shoots, as they are produced, 
the Strength of the Trees will not 
be fpent, to nourifh fuch Branches as 
muft be afterwards cut out, which is 
too often feen in the Management of 
thefe Trees. And, 

Secondly, It fometimes happens, 
that the Roots of thefe Trees are 
buried too deep in the Ground, 
which, in a cold or moid Soil, is one 
of the greateft Difadvantages that 
can attend thefe tender Fruits ; for 
the Sap which is contained in the 
Branches, being by the Warmth of 
the Sun put ftrongly into Motion 
early in the Spring, is exhaufted in 
nourishing the BlofToms ; and a Part 
of it is perfpired thro* the Wood- 
branches, fo that its Strength is loft 
before theWarmth can reach to their 
Roots, to put them into an equal 
Motion 



P E 

Motion in Search of frefh Nourifti- 
ment, to fupply the Expence of the 
Branches; for want of which, the 
Bloflbms fail olfand decay, and the 
Shoots feem to be at a Stand, until 
the farther Advance of the Warmth 
penetrates to the Roots, and fets 
them in Motion ; when fuddenly af- 
ter, the Trees, which before look'd 
weak and decaying, do make prodi- 
gious Progrcfs in their Shoots ; and. 
before the Summer is fpent, are fur- 
ni(hed with much llronger Branches 
than thofe Trees which have the full 
Advantage of Sun and Showers, and 
that re more fruitful and healthy; 
which mull certainly be owing to 
the former Oblervation, as alio to 
their drawing in a great Quantity of 
crude Moilture ; which, tho 1 pro- 
ductive of Wood, is yet unkindly for 
Fruit :if, therefore, this be theCafe, 
there is no way of helping this, but 
by raifmg up the Trees, if they are 
young ; or, if they are too old to 
remove, it is the better way to root 
them oat, and make new Borders of 
frefn Earth, and plant down young 
Trees ; for it is a great Vexation to 
be at the Trouble and Expence of 
pruning and managing tnefe Trees, 
without having the Pleafure of reap- 
ing any Advantage from them : 
which will always be the Cafe where 
the Trees are thus injudicioufly 
planted. Or, 

Thirdly, This may proceed from 
the Trees wanting Nourishment, 
which is many times the Cafe, where 
they are planted in an hard gravel- 
ly Soil, in'which it is the common 
Practice to dig Borders three or four 
Feet wide, and three Feet deep in- 
to the Rock of Gravel, which is 
filled with good frefh Earth, into 
which the Trees are planted, where 
they wili thrive pretty well for two 
Years, until their Roots reach the 
Gravel, Where they are cenfin'd, as 



p E 

if planted in a Pot ; and for want of 
proper Nourifhment, the Branches 
continually decay every Year. This 
cannot be helped, where tne 'i rees 
fiave been growing fome Yeais, 
without taking them intireiy up, 
or by digging away the Gravel 
from their Roots, and adding a large 
Quantity of frefh Earth, that may 
afford them a Supply of Nourish- 
ment : but where a Perfon intends 
to plant Fruit-trees uponfucha Soil, 
I would advrfe him never to dig in- 
to the Gravel ; but, on the contra- 
ry, to raife the Borders at leait two 
Feet above ir, with good frefh Earth; 
which, if made of a coniiderable 
Width, fo that their Roots may 
have room to extend themftlves up- 
on the Gravel, they will enjoy the 
kindly Influences of the Sun and 
Showers, and produce delicate well- 
havour'd Fruit in plenty. 

But if the Unfruitfulnefs of the 
Trees do not proceed from any of 
the before-mentioned Cauies,and is 
the Effeft of unkindly Seafons, then 
the belt Method yet known is, in 
frofty dry Weather, when little Dew 
falls, to fprinkle the Branches of the 
Trees gently with Water in the 
bloffoming Seafon, and while the 
young-fet Fruit is tender; which 
mould always be done beforeNoon, 
that the Moifture may evaporate 
before the Night comes on ; and if 
in the Night you carefully cover 
theTrees with Mats, Canvas, or fome 
fuch light Covering, it will be of 
great Service to them : however, 
where theTrees are ilrong and vigo- 
rous, they are not fo liable to furFer 
by a fmall Inclemency, as are thofe 
which are weak ; fo that there will 
be few Seafons in which there may 
not be Hopes of a moderate Quan- 
tity from them ; tho 1 there mould 
be no Covering ufed ; for where 
thefe Coverings are ufed, if it is not 
performed 



P E 

performed with great Care and Di- 
ligence, k is much better to have no 
Covering , but trull to the Clemency 
of the Seafon : for if the Coverings 
are kept too clofc, or continued too 
long, the Trees will receive more 
Jnjury hereby, than from being con- 
ftantly expo'icd ; or if after they 
have been covered for fome time, 
theyare then incautiouflyremoved, fo 
as to expofe the Trees too fuddenly 
to the open Air, they will fuffer 
more thereby than if they had not 
been covered : however, I muft re- 
peat in this Place what has been be- 
fore mentioned, under another Arti- 
cle, of aManagement which has been 
generally attended with Succefs ; 
which is, The putting up two Fea- 
ther-edge Deal-boards, joined toge- 
ther, over the Top of L 9e Trees, fo 
as to form a Penthcufe, to call off 
perpendicular Wet : thefe fhould be 
fixed up when the Trees begin to 
bloffom, and fhould remain till the 
Fruit is well fet, when they ihould 
be taken do-.vn, to admit the Dew 
and Rain to the Leaves and Branches 
of the Trees, which muft not be 
longer kept off : and where the 
Wall is long, and is expofed to 
Draughts or Currents of Wind, if 
at the Difhr.ce of forty Feet from 
each ether are fixed fome crofs 
Reed-Sedges, to prcjecl about ten 
Feet from the Wall, thefe will break 
the Force of th e Wind, and prevent 
its decoying of the Eloflbms; and 
thefe may be removed away, as foon 
as the Danger is over : where thefe 
Things have been pra&ifed, they 
were generally attended with Suc- 
cefs ; and as there will be no Trou- 
ble of covering and uncovering in 
this Method, after they are fixed up, 
there can be no Danger of Neglect, 
as very often is the Cafe when the 
Trouble is great, or to be often re- 
peated. 



P E 

When your Fruit is fet, and 
grown to the Bignefs of a Small- 
nut, you mould go over the Trees, 
and thin them, leaving them at leaft 
five or fix Inches afunder ; for when, 
they are permitted to remain in 
Bunches, as they are often produced, 
the Nourishment which mould be 
employed wholly to the Fruits de- 
fign'd to ftand, will be equally fpent 
amongft the whole Number^ a great 
Part of which muft be afterward 
pulled off ; fo that the fooner this 
is done, the better it will be for the 
remaining Fruit : and if k fhould 
fometimes happen, that a Part of 
thofe left, by any Accident, mould 
be deftroyed, yet the remaining ones 
will be much the larger and better- 
tafted for it J and the Trees will 
gain more Strength ; for a mode- 
rate Quantity of Fruit is always 
preferable to a great Crop ; the 
Fruit, when but few, will be much 
larger, better tafted, and the Trees 
in a Condition to bear well the fuc- 
cccuing Years : whereas when they 
are overcharged with Fruit, it is al- 
ways fmall, ill-tafted ; and theTrees 
are generally fo much weakened 
thereby, as not to be in a Condition 
to bear well for two Years after : fo 
that, upon the Whole, it is much 
better to have a leffer Number of 
Fruit than is commonly efteemed a 
Crop, than to have too many ; fince 
the Fruit, and alfo theTrees, are be- 
nefited thereby. The Quantity of 
Fruit to be left on large full-grown 
Tr< c , mould never be greater than 
five or fix dozen upon each ; but on 
middling Trees, three or four dozen 
will be enough. 

If the Seafon Ihould prove hot 
and dry, it will be proper to draw 
up the Earth round the Stem of each 
Tree, to form an hollow Bafin, of 
about fix Feet Diameter ; and cover 
the Surface, of the Ground in this 

Bafin 



P E 

Bafin with Mulch ; and once or twice 
a Week, according to the Heat and 
Drought of the Seafon, pour down 
fixteen or eighteen Gallons of Wa- 
ter to the Root of each Tree ; or 
where there is an Engine, which 
will difperfe the Water in gentle eafy 
Drops, like Rain, if the fame, or a 
larger Quantity of Water, is fprinkled 
all over the Branches of the Trees, 
tikis, foaking down to the Roots, 
will keep the Fruit conllantly grow- 
ing ; which will prevent their falling 
off the Trees, as they generally do 
where this Method is not praclifed ; 
and the Fruit, being thus conllantly 
nouriftied, will be much better tail- 
ed ; and hereby the Trees will be 
maintained in Vigour ; fo that it is 
what I can, from long Experience, 
recommend as one of the mod necef- 
far> Things to be pra&ifed by all 
Lovers of good Fruit. 

When the Peach-trees are carefully 
managed in che Spring of the Year, 
according to the Rules before laid 
down, all the Nourifhment which 
the Roots can fupply will be ufefully 
employed in nourishing fuch Shoots 
only as are to be continued, as alfo 
the Quantity of Fruit which is pro- 
per for each Tree ; therefore both 
muft of Confequence be rendered 
better ; for where there is not this 
Care, the Trees foon grow ragged, 
and are not furnifhed properly with 
Branches ; and thofe Shoots which 
are produced, are fome very weak, 
and others very luxuriant whereby 
the Trees are rendered very unfight- 
ly, as alfo unhealthy ; and never 
continue many Years fruitful : and 
by thus training of the Branches to 
the Wall, as they are produced, the 
Fruit will be always equally expofed 
to the Sun and Air ; which in the 
common Method of managing thefe 
Trees, by letting their Branches 
grow rude all the Spring, they are 



P E 

deprived from ; and confequently 
do not receive the Benefit from thefe 
equal to thofe which are properly 
managed : and by the timely rubbing 
off ufelefs and luxuriant Shoots, it 
will fave much Trouble, and prevent 
the Ufe of the Knife in Summer, 
which is very hurtful to thefe Trees; 
for there will be no need to fhorten 
any of the Shoots in Summer. 

When thefe Rules are duly exe- 
cuted, there will be no Occaiion to 
pull off the Leaves of the Trees, to 
admit the Sun to the Fruit, which 
is often pradtifed ; for if we confi- 
der, that the Leaves are absolutely 
neceffary to cherifh the Bloffom-buds, 
which are always form'd at the Foot- 
flalkb of the Leaves, the pulling them 
off before they have perform'd the 
Office affign'd them by Nature, is 
doing great Injury to the Trees ; 
therefore I caution every one againfl; 
that Practice. 

It is a common Opinion which has 
for fome Years prevailed, even 
among Perfons of good Underftand- 
ing, That Peach trees are not long- 
liv'd ; therefore fhould be renewed 
every twenty Years : but this is a 
great Miftake ; for I have eaten fome 
of the fmeft Peaches of various 
Kinds, which grew on Trees which 
had been planted above fifty Years : 
and I am convinced, by Experience, 
that when the Trees are budded up- 
on proper Stocks, and carefully 
planted and managed, they may be 
continued fruitful and healthy fixty 
Years and upward ; and the Fruit 
produced on thefe old Trees will be 
much better flavour'd than any of 
thofe upon young Trees : but 1 fup- 
pofe the Foundation of the above 
Opinion was taken from the French^ 
who generally bud their Peaches up- 
on Almond - Hocks, which are of 
Ihort Duration ; thefe feldom lafting 
good more' than twenty Years : but 



P E 



P E 



this being feldom pradlifed in Eng- 
land, the Cafe is widely different ; 
nor indeed lhould we fetch our Ex- 
amples from that Nation, where the 
Profeflbrs of the Art of Gardening 
are at leaft a Century behind the Eng- 
lijb ; and, from their prefent Difpo- 
fuion, feem unlikely to overtake 
them ; for they depart from Nature 
in almoft every Part of Gardening, 
and are more pleafed with introduce- 
ing their little Inventions of pruning 
and managing their Fruit-trees, ac- 
cording to their ownFancy, than they 
are careful to draw their lnftruclions 
from Nature, from whence the true 
Art is to be obtained ; fo that in 
very few Inftances Gardeners mould 
deviate from Nature, unLfs it be in 
thofe Particulars, where Art may be 
prattifed to the greatest Advantage ; 
which is in the procuring many Sorts 
of efculent Plants and Fruits earlier 
and better flavoured than can be ob- 
tained without; in which they are 
extremely deficient ; and herein they 
truft too much to Nature, and ufe too 
little Art. 

In one of the moft celebrated of 
their Authors, who treats very par- 
ticularly of Fruit-trees, there are 
Directions for planting of Peach- 
trees twelve Feet afunder : and at 
the fame time he advifes the plant- 
ing of Pear-trees but nine or ten 
Feet Dillance ; and yet he fays, 
That a Pear tree in Health will 
Ihoot three Fee" on each Side every 
Year : therefore he does not allow 
room for thefe Trees to grow more 
than two Years before they meet. 
There is alfo another thing pofitive- 
ly laid down by the fame Author; 
when, is, never to lay any Dung 
upon the Borders where Fruit-trees 
are growing ; which he fays will 
lender the Fruit ill-tailed : and this 
Opinion has too generally prevailed 
in England ; but this has been explo- 



ded by one of his own Countrymen* 
who affirms that, from upward of 
twenty Years Experience, thofe Trees 
where the Borders had been conflant- 
ly dung'd, always produced the moft 
delicious Fruit ; and the Trees were 
in the greater! Vigour : and the fame 
Gentleman mentions the Practice of 
the Gardeners at Montreuil, near 
Paris, who have for fome Genera- 
tions been famous for the Culture of 
Peaches ; and are as careful to dung 
the Borders where their Peach trees 
grow every other Year, as the 
Kitchen gardeners are for their Le- 
gumes. 

And from a long Experience it is, 
that I can i jbferibe to the Truth of 
this ; for in fome particular Gardens, 
where the beit Fruit grew that I have 
yet tailed, the Ground was conftantly 
dunged every other Year; therefore 
it is what I mut recommend to the 
Practice of every curious Perfon ; 
with this Caution, always to ufe 
fuch Dung for their Borders, as is 
well rotted ; and to dig it into the 
Borders in November, that the Rain 
may wafli down the Salts before the 
Spring comes on ; and where the 
Ground is very loofe or fandy, it 
will be the bell way to make ufe of 
Neats-dung, which is cooler than 
that of Horfes ; but for cold ftrong 
Lard the latter is to be preferred. 

If the Ground is well trenched 
every Year, about the Roots of the 
Trees, it will be of great Service to 
them ; and where the Soil is fubjedt 
to bind very clofe, if it is forked two 
or three times in a Year, to loofen the 
Surface.it will greatlyhelp theTrees: 
the Borders mould not be croud- 
ed with any large-growing Plants, 
which will draw away the Nourifh- 
ment from the Trees; therefore when 
any Sort of Kitchen-herbs are plant- 
ed on thefe Borders, they mould be 
only fuch as are of fmali Growth, 

and 



P E 

and vvjiich may be taken off early in 
the Spring: and if this i a carefully 
obferved, the cultivating fmallThings 
on thefe Borders can do no Harm ; 
becaufe the Ground will be flirr'd 
the oftener, on account of thefe 
ftnali Crops, than perhaps it would 
have been, when no Ufe was to be 
made of the Borders. Thefe Rules 
which are here laid down, if pro- 
perly obferved, will direct any curi- 
ous Perfon how to have plenty of 
good Fruit ; as alfo to preferve the 
Trees in Vigour a great Number of 

PERSICARIA, Arfe-fmart. 
The Characters are ; 

It is a Plant <voith an apctalous 
Flower, having federal Stamina, or 
Chives , which arife from thi -multi fid 
Calyx : the Point a I 'afterward becomes 
an oval-pointed f moo to Seed, inclofd 
in the Capfule, which was before the 
Flovjer-cup : to which may be added, 
It hath jointed Stalks, and the Flow- 
ers are produced in Spikes. 
The Species are ; 

1. Persic aria mitis maculofa. C. 
B. P. Dead or Spotted Arfe-fmart. 

2. Persicaria vulgaris acris,feu 
Hydro piper. J. ti. Water- pepper, 
Lake- weed, or Arfe-fmart. 

3. Persicaria major, lapathi fo- 
liis, calyce forts purpurea. Tourn. 
Greater Arfe - fman, with Dock- 
leaves, and a purple Flower-cup. 

4. Persicaria Oriental's, Nico- 
tians folio, calyce forum purpurea. 
T. Cor. Eaftern Arfe-fmart, with a 
Tobacco-ieaf, and a purple Flower- 
cup. 

There are feveral other Species of 
this Plant, which grow wild upon 
in 01 ft Soils and Dunghils, in divers 
Parts of 'England: but as they are rare- 
ly cultivated in Gardens, and being 
Plants of no Ufe at prefent, I omit 
enumerating them in this Place. 

The 'two fir ft Sorts here mention- 



p E 

ed are fometimes ufed in Medicine} 
the latter of which is a very fharp 
acrid Plant, from whence it had its 
Name of Water-pepper and Arfe- 
fmart : this is a perennial Plant, 
which grows in great Plenty on the 
Sides of Ditches, and in moiit Piaces, 
almofl in every Part of England; and 
is a very bad Weed, if once it gets 
Poffefiion in a Garden ; for the Roots 
extend themfclves greatly under- 
ground, and arife from every Joint, 
as doth Cot:ch-grafs ; fo that it is 
with great Difficulty extirpated. 
The firft is an annual Plant, that 
. propagates itfelf in great Plenty from 
Seeds; which falling upon the 
Ground, the Plants rile the fucceed- 
ing Spring, and fpread over the 
Ground, where-ever they are per- 
mitted to gro w ; fo that they fhould 
not be fuifered to remain in Gar- 
dens : thefe are both gathered in the 
Fields in Autumn for medicinal Ufe, 
when they are in Perfection. 

The thirdSort is cultivated in fome 
curious Gardens forVariety, it make- 
ingan handiome Appearance during 
the S^afonc/f its Flowering : this may 
be propagated by fowing the Seeds 
upon a Bed of rich moill Earth inAu- 
tumn.foon after they are ripe ; and 
the Plants will come up the Spring 
following, when they may be trani- 
planted into the Borders where they 
arc to remain : this is alfo an annual 
Plant, which requires to be fown 
every Year, or the Seeds permitted 
to fhed, which will grow better than 
thofe which are fown by Art. 

The fourth Sort was brought from 
the Eafcern Country by Monf. Tour- 
nefort, to the Royal Garden at 
Paris, from whence it hath been 
fince communicated to feveral Parts 
of Europe. This Plant, tho' but an 
Annual, doth grow to be ten or 
twelve Feet high, and divides into I 
feveral Branches, each of which 



P E 

produces a beautiful Spike of purple 
Flowers at their Extremities in the 
Autumn ; which, together with its 
large green Leaves, and jointed 
Stalks, make a very grand Figure 
in the Borders of large Gardens, late 
in the Seafon, when few other Plants 
are in Beauty. 

The Seeds therefore mould be 
fown in Autumn, as foon as they are 
ripe ; or. if they are permitted to 
fall on the Ground, the Plants will 
come up the Spring following better 
than when they are fown by Art, as 
was before observed ; for ir the Seeds 
are fown in the Spring, it is very 
rare, that any of them lucceed ; and 
if fome few Plants come up from 
thofe Seeds fown at that Seafon, they 
feldom grow near fo lirong as thole 
which are produced from the Seeds 
which fell in Autumn ; lb that there 
is no other Culture required to this 
Plant, but to tranfplant them out in 
the Spring,' where they are defign'd 
to ftand, which mould be in large 
Gardens, giving them great Space; 
for if they are placed near other 
Planes, they will lhade them iatireljf 
from the Sun ; and, by continur.jly 
dripping upon them, will greatly in- 
jure them ; and if they liand too 
clofe, their Beauty is greatly ditni- 
nilhed. 

When the Plants begin to afpire 
upward, which is commonly in 
June, their Side- moots mould be 
pruned off, to make them advance 
in Height, and prefer ve them with- 
in Compafs ; otherwise they are very 
fubject to branch out widely on every 
Side, fo as to become troublefome in 
a Garden ; but when they are pru- 
ned up regularly five or fix Feet high, 
they may afterwards be permitted 
to lhoot out Side- branches; hnce 
thofe which are produced above 
that Height, will never be very 
long or troublefome, but will add to 



P E 

the Beauty of the Plant : this de- 
lights in a rich moiit Soil, upon 
which it will grow to a prodigious 
Height : it produces its Flowers in 
Augvft and September, which continue 
inBeauty until theFroft defiroys them. 

PERViNCA, Periwinkle. 
The Characters are ; 

The Flower-cup cenffs of one Leaf, 
Huhicb is divided into fve long na/ - 
rcw Segments : the Flower al/o con- 
jifis of cne Leaf, which expands intf 
the Form of a Salver, and is cut inta 
fve bro.id Segments : the Pointal^ 
which arifes from the Centre of the 
Flower- cup, b: comes a Fruit, ccmpofd 
of two Hvfis ( or Pods ), which con- 
tain ollctig cylindrical furrowed St\ds : 
to which m:y be added, That this 
Plant foots out many long creeping 
Branches, which frike oat Roots at 
their Joi <ts. 

The Species are ; 

1. Per vi nc a vulgaris angvfifg- 
lia, fore cceruleo. Tcurn. Comnio:i 
or narrow leav'd Periwinkle, With a 
blue Flower. 

2. Pervinca vulgaris angufi; fo- 
lia, fore albo. Tourn. Common Peri- 
winkle, with a white Flower. 

3. Pervinca vulgaris luiifolia, 
fore casrulco. Tcurn. Greater Peri- 
winkle, with a blue Flower. 

4. Pervinca vulgaris angififlia, 
fore ruhente. Tcurn. Common Peri- 
winkle, with a redim Flower. 

5. Pervinca vulgaris angufifo- 
lia, fore pltno, fat urate purpurea. 
Town. Common Periwinkle, with 
a double Flower, of a deep purple 
Colour. 

6. Pervinca anguftifolia vulga- 
ris v>riegata> ex aureo iff viridi* 
Boerh Ind. Common Periwinkle, 
with yellow ftriped Leaves. 

7 . Pervinca angufifolia vulgar it 
variegata ex argent eo iff viridi. 
Bo-rh. Ind. Common Periwinkle, 
with filver-ftriped Leaves, 



P E 

The firft Sort grows wild in di- 
vers Parts of England, and is not fo 
much cultivated in Gardens at pre- 
fent as it was formerly, when it was 
planted for Edging of Borders ; but 
the Shoots being very apt to root at 
their Joints, render'd it very d-fficult 
to preferve in any tolerable Order ; 
and the Plants, rooting deep in the 
Ground, greatly exhauft the Good- 
nefs of the Soil ; fo that it is now 
almoft wholly call: out of Gardens. 

The fecond and fourth Sorts are 
Varieties from the firft, differing 
only in the Colour of their Flowers j 
as are alfo the fixth and fevenrh, 
which differ in their variegated 
Leaves, for which they are preferv'd 
in the Gardens of thofe who admire 
ftriped Plants. 

The fifth Sort produces fine dou- 
ble Flowers, which makes a very 
handfome Appearance during its Sea- 
fon of Flowering ; which renders it 
worthy of a Place in every Garden. 

The third Sort grows much larger 
than the former, and produces large 
blue Flowers : this is found in 
Woods, and fhady Places, in di- 
vers Parts of England. 

All thefe Plants multiply exceed- 
ingly by their Shoots from the old 
Roots, which, trailing upon the 
Ground, ftrike out Roots in a fhort 
time, and may be taken off, and 
tranfplanted where they are to re- 
main : and though they are not fo 
proper for a Flower-garden, yet a 
few Roots of each Sort may be 
planted in fhady Borders under Trees, 
where few other Plants will thrive, 
or in fmall Wildernefles ; in which 
Places, if they are kept within Com- 
pafs, they make a pretty Variety. 
The large Sort may be planted un- 
der Hedges, in Woods, £sV. where 
it will grow four or five Feet high, 
and continue a long time in flower. 



p E 

Thefe Plants propagate themfeltfei 
by Roots fo plentifully, that they 
feldom produce Frilit. 

Monf. Tournefort fays, He could 
never obferve any Fruit upon them 
either in the Country adjoining to 
Paris, or in Provence or Languedoc t 
where they are very common, or in 
the Neighbourhood of Lifbon. 

Of all the Botanical Writers be- 
fore Tournefort, Grfalpi?:us is the 
only Perfon who found and defcribed 
this Fruit : which, he fays, is oblong, 
being two fork'd Hufks, arch'd and 
conjoin'd at their Extremities, con- 
taining, for the moil part, two ob* 
long Seeds in each. 

To have this Plant produce Fruit, 
Monf. Tournefort advifes its being 
planted in a Pot that contains but a 
fmall Quantity of Earth ; fo that 
the Sap, being prevented from dif- 
fipating and fpending itfelf upon 
nourifhing new Shoots, will mount 
the Stems, and fwell the Pointal, 
which becomes the Fruit ; and this, 
he fays, was the Method whereby he 
obtain'd .the Fruit of this Plant, of 
which he has given a Figure in his 
Elements of Botany. .* 

But notwithstanding what Monf. 
Tcumrfort has related concerning 
this Matter, yet I have often ob- 
ferv'd the Fruit upon fuch Plants as 
have grown fingly on a good Soil : 
though where their Shoots are per- 
mitted to entangle with each other, 
and grow very clofe, there is feldom 
any Fruit produe'd. 

PETASITIS, Butter-bur. 
The Characters are ; 

// is a Plant with a fiofculous 
Flower, conffing of many Florets t 
divided into many Parts . fitting on 
the Embryo, and contained in a cylin- 
drical Empalement, divided alfo into 
many Parts : the Embryo cfterward 
becomes a Seed furnijh ■ d with Down: 

f 



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to which may he added, The Flowers 
appear before the Leaves. 
The Species are ; 

1. Petasites major iff vulgaris. 
C.B.P. Common Butter bur, or 
Peftilent-wort. 

2. Petasites m.yor, Jlorihus pe- 
diculis longis infidentibus. Raii Sytt. 
Greater Butter- bur, with long Foot- 
ftalks to the Flowers. 

3. Petasites a thus, angulofo fo- 
lio. J. B. White Butter-bur, with 
angular Leaves. 

4. Petasites minor alter, tujfila- 
ginis folio. H R. Par. Letter But- 
ter bur, with a Colt's -foot leaf. 

The firft Sort here mention'd is 
us'd in Medicine : this grows wild in 
great Plenty by the Sides of Ditches, 
and in moilt Soils, in clivers Parts of 
England. The Flowers of this Plant 
appear in the Beginning of March ; 
and after they are pait, the green 
Leaves come up, and grow to be 
very large. 

The fecond Sort was found by Mr. 
Jacob Bobart in Oxford/hire, and fent 
to the Phyjic-garden at Chelfea : this 
differs greatly from the former in its 
Manner of Flowering ; for the Flow- 
er-Hems of this Sort rife near two 
Feet high, and the Flowers grow 
upon long Footftalks ; whereas the 
Stems of the common Sort feldom 
rife above eight or ten Inches high, 
and the Flowers cloiely furround 
the Stalks. 

The other two Sorts are preferv'd 
in Botanic Gardens for Variety; but 
as they have little Beauty, fo they 
are feldom propagated in other Gar- 
dens : they all of them increafe 
greatly by their creeping Roots, and, 
if placed in a moift Soil, will in a 
fhort time over-run a large Compafs 
of Ground. 

PETIVERIA, Guiney Henweed, 
*vulgo. 

Vol. Iir. 



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The Characlers are ; 

It hath a Flower conftfting of four 
Leaves, which are placed almoji in 
the Form of a Crofs, from whofe Cup 
ri/es the Point al, which afterward 
becomes the Fruit, which is bordered 
and cut at the Top, reftmbling an in- 
verfed Shield containing oblong Seeds. 

We know but one Species of this 
Plant ; vise. 

Pet i ve ri a fclanifoliis, loculis fpi- 
vofis. Plum. Nov. Gen. Petivena 
with Nightfiiade-leaves, and prickly 
Seed-veiVels, commonly cali'd Guilty 
Hcnweed. 

This Name was given to this 
Plant, by Father Plumier, who dif- 
cover'd it in America ; in Honour to 
Mr. James Petiver an Apothecary, 
who was a curious Botanilt. 

It is a very common Plant in Ja- 
maica, Barbados, and raoft of the 
other Iflands in the Weft Indies y 
where it grows in lhady Woods, 
and all the Savannas, in fuch Plenty, 
as to become a very troublefome 
Weed ; and as this Plant will endure 
a great deal of Drought, fo it re- 
mains green, when other Plants are 
burnt up, which occafions the Cattle 
to brouze on it; and having a moll 
unfavoury ftrong Scent, fomewhat 
like wild Garlick, it gives the Cows 
Milk the fame Flavour; and the 
Cattle which are kill'd foon after 
feeding on this Plant, have a moll 
intolerable Scent, fo that their Flefh 
is good for little. 

In Europe this Plant is preferv'd in 
the Gardens of thofe Perfons who 
are curious in Botany : but there is 
little Beauty in it ; and having fo 
ftrong rank a Scent upon being 
handled, renders it lefs valuable Ic 
is propagated by Seeds, which muhV 
be fown on an Hot-bed early in the 
Spring ; and when the Plants are 
come up, they fhould be each tranf- 

X x x planted 



P E 

planted into a feparate Pot, and 
plunged into a moderate Hot- bed to 
bring them forward. When the 
Plants have obtain'd a good Share of 
Strength, they fhould be inured to 
bear the open Air by degrees ; into 
which they may be remov'd toward 
the Latter -end of June, placing 
them in a warm Situation, where 
they may remain till Autumn, when 
they mould be remov'd into the 
Stove, and in Winter mult have a 
moderate Degree of Warmth, other- 
wife they will not live in thisCountry. 

Thefe Plants will grow woody, 
and fhoot out many Side-branches, 
but feldom rife above two Feet high. 
They will produce Flowers and 
Seeds every Summer, and will con- 
tinue feveral Years, remaining con- 
tfantly green throughout the Year. 

PETROSELINUM.r/VMpium. 

PEUCEDANUM, Hogs-fenel. 
The Characters are ; 

It is a Plant nhith a Rofe and urn- 
he Hated Flower, confifting of many Pe- 
tals placed orbicularly, and rejling on 
the Empalement, which becomes a 
fruit compofed of two Seeds, which 
are almoji plain, oval, gently freak- 
ed, and border d: to thefe Marks muft 
be added, That the Leave: are wing- 
ed, narrow, graffy, and divided into 
three Segments. 

The Species are ; 

1. Peucedakum msjus Italicum. 
C. B. P. Greater Hogs-fenel. 

2 . P E u C E d a N l m minus Germani- 
cum. J. S. Lcffer German Hogs- 
fenel, or Sulphurwort. 

There are feveral other Species of 
this- Plant, which are preferv'd in 
fome curious Botanic Gardens; but 
as they are Plants of little Beauty or 
(Jfe, it would be needlefs to enu- 
merate their feveral Varieties in this 
Place. 

The firft Sort here mention'd is 
•lot very common in England, being 



P H 

only to be found in fome curious 
Gardens: but the fecond Sort (which 
is diredted to be ufed in Medicine) is 
found wild in watry Places, in fe- 
veral Parts of England. 

Thefe Plants may be cultivated by 
fowing their Seeds on a moift Soil in 
the Autumn, foon after they are ripe, 
in which Place the Plants will come 
up ftrong the fucceeding Spring, 
when they mould be carefully weed- 
ed, and drawn out, where they are 
too clofe, otherwife they will draw 
each other up very weak ; and the 
Autumn following they may be 
taken up, and tranfplanted where 
they are to remain, in which Place 
they mould be planted at leaft 
two Feet afunder ; for their Roots 
will grow very large, and branch 
out greatly when they have ac- 
quired Strength. The fecond Year 
after fowing, they will produce 
Flowers and Seeds ; but the Roots 
will abide many Years. 

PHACA, Baftard Milk-vetch, or 
Aftragaloides. 

The Chara&ers are ; 

The Empalement of the Flower is 
tubulous, and cut into fi<ve Parts at 
the Brim : the Flower is of the papi- 
lionaceous Kind, eon fifing of an oval 
Standard, two Jhort Wings, and an 
obtufe Jhort Keel : the Pointal after* 
ward becomes a fwelling Pod, with 
the upper Suture deprefs d, having one 
Cell containing many kidney - fhaped 
Seeds. 

The Species are ; 

1. Phaca leguminibus reclis.Flor. 
Leyd. Ballard Milk-vetch with ftrait 
Pods. 

2. Phaca leguminibus arcuatis, 
Flor. Leyd. Ballard Milk-vetch, with 
arched Pods. 

This Plant being near of-kin to 
the Aftragahr-;. or Milk-vetch, Dr. 
Tourncfort gave it tlieTitle of Aftra- 
go.kide\ \ but Pr l ; .>.na"us has alter'd 



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it to this of Pbaca ; rejecting the 
other on account of its being a com- 
pound Name. 

Thefe Plants are Natives of Por- 
tugal and Spain, from whence the 
Seeds have been procured by fome 
Perfons who are curious in collect- 
ing rare Plants : the firft Sort has 
been long preferv'd in fome curious 
Gardens in England ; but the other 
is more rare at prefent. 

The Roots of thefe Plants will 
abide many Years, and run very- 
deep into the Ground ; but the 
Branches decay every Autumn, and 
the Roots produce frem everySpring, 
which will rife near Four Feet high, 
and grow ligneous. The Flowers 
are produced in fhort Spikes from 
the Wings of the Leaves : but, un- 
lefs the Seafon proves very warm, 
they rarely flower in England ; for 
which Reafon the Plants are not 
much efteem'd : for it is not once 
in feven Years, that the Flowers ar- 
rive to Perfection, nor do the Plants 
ever produce Seeds in England: fo 
that the Seeds mutt be procur'd from 
abroad, by thofe who are defirous to 
have the Plants. 

The Seeds mould be fown in the 
Place where the Plants are to re- 
main ; for as they moot their Roots 
very deep into the Earth, fo it is 
very difficult to tranfplant them 
with any Safety, efpecially after 
they have remain d any confidera- 
ble time in the Seed - bed. The 
Plants mould be left about fix Feet 
afunder, that there may be room to 
iig the Ground between them every 
Spring, . which is all the Culture 
:hey require. 

PHALANGIUM, Spiderwort. 
( The Characters are ; 

It is a Plant with a Li ly -flower t 
! cmpofed of fix Petals , from whofe 
j Centre rifes the Point a I, which af- 
., erward becomes a roundifh Fruity di- 



vided into three Cells, and full of an- 
gular Seeds : to thefe Marks tnuft be 
added \ A fibrofe Root, in order to di- 
fiingui/h it from the Ornithogalum. 
The Species are ; 

1. Phalangium par<vo fore, ra- 
mofum. C. B. P. Branch'd Spi- 
derwort, with a fmall Flower. 

2. Phalangium par<vo fiore y non 
ra?nofum. C. B. P. Unbranch'd 
Spiderwort, with a fmall Flower. 

3. Phalangium A fricanum, fa- 
rib us luteis par<vis. Raii Hi ft. Afri- 
can Spiderwort, with fmall yellow 
Flowers. 

4- Phalangium acaulon, foliis 
fubulaiis, fioribus in thyrfo luteis. 
Low African Spiderwort, with flat 
Onion-leaves, and yellow Floweri 
difpos'd in a loofe Spike. 

5. Phalangium Africanum, fo- 
liis cepaceis, fioribus fpicatis aureis. 
Boerh. Ind. African Spiderwort, 
with Onion-leaves, and goldenFlow- 
ers growing in Spikes, falfly call'd 
an Aloe. 

6. Phalancium AEthiopicum ra- 
mofum, fioribus albis, petalis refitxis. 
Hort. Amft. Branchy Ethiopian 
Spiderwort, with white Flowers, 
whofe Petals are turned backward. 

The firft and fecond Sorts are 
abiding Plants, which are propagated 
in curious Gardens, for the fake of 
their Flowers ; and though they are 
not very beautiful, yet, for their long 
Continuance in Flower, they de- 
ferve a Place in the open Borders 
of every curious Flower-garden. 

Thefe may be propagated either 
from Seeds, or by parting their 
Roots. The belt time to fow the 
Seeds is in Autumn, foon after they 
are ripe, in the manner directed for 
bulbous-rooted Flowers, with which 
thefe Plants 2gree in their Culture, 
and the fecond Year after fowing 
will produce Flowers. The Sea- 
fon for parting their Roots is ia 
X x x 2 Sef 



P H 



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September ; in doing which, you 
mull obferve to preferve a good 
Head to each Off-fet, and not to 
divide them too fmal), which will 
caufe them to flower weak the fol- 
lowing Summer : they delight in a 
frefh light Earth, and an open Situa- 
tion. 

The third Sort is an annual Plant, 
which mould be fown on a Bed of 
light Earth, in March ; and when 
the Plants are come up, they mull 
be tranfplanted where they are to 
remain ; in which Place they muft 
be kept clear from Weeds, which 
is all the Culture they require: they 
produce their Flowers in July, and 
their Seeds are perfected in AuguJ}. 

The fourth and fifth Sorts are 
preferv'd in Green - houfes, with 
other fucculent Plants, amongft 
which they make a pretty Variety, 
there being fcarcely a Month in the 
Year when there are not fome of the 
Spikes of Flowers of the fifth Sort 
in Beauty. This was formerly calTd 
an Aloe, which Name is II ill retain'd 
by unlkiiful Perfons, though it is 
vaftly different therefrom in its 
whole Appearance. This Plant mul- 
tiplies very fall by OfF-fets, which, 
tho' produe'd at fome Diftance from 
the Earth, yet emit Roots of a con- 
siderable Length; ar.d,when planted, 
immediately fallen in the Earth : 
they mould be planted in Pots of 
light fandy Earth, and houfed in 
V/inter, with Ficoides's, and other 
hardy fucculent Plant?, where they 
may have free open Air ; for they 
are hardy, and require only to be 
protected from Froft. The fourth 
Sort grows very low, theLeaves rett- 
ing upon the Surface of the Ground: 
this flowers in April and May, and 
perfects its Seeds every Year ; where- 
by it may be propagated in plenty. 

The fixth Sort is alio preferv'd in 
fbme carious Gardens, with other 



Exotic Plants, in the Green-houfe : 
this is multiplied by parting the 
Roots : the belt Seafon for doing 
this is in AuguJ}, when moft of the 
Leaves are decay 'd : they fhould be 
planted in Pots filPd with light 
fandy Earth, and houfed in Winter 
with the laft : this produces large- 
branching Stems, which are thinly 
befet with Flowers, that have their 
Petals reflex'd, and are of a whitifh. 
Colour i but continue a long time in. 
Beauty. 

PHASEOLOIDES.^Glycine. 

PHASEOI.US, Kidney bean. 
The Characters are ; 

It is a Plant ivith a papilionaceous 
Flozver, out of whofe Empalement 
rifes the Pointal, which afterward 
becomes a long Pod, pregnant with 
Seeds, for the moft part Jkaped like a 
Kidney, or o<val ; to thefe Notes are 
to he added, Leaves growing by Threes 
on each Pedicle, and the Plant for the 
moft part climbing. 

It would be to little Purpofe to 
enumerate all the Varieties of this 
Plant which have come to Know- 
lege, in this Place ; fince America 
annually furnifhes us with new 
Sorts, fo that there is no knowing 
what Varieties there may be pro- 
due'd in England : befides, as they 
are not likely to be much cultivated 
here, fince the old Sorts are prefera- 
ble to any of the new ones, for the 
Kitchen ; therefore I fhall only firft 
fet down a few Sorts which are cul- 
tivated for their Flowers, or as 
Curiofities, and then mention thofe 
which are moft efteem'd for theTable 

1. Phaseolus Indicusiflore coc- 
cineo, feu puniceo. Mor. Hi/I. Th< I 
Scarlet Bean. 

2. Phaseolus Am eric an us peren\\ 
nis, flare cochleato odorato, ftminibun 
fufcis erbiculatis, Caracalla diclu. 'i 
H. L. ' Perennial American Kidnej 
bean, with Aveet-fmelling cochlear 

Flower i 



P H 

Flowers, commonly call'd Caracal- 
la. 

3. Phaseolus Americanus, firu- 
nofa radice, jlire purpureo, Jiliqua 
anguftijjima. Plum. American Kid- 
ney -bean,with a ftrumofeRoot,a pur- 
ple Flower, and a very narrow Pod. 

4. Phaseolus Canadenfis purpu- 
reus minor, rudice wi'voci. Scbol.Bot. 
Small purple Kidney -bean, with a 
perennial Root. 

The firft of thefe Plants is very 
common in the Englijb Gardens, be- 
ing planted for the Beauty of its 
fcarlet Flowers: this Plant fpreads 
itfelf very far, fo that it mould be 
allowed room, otherwife it will over- 
run whatever Plants grow near it, 
The Seafon for planting the Seeds of 
this Plant is in the Beginning of 
May, obferving always to do it in 
dry Weather, other\v:fe the Seeds 
will burft and rot : they will pro- 
duce their Flowers by the Beginning 
of July, and will continue flower- 
ing until the Froft prevents them ; 
2«d their Seeds will ripen in Septem- 
ber, when they fhould be gathered, 
and preferved in a dry Place until 
the fucceeding Spring, in order to 
be fown. This Plant, being annual, 
perifhes with the firft Approach of 
Winter: it will thrive very well in 
the City, the Smoke of the Sea-coal 
being lefs injurious to this Plant than 
moft oihers ; fo that it is often culti- 
vated in Balconies, t?c. and, being 
fupported either with Sticks or 
Strings, grows up to a good Height, 
and produces Flowers as it advances: 
it is alio planted in fome Gardens, 
to coverArbours,and other Seats, in 
•the Summer-feafon, to afford Shade; 
for which Purpofe it will do very 
.well : but the Seeds muft be planted 
• where they are to remain ; for the 
Plants don't bear to be tranfplanted; 
efpecially after they have been any 
time out of the Ground, 



p H 

The fecond Sort is an abiding 
Plant, which may alio be propaga- 
ted by Seeds, which mould be fown 
in a moderateHot-bed in theSpring; 
and when the Plants come up, they 
muft be carefully tranfplanted into 
Pots filPd with frefh light Earth, and 
muft be plunged into an Hot-bed, 
to facilitate their taking Root ; af- 
ter which, they mould be inured to 
bear the open Air by degrees, into 
which chey fhouL be remov'd when - 
the Seafon is warm, placing them 
in a fhelier'd Situation ; and as they 
advance, theyfhould be remov'd in- 
to larger Pots, which muft be fill'd 
up with frefh light Earth. 

During the Summer feafon the 
Plants muft be frequently refrefh'd 
with Water ; but in Winter they 
muft be remov'd into the Green- 
houfe, and fhould have but little 
Water during that Seafon. Thefe 
require only to be fcreenM from 
Froft ; but muft have open free Air 
whenever the Weather will permit, 
otherwife the Leaves will grow 
mouldy, and decay the tender 
Shoots : thefe Plants produce their 
fcarlet Flowers in July and Augujt, 
but feldom perfect theirSeeds in this 
Country. This Plant is very com- 
mon in Portugal, where it is planted 
to cover Arbours and Seats in Gar- 
dens, for which it is greatly efteem'd 
by the Inhabitants of that Country, 
as alfo for its beautiful fweet-fmell- 
ing Flowers; and in that Country 
it thrives very well in the open Air. 

The third Sort is preferv'd in 
fome curious Gardens for Variety ; 
but is a Plant of no great Beauty : 
this may be propagated by fowing 
the Seeds in the Spring upon an Hot- 
bed ; and when they come up, they 
muft be planted in Pots, and treated 
as the former Sort : it produces its 
Flowers in July t and the Seeds ripen 
in September. 

X x x 3 The 



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The fourth Sort was brought from 
America, and is preferv'd in curious 
Gardens, for the fake of its long 
Flowering : this is an abiding Plant, 
and mould be managed as was di- 
rected for the third Sort ; and if 
guarded from Frolt, will continue 
to produce Flowers all the Winter- 
feafon : it ripens Seeds very well, 
from which the Plants may be eafily 
propagated. 

There are at prefent but few 
Sorts of Kidney-beans, which are 
cultivated for the Table in Eng- 
land : thefe are, 

1 . The Common White or Dutch 
Kidney bean. 

2. The Letter Garden Kidney- 
bean, commonly call'd, The Batter- 
tea Bean. 

3. The Upright or Tree Kidney- 
bean. 

4. The Dwarf White Kidney- 
bean. This Sort is generally us'd 
for Hot-beds. 

5. The Canterbury Kidney - 
bean. 

6. The Spotted Tree Kidney- 
bean. 

The firfl of thefe was formerly 
more cultivated in England than at 
prefent ; but is the chief Sort now 
cultivated in Holland, from whence, 
probably, it had the Name of Dutch 
Kidney-bean : this Sort rifes to a 
very great Height, and requires to 
be fupported by tall Stakes, other- 
v.ife they will lpread upon the 
Ground, and rot , fo that where 
this Care is wanting, the Fruit fel- 
dom comes tn good: which Trouble 
renders it difficult to cultivate this 
Sort in Plenty ; and the Beans being 
\nuch broader than the fmall Sort, 
render them lefs valuable in the Lon- 
don Markets ; which, I fuppofe, oc- 
caficn'd their being negle&ed in£ ng- 
Und: but this is by far the bell Sort 
Ibr Eating yet known. 



The fecond and fourth Sorts arc 
mol commonlycultivated in theGar- 
dens near London, and the belt Sorts 
we yet know to fupply the Markets : 
for the Plants never ramble too 
far, but are always of moderate 
Growth, fo that the Air can eafily 
pafs between the Rows, and keep 
them from rotting : they are alfo 
plentiful Bearers, and the Deft Beans, 
except the nrir, for Eating. 

The third Sort is alfo a plentiful 
Bearer, and never rambles, growing 
upright in form of a Shrub : but 
the Beans are much larger than the 
kit, and are not lb well colour'd, 
nor do they eat near fo firm and 
crifp ; for which Reafons they are 
not lb generally efteem d. 

The fifth Sort hath been efteem'd 
by fome Perlbns, for its continuing 
long in Bearing; but the nrft is 
much preferable to it on that Ac- 
count. 

The fixth Sort is a plentiful Bear- 
er, and (lands upright, for which it 
is much efteemVi by fome Garden- 
ers ; but is a very bad-tafted Bean, 
being extremely rank, and rarely 
boih green. 

Thefe Sorts are propagated from 
Seeds, which muft be fown in the 
Place where they are to remain ; for 
they will not bear tranfplanting, ex- 
cept it be done while they are very 
yom g ; and this, being pretty trou- 
blelbme,is very feldom praclifed, un- 
lefs for a few early Plants under 
warm Hedges or Walls ; but it if 
not worth while for the general 
Crops. 

TheSeafon for putting thefe Seed 
in the Ground is theMiddle April j 
for an early Crop : but thefe moul«;j 
have a warm Situation, and a dr|i 
Soil, otherwife they will not fucceec 
you fhould alfo obferve to put thei 
into the Ground at a drySeafon j f< 
Wet fo early in the Seafon will r. 



P H 



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the Seeds in the Ground. The 
Manner of planting them is, to draw 
fhailow Furrows with an Hoe, at 
about two Feet and an half Diftance 
from each other, into which you 
mould drop the Seeds about two 
Inches afunder ; then with the 
Head of a Rake draw the Earth 
over them, fo as to cover them 
about an Inch deep. 

If the Seafon be favourable, the 
Plants will begin to appear in about 
a Week's time after fowing, and 
foon after will raife their Heads up- 
right ; therefore, when the Stems 
are advanced pretty tall above- 
ground, you mould gently draw a 
little Earth up to them, obferving to 
do it when the Ground is dry, 
which will preferve them from being 
injur'd byfharpWinds: butyou Ihould 
be careful not to draw any of the 
Earth over their Leaves, which 
would rot them, or at leaft greatly 
retard their Growth. After this,they 
will require no farther Care but to 
keep them clear from Weeds, until 
they produce Fruit, when they 
mould be carefully gather'd two or 
three times a Week ; for if they are 
permitted to remain upon the Plants 
a little too long, the Beans will be 
too large for eating, and the Plants 
would be greatly weaken'd there- 
by. 

The Dutch Kidney-bean muft be 
planted at a g. eater Diftance, Row 
from Row ; for as thefe grow very 
tall, fo if the R.ows are not at a far- 
ther Diftance, the Sun and Air will 
be excluded from the middle Rows; 
therefore thefe mould not be lefs 
than four Feet Diftance Row from 
Row : and when the Plants are 
about four Inches high, the Poles 
mould be thruft into the Ground by 
the Side of the Plants, to which 
they will fallen themfelves, and 
climb to the Height of eight or ten 



Feet, and bear Plenty of Fruit from 
the Ground upward. This Sort 
will continue good much longer 
than either of the other ; for the 
Pods of this Sort are never ftrir.gy, 
nor are the Beans mealy when old. 
The Dutch and Fie?:ch preferve 
great Quantities of the dry Beans 
for Winter-ufe, which they Hew, and 
make good with Gravy, and other 
Sawces. 

If two Crops of this Sort of Bean 
are fown at a proper Diftance, it 
will be fufficient to continue a Suc- 
ceflion during the Seafon of Kidney- 
beans, efpecially if a few of an 
early Kind are fown, to come before 
them : for this large Sort mould not 
be fown earlier than the Latter-end 
of April, or the Beginning of May, ac- 
cording as the Seafon may prove. 

The firft Crop oiBatterfeaKi&nty- 
beans will continue aMonth in good 
Order, during wnich time they will 
produce great Plenty of Beans ; 
therefore, in order to have a Suc- 
ceffion of them throughout the Sea- 
fon, you fhould fow at three differ- 
ent times ; viz. in Jpn'I, in May, 
and toward the Latter-end of June ; 
which laft Crop will continue until 
the Froft comes on, and deftroys 
them. 

There are fome Perfcns who 
raife thefe in Hot-beds, in order 
to have them early. The only 
Care to be taken in the Manage- 
ment of thefe Plants, when thus 
rais'd, is to allow them room, and 
g.ve them as much Air as can be 
conveniently, when the Weather is 
mild , as alfo to let them have but 
a moderate Heat ; for if the Bed 
be over-hot, they will either burn, 
or be drawn up fo weatt as never to 
come to good. 

The Manner of making the Hot- 
bed being the fame as for Cucum- 
bers, iSc. need not be repeated in 

\ x x 4 this 



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this Place : but only obferve, when 
the Dang is equally lcvcird, to lay 
the Earth about four or five Inches 
thick ; and let the great Steam of 
the Bed pafs oft* before you fow 
the Seeds. 

The time for doing this muft 
be proportion'd to the Seafon 
when you would have the Beans for 
the Table ; but the fureft time for a 
Crop is about a Week in February. 

It is alfo a good Method which 
fome ufe, to have French Beans ear- 
Ifer than they can be obtain'd in the 
common Ground, to make a gentle 
Hot - bed about the middle of 
March, which may be arch'd over 
with Hoops, and cover'dwith Mats; 
in this they fow their Kidney-beans 
in Rows pretty cjofe together, fo 
that a ftna.ll Fed will contain a great 
Number cf Plants: thefe they bring 
up hardily, inuring them to the open 
Air by degrees ; and in the Middle 
of April, when the Weather is fet- 
tled, they prepare fome warmBorders 
under Walls or Hedges ; then 
they take them up from the Hot- 
bed, preferving as much Earth as 
poflibJe to their Roots, and plant 
them in the Borders at the Diilance 
they are to remain : thefe, if they 
take Root kindly, will produce 
Beans at leaft a Fortnight or three 
Weeks before thofe fown in the 
common Ground. 

The Manner of faving the Seeds 
of thefe Plants is to let a few Rows 
of them remain ungather'd in the 
Height of the Seafon ; for if you 
gather from the Plants for fome 
time, and afterwards leave the re- 
maining for Seed, their Pods will not 
be near fo long and hand fome, nor 
will the Seed be fo good. In the 
Autumn, when you find they are 
ripe, you mould in a dry Seafon pull 
up the Plants, and fpread them 
»br(jad to dry ; after which, you 



may tVelh out the Seed, and pre* 
ferve it in a dry Place for Ufe. 

PHILLYREA, Mock-privet. 
The Char a tiers are ; 

The Leaves grow by Fairs oppojite 
to each other, and are ever-green : 
the Flower covfijis of one Leaf, is bell- 
Jhaped, and divided into four Farts at 
the Top : the Point al, which rifts 
from the Centre of the Flower -cup , 
afterward becomes a fpherical Fruit 
containing one round Seed. 
The Species are ; 

1. Phillyrea latifolia lavis. 
C B. P. The broad-leav'd true 
Phillyrea. 

2. Phillyrea latifolia fpinofa. 
C. B. P. Ilex-leav'd Phillyrea, 
vulgo. 

3. Phillyrea folio alaterni. J. 
B. Phillyrea with an Alaternus- 
leaf. 

4. Phillyrea folio ligufri. C. 

B. P. Privet-leav'd Phillyrea. 

5. Phillyrea angufiiflia prima. 

C. B. P. Narrow-leav\i Phillyrea. 

6. Phillyrea angujiifclia fe- 
cunda. C. B. P. Roimary-leafM 
Phillyrea, vulgo. 

7. Phillyrea olea Ephe/iaca 
folio. Hort. Chelf Pluk. Phyt. 
Olive-leav'd Phillyrea. 

8. Phillyrea latifolia lavis, 
foliis ex luteo variegatis. Cat . Plant. 
Hort. The true Phillyrea, with 
ftrip'd Leaves. 

9. Phillyrea longiore folio pro- 
funde crenato. H. R. Par. Philly- 
rea with a longer Leaf, which is 
deeply crenated. 

10. Phillyrea folio buxi. H. 
R. Far. Box-leav'd Phillyrea. 

11. Ph I li. yr e a Hifpanica, lauri 
folio ferrato iff aculeato. Infi. R. H. 
Spanifo Phillyrea, with a prickly 
and faw'd Bay -leaf. 

T3. Phillyrea Hifpanica, nerit 
folio. Inf. R. H. Spanijh Philly- 
rea, with an Oleander-leaf. 

15, Fan- 



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13. Phillyrea Capenfs, folio 
celajlri. Hort. Elth. Phillyrea of 
the Cape cf Good Hope, with a StafF- 
tree-leaf, commonly calFd by the 
Dutch, Lipplehout. 

14. Phillyrea Americana hu- 
milis, radice crajfa lutea, foliis acu- 
minatis. Plum. Cat. Dwarf Ame- 
rican Phillyrea, with a thick yellow 
Root, and pointed Leaves. 

15. Phillyrea Americana humi- 
lis, radice crajfa rofea, foliis rotun- 
dioribus. Plum. Cat. Dwarf Ame- 
rican Phillyrea, with a thick rofe- 
colour'd Root, and rounder Leaves. 

The twelve firit-mention'd Sorts 
are all of them Natives of the South- 
ern Parts of France, Spain and Italy; 
but are hardy enough to endure the 
Cold of our Climate in the open 
Air : they have been formerly in 
great Requeft forHedges, and to co- 
ver Walls: for both which Purpofes 
they are very improper ; becaufe 
they moot fo fail in the Spring and 
Summer Months, that is very trou- 
blefome to keep fuch Hedges in 
Order : befides, all thefe Sorts with 
broad Leaves naturally produce 
their Branches fo far afunder, that 
they can never be redue'd to a thick 
handfome Hedge ; for although by 
frequently clipping the extreme 
Parts of the Shoots you force out 
fome Side-branches, which render 
it thick on the Outfide, yet the in- 
ner Branches arc very far afunder, 
and, being of a pliable Nature, are 
often difplac'd by itrong Winds ; 
or if there happen to fall much 
Snow in Winter, fo as to lie upon 
thefe Hedges, it often difplaces them 
fo much as not to berecover'd again 
in fome Years ; for which Reafors 
theyare notfomuch inUfe forHedges 
as they were fome Years pail ; nor 
are they fo often planted to cover 
Walls; for it is a very difficult 
Talk to keep them clofe to the 



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Wall; for their Branches, being vi- 
gorous, commonly grow to fome 
Diilance from the Wall, and har- 
bour all Sorts of Infects and Filth: 
befides, their Leaves being large, 
and growing pretty far afunder up- 
on the Branches, they appear na- 
ked,efpecially when they are clofely 
dipt. 

But all thefe Sorts of Trees are 
very proper to intermix with other 
Ever greens, to form Clumps, Am- 
phitheatres, or to plant round the 
Sides of Wildernefles of ever-greea 
Trees, where, being placed among 
other Trees of the fame Growth, 
they will afford a pleafing Variety. 

The three firft Sorts will grow to 
the Height of twentyFeet, or more, 
and may be train'd up to regular 
Heads : but the narrow-leav'd Sorts 
feldom rife above fourteen or fixteen 
Feet high with us ; fo that they will 
be of a proper Size to place in a 
Line before the broad-leav'd Sorts, 
where being intermix'd with Hollies, 
Alaternus's, Arbutus's, and fome 
other Sorts, they wiil make a beauti- 
ful Profpea. 

The olive-leav'd Sort will alfo 
grow to the Height of twelve or 
fourteen Feet, and the Branches are 
well furniuYd with Leaves ; fo that 
it makes an exceeding good Figure, 
when intermix'd with other ever- 
green Trees: for the Leaves of this 
Sort are of a beautiful fhiningGreen, 
and the Shoots grow ere c~t ; and, be- 
ing ftrong, are not fo liable to be 
difplac'd as thofe of fome of the 
other Kinds. Tne Sort with prickly 
Leaves grows much in the fame 
manner ; fo that thefe are to be pre- 
ferr'd to all the other Kinds on this 
Account. 

The box-leav'd Sort is very fcarca 
in England. This is of humbler 
Growth than either of the former, 
feldom rifing above feven or eight 

Fee: 



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Feet high : the Branches of this 
Sort grow pretty clofe, and the 
Leaves are very imall. 

As all thefe Sorts are very hardy, 
fo they are the more valuable, being 
rarely injured by the Froft : whereas 
the Alaternusis frequently damaged 
by fevere Cold, and many times the 
Branches are kilPd to the Stem, 
when thePhillyrea's remain in Ver- 
dure : and by confounding the two 
Sorts together, as is commonly done 
fey the Gardeners, they have both 
been brought into Difrepute unjuft- 
ly : for I think all the Sorts of Phil- 
lyrea may be fo placed in Planta- 
tions of ever-green Trees, as to be 
Tendered very ornamental : there- 
fore all the Sorts deferve propagate- 
ing much better than many other 
which are more cultivated. 

Thefe Plants are propagated ei- 
ther from Seeds or Layers ; but the 
latter, being the molt expeditious 
Method in England, is chiefly pre- 
ferred. The bell time to lay them 
down is in x^utumn, when you 
fhould dig the Ground round the 
Plants intended to lay, making it 
very loofe ; then making choice of a 
fmooth Part of the Shoot, you fhould 
make a Slit upward (in the manner 
which is pra&isM in laying of Car- 
nations) ; and then bend the Branch 
gently down to the Ground, making 
an hollow Place with your Hand to 
receive it ; and having plac'd the 
Part which was flit in the Ground, 
fo as that the Slit may be open, you 
fhould fallen it down with a forked 
Stick, that it may remain fteady, 
covering that Part of the Branch 
with Earth about three Inches thick, 
obierving to keep the upper Part 
erect. In dry Weather thefe Lay- 
ers fhould be water'd, which will 
greatly facilitate their Rooting j you 
muft alio keep them clear from 
Weeds, which, if furFer'd to grow up 



P H 

amongft them, will prevent their 
taking Root. 

The Autumn following, many 
of thefe Plants will be rooted ; at 
which time they may be taken off, 
and carefully planted in a Nurfery, 
where they may be train'd up three 
or four Years in the manner you in- 
tend them to grow ; during which 
time you fhould dig the Ground be- 
tween the Rows, and cut about the 
Roots of the Plants every Year; 
which will caufe them to ftrike out 
flrong Fibres, fo as to fupport a 
good Ball of Earth when they are 
remov'd : you fhould alfo fupport 
their Stems with Stakes, in order to 
make them flrait,otherwife they are 
very apt to grow crooked and un- 
fightly. 

When the Plants have been thus 
manag'd three or four Years, you 
may tranfplant them into the Places 
where they are defign'd to remain. 
The beft time for this Work is the 
Latter-end of September, or the Be- 
ginning of October : but in removing 
them, you fhould dig round their 
Roots, and cut off all downright or 
ftrong Roots, which have (hot out 
to a great Diflance, that you may 
the better preferve a Ball of Earth 
to each Plant, othervvife they are 
fubjedr. to mifcarry : and when you 
have plac'd them in their new Quar- 
ters, you fhould lay fome Mulch 
upon the Surface of the Ground, 
to prevent its drying ; and give them 
fome Water twice a Week in very 
dry Weather, but not too often ; 
and this only when the Sealbn is 
favourable ; nor in too great Quan- 
tities, which will rot the new Fibres, 
and prevent their Growth. You 
fliould alfo fupport the Plants with 
Stakes until they have taken faft 
Hold of the Earth, to prevent their 
being turn'd out of the Ground, or 
difplac'd by tke Winds, which will 
deftroy 



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deftroy the Fibres that were newly 
put out, and greatly injure the 
Plants. Thefe Trees delight in 
a middling Soil, which is neither too 
wet and itiff, nor too dry ; tho' the 
latter is to be preferr'd to the former, 
provided it be frefh. 

The Sort with ftrip'd Leaves is at 
prefent pretty rare, and fomewhat 
tenderer than the others, as aiemoft 
Sorts of variegated Plants lefs capa- 
ble to endure the Cold, than thofe 
of tbe fame Kinds which are plain ; 
the Striping of Plants always pro- 
ceeding from their Weaknefs. This 
is preferv'd in fome Gardens as a 
Curiofity ; but may be propagated 
in the fame manner with the for- 
mer. 

Thofe Sorts with fmall Leaves 
arecommonly two Years before they 
take Root, when laid : therefore 
they mould not be difturb'd ; for 
the raifingthem out of the Ground 
greatly retards their Rooting. 

The thirteenth Sort is very com- 
mon in feveral Gardens in Holland ; 
but at prefent prettyrare mEngland. 
This Sort will not live abroad thro' 
the Winter in this Climate; there- 
fore it is always preferv'd in Pots 
or Tubs, and remov'd into the 
Green-houfe in Winter, where if it 
is treated after the manner directed 
for the Clutia, it will thrive very 
well. This Sort is alfo propagated 
by laying down the tender Branches 
in the Spring of the Year, which 
mult be duly water'd in dry Wea- 
ther ; and by the following Spring 
they will have takenRoot; when they 
mould be feparated from the old 
Plant, and planted in Pots fill'd with 
frefh Earth, and plac'd in the Shade 
until they have taken new Root ; 
after which time they may be ex- 
pos'd, during the Summer-feafon, 
with other pretty hardy Exotic 
Plants, in a meltek'd Situation, 



where they may remain until Au- 
tumn, when they mull be remov'd 
into the Green -houfe. Thefe Plants 
are ever-green, fo that. they make a 
pretty Variety in the Green-houfe, 
during the Winter- feafon. 

The fourteenth Sort grows plen- 
tifully in feveral Parts of the Spanijh 
IVtJl- Indies. The Seeds of this 
Kind were fent to England by Mr. 
Robert Millar, who gathered thera 
near Carthagena in America. The 
fifteenth Sort was difcovefd by Fa- 
ther Plutnier in America, and fince 
by Mr. Millar in the Ifland of T a- 
bago, from whence he fent fome 
Seeds ; but they did not fucceed in 
England. 

Thefe two Sorts are tenderPIants, 
which mult be kept in a warm Stove 
in Winter, otherwife they will not 
live in this Country. 

They may be propagated bySeeds, 
which mould be obtain'd as frefh as 
poilible from the Countries of their 
Growth, and muft be fown in Pots 
of frefh light Earth, and plunged 
into an Hot-bed of Tanners Bark ; 
where they fhould remain until the 
Plants come up, which is many 
times a Year from the time of fow- 
ing : therefore whenever the Seeds 
remain fo long in the Ground, the 
Pots muft be frequently water'd in 
Summer, and in Winter the GlaiTes 
of the Hot- bed mould be cover'd 
with Mats, when the Weather is 
cold, to prevent the Froft from en- 
tering the Bed, which would deftroy 
the Seeds. 

When the Plants are come up, 
they fhould be each tranfplanted in- 
to a fmall Pot fill'd with freih. 
Earth, and then plunged into the 
Hot bed again, obferving to fhade 
them from the Sun in the Heat of 
the Day, until they have taken new- 
Root j after which time they muft 
have freeAir admitted to them every 

Day, 



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Day, in proportion to the Warmth 
of the Seafon. In this Bed the 
Plants may remain tillAutumn,when 
they mould be remov'd into the 
Stove,and plung'd into theBark-bed, 
where, during the Winter - feafon, 
they mould be kept pretty warm. 
Thefe Plants may remain in the 
Bark-ftove for two Years or lefs, ac- 
cording as they acquire Strength ; 
for when they are pretty ftrong, 
they may be treated lefs tenderly, 
expofing them in the Middle of 
the Summer to the open Air, in a 
fhelter'd Situation : and in Winter 
they may be plac'd in a dry Stove, 
where they mould have a moderate 
Degree of Warmth, in which they 
will thrive very well. Thefe Plants 
retain their Verdure throughout 
the Year, for which they are chiefly 
efteem'd. 

PHLOMIS, The Sage- tree, or 
Jerufalem Sage. 

The CharaSfers are ; 

It hath a labiated Flower confif- 
ivg of one Leaf whofe upper Lip, or 
Helmet, which is crejled, does wholly 
ref upen the under Lip, or Beard, 
which is divided into three Parts, 
and extends a little beyond the upper 
Lip : the Pcintal rifes out of the 
Flower -cup accompany y d with four 
Embryoes, which afterward become 
fo many vblong Seeds, Jhut up in an 
Eufli, or pentagonal Tube, which was 
before the Flower-cup. 
The Species are ; 

1. Phlomis jruticofa, falw& fo- 
lio latiore iff rotundiore. Town. 
Broad-leav'd Sage-tree, <vulgo. 

2. Phlomis fruticofa, falvi^e fo- 
lio longiore iff angufiof e. Town. Nar- 
row-leav'd Sage-tree, <vulgo. 

3. Phlomis fruticofa humilis la- 
tifolia candidijpma, floribus luteis. 
A3. Phil. Low (hrubby Sage-tree, 
s/ith broad hoary Leaves, and yel- 
low Flowers. 



4. Phlomis Narbonenfs, hormi*i 
folio, fore pur pur af cent e . Tourn. Nar~ 
bonne Jerufalem Sage, with a Clary- 
leaf, and purplim Flower. 

5. Phlomis Hifpanica candidif- 
fima herbacea. Tourn. Spanijh Je- 
rufalem Sage, with very hoary 
Leaves. 

6. Phlomis lychnitis. CUf Hijl. 
Narrow-leav'd Jerufalem Sage. 

7. Phlomis Samia herbacea, lu- 
nariee folio. T. Cor. Herbaceous 
S ami an Jerufalem Sage,with a Moon- 
wort-leaf. 

8 . Phlomis Orient a lis, foliis la- 
ciniatis. T. Cor. Eajiern Jerufalem 
Sage, with jagged Leaves. 

9 . Phlomis Orient alis lute a her- 
bacea latifolia <verticillata.A5l .Phil. 
Broad-leav'd herbaceous Jerufalem 
Sage from the Levant, with yellow 
Flowers growing in Whorles. 

10. Phlomis fruticofa, fore pur- 
pureo, foliis rotundioribus. Inf. R. 
H. Shrubby Jerufalem Sage, with 
a purple Flower, and rounder 
Leaves. 

11. P H"LO m i s fruticofa Luftanica t 
fore purpura fcente, foliis acutioribus. 
Inf. R. H. Shrubby Jerufalem 
Sage of Portugal, with a purplilh 
Flower, and /harp-pointed Leaves. 

12. Phlomis Hifpanica fruticofa 
candidiJfma,floreferrugiveo. Inf. R. 
H. The wnitelt Spanijh Shrub Je- 
rufalemSage, with an iron-colour'd 
Flower. 

13. Phlomis Orient alis lutea an- 
guf-ifolia, cymis ful-vefcentibus, D. 
Sherard. M. Phil. N. 376. Yel- 
low Eaftern Jerufalem Sage, with a 
narrow Leaf, and yellow Tops. a 

The three firll - mention'd Sorts 
grow to be Shrubs of a middling 
Size, and are proper to intermix 
with other Sorts of Plants, which 
are of the fame Growth, in fmall 
Wildernefs-.quarters, where, by the 
Diverfity of their hoary Leaves, their 

large 



P H 

large Spikes of yellow Flowers, and 
their long Continuance in Flower, 
they make an agreeable Variety. 

Thefe Plants have been preferv'd 
in Pots, and placed in the Green- 
houfe in Winter among other tender 
Exotics : but they are hardy enough 
to endure the Cold of our ordinary 
Winters in the open Air, provided 
they are planted in a dry Soil, and 
have a warm Situation ; and are 
rarely injured by Cold, unlefs in a 
very fevere Froft. 

They are propagated by Cuttings 
in this Country ; for their Seeds fel- 
dom ripen well in England, except 
in very warm dry Seafons. The beft 
time to plant thefe Cuttings is in 
May, that they may have good Roots 
before Winter. They mould be 
planted in a Bed of freih light Earth, 
and lhaded from the Sun until they 
have taken Root ; after which, they 
will require no farther Care, but 
only to keep them clear from Weeds 
until the following Spring, when 
they may be remov'd to the Places 
where they are defign'd to be con- 
tin u'd. 

The befl Seafon for tranfplanting 
them is in April, before they begin 
to moot, obierving to preierve a 
Ball of Earth to the Root of each 
Plant, as alfo to water them until 
they have taken Root : and in order 
to form them into a regular Shape, 
they mould be ftak'd, and their 
Stems kept conftantly faften'd there- 
to, until they arrive at the Height 
you defign them : then you may 
iuffer their Branches to moot out on 
every Side, to make an handfome 
Head ; in order to which, you mould 
prune off fuch Branches as grow ir- 
regular on either Side, which muft 
always be perform'd in Summer ; 
for if they are wounded in Winter, 
the Cold often injures the Plants, 
by entering the Wounds. 



p H 

The Soil in which they are plac'i 
mould not be dung'd ; for that cauies 
them to grow too faft, whereby their 
Shoots are too replete with Moifture, 
and lefs capable to endure the Cold ; 
whereas if they are planted upon a 
dry, barren, rocky Soil, they are 
feldom injur'dby Cold, which is the 
Cafe of raoft of the fame Clafs of 
Plants with Lip- flowers. 

The tenth, eleventh, twelfth, and 
thirteenth Sorts are Ihrubby Plants, 
which grow three or four Feet high ; - 
and are very proper to intermix with 
other Shrubs of the fame Growth. 
Thefe are fometimes injur'd by hard 
Frofts ; but will endure the Cold of 
our ordinary Winters in the open 
Air, if they ar« planted in a warm 
Situation. Thefe maybe propagated 
by Cuttings in the fame manner as 
hath been directed for the former 
Sorts. 

The other Sorts, being low her- 
baceous Plants, are all of them pro- 
pagated by parting of their Roots, 
which mould be done in the Spring 
of the Year, obferving to preferve a 
leading Bud to each Off-fet. Thefe 
mould alfo be plac'd in a dry, rocky, 
or gravelly Soil, in which they will 
thrive much better than if planted in 
a richer Ground, and will endure 
the Cold of our ordinary Winters 
extremely well in the open Air. 

Thefe Plants laft - mentioned are 
of no great Beauty ; but are pre- 
ferv'd in the Gardens of thofe who 
are fond of Variety. A Tea made 
with the Leaves of thefe Plants is ac- 
counted very good for fore Throats. 

PHLOX, Lychnidea or Baftard 
Lychnis. 

The Characters are ; 

The Empalement conjijls of one 
Leaf is tubulous, and cut at the Brim 
into f<ve acute Segments : the Floivcr 
is of one Leaf Jhafd like a Salver % 
having a long Tube, and is fp^e/rd 

spert 



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open at the Top, tvhere it is divided 
into five equal blunt Segments : in the 
Bottom of the Flouuer is fituated the 
Pointal, attended by five Stamina, 
which are Jhort : the Point al after- 
ward becomes a conical Veffel, having 
three Cells, each containing one oval 
Seed. 

The Species are ; 

1. Phlox foliis lineari-lanccolatis, 
caule ereclo, corymbo terminated. Lin, 
Tlort. Cliff. Baftard Lychnis, with 
narrow fpear-fhap'd Leaves, and an 
upright Stalk terminated with a 
Corymbus of Flowers. 

2. Phlox foliis crajjis lucidis acu- 
tis, caule ereclo, fioribus quafi umbel- 
latim difpofitis. Baftard Lychnis, with 
thick mining pointed Leaves, an up- 
right Stalk, and Flowers difpos'd in 
an Umbel. 

3. Phlox foliis lanceolatis obtufis, 
fioribus majoribus umbellatim difpofi- 
tis. Baftard Lychnis, with blunt 
fpear - lhap'd Leaves, and large 
Flowers growing in an Umbel. 

4. Phlox foliis lineari - lanceola- 
tis, caule elatior, fioribus in longam 
fpicam denfe ftipatis. Baftard Lych- 
nis, with narrow fpear-fhap'd Leaves, 
a tall Stalk, and Flowers growing in 
a long clofe Spike. 

Thefe are all of them American 
Plants : fome of them were brought 
from Virginia, and others from Ca- 
rolina ; but they thrive very well in 
the open Air in England: and as 
they are beautiful flowering Plants, 
they merit a Place in every good 
Garden. 

The third Sort is the firft which 
flowers in the Spring. This begins 
flowering in May : the Stalks are 
feldom more than a Foot high : the 
Leaves are much broader than thofe 
of the other Sorts : the Flowers are 
large, and of a Iky -blue Colour. 

The next which follows in flow- 
ering, is the firft Sort, This grows 



a little taller than the former : the 
Leaves are narrow, and ftiarp-point- 
ed : the Flowers are of a pale-pur- 
ple Colour, and grow in form of an 
Umbel. 

The fecond Sort fucceeds this in 
the time of Flowering. The Stalks 
of this are ftronger and taller than 
either of the former: the Leaves are 
ftiff, and of a fhining-green Colour : 
the Flowers are of a bright-purple 
Colour, and are difpos'd almoft in 
form of an Umbel, and continue in 
Flower much longer than either of 
the former. This flowers the Lat- 
ter-end of June, and continues mod 
Part of July in Beauty. 

The fourth Sort grows upward of 
three Feet high, with ftrong fpotted 
Stalks : the Leaves are ftifF and 
pointed, growing by Pairs, which 
crofs each other at the Joints alter- 
nately : the Flowers are difpos'd in 
a long thick Spike, forming a kind 
of Pyramid, and are of a bright- 
purple Colour : this begins to flow- 
er towarithe End oijuly, and con- 
tinues thro' Augufi, and a great Part 
of September ; efpecially if it is plant- 
ed in a moiftSoil, and not too much 
expos'd to the Sun ; and is one of the 
moft ornamental Plants of the Sea- 
fon. 

Thefe Plants are ufually propaga- 
ted by parting of their Roots : the 
beft Seafon for this is in October. 
The firft and third Sorts increafe 
pretty faft this way ; but the fecond 
and fourth Sorts do not propagate fo 
much by OfF-fets: therefore thefe 
may be propagated in plenty by Cut- 
tings, which fiiould be taken off", 
when the Shoots are about four or 
five Inches high, and planted in a 
fhady Border, where, if they are 
duly water'd, they will make Roots 
in three Weeks or a Month's time, 
and molt of them will flower the 
fame Year, a little after the old Roots ; 

fo 



P H 



P H 



fo they may be continu'd longer in 
Flower by this Method : and thefe 
will be ftrong Plants fit to plant in 
the Borders of the Pleafure - garden 
in Oclcber. 

. All the Sorts may be propagated 
by Cuttings in the fame manner as 
thefe ; but as the two other Sorts 
increafe pretty fall by OfF-fets, fo 
this Method of propagating thofe is 
rarely pra&is'd, unlefs where the 
Plants are not in plenty. 

It is very rare that either of thefe 
produce Seeds in England ; but in 
their native Country they feed pretty 
well every Year ; and from the Seeds 
molt, of them were obtain'd in Eu- 
rope. 

They delight in rich Ground, and 
Ihould be duly water'd in very dry 
Weather, otherwife their Stalks will 
be (hort, the Flowers fmall, and of 
fliort Duration : if fome of each Sort 
of thefe Plants are planted in Pots, 
and conftantly water'd, they will 
flower very ftrong, and make a fine 
Appearance ; fo will be very proper 
to adorn Court-yards or Halls, du- 
ring their Continuance in Flower, 
where they will be very ornamental. 

This Genus of Plants was titled 
Lychnidea, from the Refemblance 
which the Flowers have to fome 
Species of Lychnis ; but as this Name 
is compounded, Dr. Linnaus has al- 
ter'd the Title to thisof Phlox, which 
is a Name of The phrajius, applied by 
him to fome Plant which had great 
Affinity to the Lychnis. 

PHYLICA, Alaternoides, or Ba- 
ftard Alatemus. 

The Characters are ; 
The Flowers are collected together 
in an Head, and fit upon a fort of 
Dijk, each having an Empalement 
conf fling of three narrow Leaves : 
the Flowers are tubulous^ and extend 
beyond the Empalement, and are cut at 
the Brim into Jive Parts, where they 



are fringed* ; and the Bottom of tht 
Tube is fcaly : the Point al is fituated 
at the Bottom of the Tube, attended 
by fve Jhort Stamina, which are in- 
fertcd in the Scales of the Tube : the 
Point al afterward changes to a round* 
ijb Vejffel, having three Cells, each 
having one Seed, 

The Species are ; 
"l. Phylica foliis ovato-lineari- 
hus. Lin. Hort. Cliff. Ballard Ala- 
ternus, with Heath-leaves. 

2. Phylica foliis li near i- fibula- 
tis, fummis hirfutis. Flor. L yu. Ba- 
ftard Alaternus, with Yew - leaves, 
which are crown'd with Hairs on 
their Top. 

The firft Sort is now pretty com- 
mon in the Englijh Gardens, where 
it is ufually plac'd in the Green- 
houfe in Winter ; but this will live 
in the open Air in moderate Win- 
ters, if it is planted on a dry Soil, 
and in a warm Situation : but as fe- 
vere Froft will deitroy them, fome 
Plants mould be preferv'd in Pots, 
and fhelterM in the Winter to preferve 
the Kind : and as thefe Plants con- 
tinue in Flower from the Beginning 
of October, to the End of March, 
they merit a Place in the Green- 
houfe among other hardy Exotic 
Plants, where being intermix'd, they 
make an agreeable Variety ; for the 
Extremity of each Branch is gene- 
rally terminated by Bunches of fmall 
fnowy Flowers ; and the Shoots be- 
ing clofely garnifh'd with ever -green 
Leaves, fhap'd fomewhat like thofe 
of Heath, have a very agreeable 
Appearance during the whole Win- 
ter-feafon. 

This Sort is apt to produce its 
Branches irregular, and to fpread 
near the Ground, unlefs they are 
trained to Stakes while young ; but 
they may, with Care, be train'd up 
with Stems : but their Shoots fhould 
not be fhorten'd to reduce them to 

regular 



P H 

regular Heads; for that will prevent 
their Flowerinc;, which is the Cafe 
of moft of thefe Plants in the Dutch 
Gardens, where they are reduc'd to 
regular Heads : but the beft Way is 
to fpread the Branches, and form 
them into a fort of Fan, whereby 
their Branches may be extended to 
their full Length ; and they may be 
train'd fo cloie as to form a thick 
well-fpread Fan, which will be co 
verM wth white Flowers from the 
Ground upward to the Height of 
three Fee:. 

The feco"d Sort is now very rare 
in the Enghjh Gardens ; but wa; fome 
Years paft more common : : t grows 
about the fame Height with the 
former Sort, and produces its Flow- 
ers in Winter : but thefe are not fo 
beautiful as thofe of the other, nor 
are they of fo long Duration ; but 
as the Leaves continue green through- 
out the Year, it may merit a Place 
in every good Green-houfe. 

Thefe Plants were brought from 
the Cape of Good Hope, where they 
naturally grow, into the curious Gar- 
dens in Holland, where they are pre- 
ferv'd with great Care ; but we find 
them fo hardy as to live abroad in 
moderate Winters, and only require 
to be fcreen'd from fevere Froft ; fo 
they may be plac'd, in the Winter, 
in a common Green home, together 
with Myrtles, Oleanders, and fuch 
other hardy Exotic Plants, as require 
no artifical Warmth, but only Pro- 
tection from fevere Froft. 

They may both be propagated by 
Cuttings, which mould be planted 
about the Middle or Latter-end of 
Auguft, which is the time thefe 
Plants are preparing to (hoot ; for 
they keep their natural Seafon of 
Flowering and Growth, altho' they 
are remov'd to a Country differing 
in Seafons from that of their origi- 
nal Growth. The heft Method is, 



p H 

to plant the Cuttings in Pots fiflM 
with rich Earth, and to plunge the 
Pots into an old Hot-bed of Tanners 
Bark, where the Heat is almoft over, 
and to made the GlafTes in the Heat 
of the Day, to fcreen off the Sun, 
and keep the Cuttings duly moiften- 
ed. With this Management 1 have 
feldom loft any of the Cuttings, 
whereas fcarce any of thofe which 
have been planted much earlier in 
the Seafon have fucceeded. The 
Cutting? may remain in the fame 
Pots till the following Summer, 
when they mould be carefully taken 
out, and eac \ planted into feparate 
Pots, that they may be hous'd in 
Winter until fome of them have ob- 
taia'd SLrength, when they may be 
plnnted in warm Borders, where they 
will live thro' the Winter, withoat 
Covering, if the Froft is not fevere ; 
but theylhould be two Years old from 
the Cueing, before they are planted 
out in the full Ground. 

PHYLLANTHUS,Sea-fide Lau- 
rel. 

The Char afters are ; 
It hath Male and Female Flowers 
in the fame Plant : the Empalement 
of both Sexes is of one Leaf,bell-Jhaped t 
and cut at the Brim into fix Farts : 
there are no Petals to the Flower ; 
hut the Male have each three Jhort 
Stamina, joining at the Bafe, but are 
fpread open at their Top : the Female 
Flowers have a roundifh Pointal 9 
which becomes a roundijh Seed-veffel, 
having three Cells, which have a 
fengle Seed in each. 

The Species are ; 

1. Phyllanthus foliis lanceola- 
tis ferratis, crenis floriferis. Lin, 
Hort. Cliff. Phyllanthus with faw'd 
fpear -fhap'd Leaves, bearing Flow- 
ers on their Edges, call'd Sea-fide 
Laurel. 

2. Phyllanthus foliis alternis 
alternating pinnatis, Jloribus depen- 

dentibut 



P H 

tritihus ex a lis foliolor urn. Hart. Cliff. 
Annual Phyllanthus, with fmall 
Leaves growing alternate, and the 
Flowers coming out from the 
Wings of the Leaves hanging down. 

3. Phyllanthus caule arboreo, 
foliis lanceolatis acutis, frutlu parvo 
fejjili. Shrubby Phyllanthus, with 
pointed fpear - fhap'd Leaves, and 
fmall Fruit growing clofe to the 
Leaves. 

4. Phyllanthus caule arboreo t 
foliis latis fubrotundis, ftuSlu majore 
tendulo, petiolo longo. Tree Phyl- 
lanthus, with broad roundilh Leaves, 
and larger Fruit growing on long 
Footilalks. 

5. Phyllanthus caule arbor eo, 
foliis cvatis obtufis y fubtusincams y al- 
ternatim fitis, fruttn maximo. Tree 
Phyllanthus, with oval blunt Leaves, 
which are white on their Under-fide, 
and a very large Fruit. 

The firft Sort is very dmmon in 
the Weft- Indies y where it grows out 
of the Rocks on the Sea- more, in 
molt of the Iflands ; brut is feldom 
found growing on the Land, nor is 
it eafily tranfplanted ; for the Fibres 
of the Roots infinuate themfelves fo 
deeply into theCrevic.es of the Rocks, 
that unlefs the Rock is broken, there 
is no Poffibility of getting the Roots 
out : and it is as difficult to propa- 
gate by Seeds ; for unlefs they are 
fown foon after they are ripe, they 
will not grow, and the greateft Part 
of the Seed proves abortive ; fo that 
this Sort is very rare in Europe. 
There was formerly a Plant of this 
Sort in the Gardens at Hampton- 
Court ; but this, with many other 
fine Plants, has been deflroy'd by 
:he Ignorance of the Gardeners. 

Th.s Tree grows about fifteen or 
iixteen Feet high : the Leaves come 
out without any Order, which, are 
ive or fix Inches long, fmooth and 
■ hick : upon the Edges of the Leaves 
' Vol. Ill, 



P H 

the Flowers are produe'd, butefper 
cialiy toward the Upper-part, where 
they are plac'd very clofely, fo as 
almoft to form a fort of Border to 
the Leaves; which, together with 
the mining- green Colour of the 
Leaves, makes a very beautiful Ap- 
pearance: the Leaves continue green 
all the Year, which renders the Plant 
more valuable. 

There is no other Method of ob- 
taining this Plant but to procure it 
from fome of the Iflands in Ameri- 
ca y where they grow in plenty. It 
is known in Barbados by the Name 
of Sea-fide Laurel, which Name it 
is probable may have been given to 
it, from fome Refemblance which 
the Inhabitants of thofe Iflands fup- 
pos'd the Leaves to have of thofe of 
the common Laurel ; but they are 
much narrower and longer, and have 
no other Refemblance but the Thick - 
nefs, and mining-green Colour. 

It requires to be plac'd in a mo- 
derate Stove in the Winter, other- 
wife it will not live in England: but 
in Summer it may be plac'd in the 
open Air, in a warm - Ihelter'd Si- 
tuation. With this Management I 
have feen this Plant in great Vigour 
in the Phyfic-garden at Amfterdam. 

The fecond Sort is an annual 
Plant, which grows with an ere& 
Stalk near two Feet high, and 
branches out on every Side : the 
Leaves are pennated, having feverai 
fmall oval Leaves placM alternately 
along the Mid-rib : the Flowers are 
produe'd from the Wings of thefe 
little Leaves, the whole Length cf 
the Mid rib, on the Under-ude, on 
very fliort Footftalks, which are of 
an herbaceous Colour, and hang 
downward: the whole Plant perifhes 
in Winter* being an Annual ; for 
altho 1 it has been plac'd in the 
warmeft Stoves, yet it never has 
furviv'd a Winter. The Seeds of 

% y y thii 



f H 

*his Plant ripen gradually, accord- 
ing as the Flowers were produc'd j 
thofe neareft the Stem ripening firfT; 
and if they are not watclfd, to ga- 
ther them as they ripen, they will 
{hon drop, and be loft : but thofe 
Seeds which happen to fcatter upon 
other Pots of Earth will come up the 
following Spring ; fothat from feme 
Plants, which were plac'd hi a Stove, 
the Seeds were cart over moft of the 
Pots of Plants then in the Stove, a-nd 
the Plants came up like Weeds : it 
was by this Accident the Plant was 
£rft brought to England ; for the 
Seeds had been Icatter'd in feme 
Tubs of Earth which came from 
JBarbadcSf in which the Plants came 
up in great Plenty ; and having the 
Advantage of a Stove, the Seeds ri- 
j5en'd perfectly, and were maintain'd 
by the fcatter'd Seed : it is too ten- 
der to live in the open Air of Eng- 
land; fo mould be rais'd on an Hot- 
bed in the Spring, and afterward 
plac'd in the Bark-ftove, where the 
Plants will perfect their Seeds annu- 
ally, and in Autumn decay. 

The third Sort was difcoverd by 
the late Dr. William Houjioun at La 
Vera Cruz, who fent the Seeds to 
Europe. This hath a woody Stem, 
which rifes to the Height of eight or 
ten Feet, and divides into itveral 
Branches, which are garnim'd with 
pennated Leaves, composed of feve- 
ral fmall pointed Leaves, plac'd al- 
ternately along the Mid-rib : the 
Flowers are produc'd as thofe of the 
former, on the Under-fide of the 
Leaves, hanging downward, and 
grow clofe to the Mid-rib : the 
Leaves of this Sort decay in Au- 
tumn, and frefti ones come out in 
Spring. This is full as tender as the 
former Sort ; fo wiil not live in Eng- 
land, unlefs it is preferv'd in Stoves. 

The fourth and fifth Sorts were 
difcovcr'd by the fame Gentleman, 
wh# fent the Seeds and dried Sam- 



V H 

pies of both to England. Thefi 
grow twelve or fourteen Feet high 
having ftrong woody Stems, whicr 
branch out wide on every Side : th< 
Branches of the foarth Sort are gar 
nifli'd with broad roundilh Leaves 
which grow alternately along the 
Mid- rib : the Fruit grow* on lon£ 
Footftalks plac'd on the Under-fid< 
of the Leaves hanging down : the 
Fruit of this Sort is about the Size ol 
an Hazel-nut, fwelling out in three 
.Divifions, like the Seed-veffel of the 
Spurge : the Covering is ligneous : 
and of a brown Colour when ripe. 

The fifth Sort has very broad 
Leaves, whofe Surface is rough \ 
ar.d the Under-fide of a whitifti- 
grey Colour. Thefe are placed al- 
ternately upon the Branches. The 
Fruit of this Sort is as large as a 
Walnut, of a dark-brown Colou? 
when ripe : the Cover is woody, and 
fwells ouHn three Divifions, in each 
of which fhould be lodg'd a fingle 
Seed; but it rarely happens that 
more than one of them eomes to Ma- 
turity : rror in many of them is there 
one good Seed, tho* they appeaF 
large and fair ; yet, upon Examina* 
tion, fcarce one in forty, of either 
the fourth or fifth Sorts, had any 
Germ, but were hollow. 

Thefe are alfo very tender Plants; 
fo muft be placed in a warm Stove,, 
otherwife they cannot be preferv'd 
in England. All thefe four laft-men- 
tion'd Sorts are eafily propagated 
from good Seeds, which mult be 
fown on an Hot bed in the Spring 31 
and afterward planted in Pots, and 
placed in the Bark-ftove, treating! 
them in the fame manner as hath] 
been directed for other Exotic Plant; I 
from the fame Country. 

Thefe Plants many of them grov j 
in the Eafl- Indies, where there ar I 
feveral other Species ©f this Genu? I 
fome of which are well figur'd an I 
defcrib'd in the Hortus Malabaricu\M 

unde I 



P H 

under the Title of Nirouri ; which 
Name has been applied by fome Bo- 
tanifts to the Genus, under which 
the four laft Species have been ran- 
ged ; buc that, being a barbarous 
Name, is rejected by Dr. who 
has remov'd thefe to the firft Sort, and 
taken that Title to the Genus; and as 
they pretty well agree in their Cha- 
racters with the firft Species, fo I 
think it better to join them, than to 
divide them into two Genera, efpe- 
cially as there have been Doubts 
where to fix them ; for, by fome, 
thefe Species of Nirouri were joined 
to Tournefort\ Genus of Telephioides ; 
but I think their Characters corre- 
fpond much better with thofe of the 
Phyllanthus. 

PHYLLIS, Simpla Nobla dkla. 

The Characters are j 
The Empalement of the Flower is 
very fmall, and compofed of two 
Leaves : the Flower hath five obtufe 
Petals , which fern joined at their 
Baj'e : in the Bottom of the Flower is 

l fituated the Point al, attended by five 
Ihort fender Stamina : the Pointal 
afterward becomes an oblong turbi- 
nated Fruit, compofed of two Seeds 

\which join together, where they are 
plain, and are convex on the other 
Side : to which may be added) The 
Flowers growing in an Umbel. 

I have not obferv'd more than 
one Species of this Genus in the Eng- 
r ijh Gardens ; which is* 

Phyllis ftipulis dentatis. Flor. 

- Leyd. Simpla Ncbla. 

There is another Species mentionM 

j 3y Dr. Van Royen, in the Flora Ley- 
ienfis, which he titles Phyllis ftipulis 

. ntegerrimis : but this Difference I 

| lave not obferv'd in any of the 
Mants, which are growing in our 

gardens. 

j ^ This Plant was brought from the 
| Canary Iflands, and has been long 
. n Inhabitant of many curious Gar- 
ens in England \ and was known for 



P H 

many Years by the Name of Sim* 
pla Nobla : and having had no Eng- 
lijh Name applied to it, I have cori- 
tinu'd that Title for want of an Eng» 
lijh one : nor could the Botanifts 
agree under what Genus to range 
this Plant : Dr. Boerhaave was the 
firft who eftablifh'd a Genus for it 
under the Title of Bufleuroides, as 
this Plant hath fome Affinity to the 
Bupleurum : but others have plac'd ic 
under that oiFalerianella, as fuppof- 
ing its Characters agreed better with 
thofe of that Genus : but Dr. Lin- 
naus has rejected both thofe' Titles,, 
and applied this of Phyllis to this 
Plant, on the Account of the Beauty 
of its Leaves ; for the Flowers have 
no more Beauty than thofe of Hem- 
lock, or other umbelliferous Plants. 

This rarely grows above two Feet 
high, having a fofc woody Stem, 
which branches out very low on 
every Side : thefe Branches will ex- 
tend pretty wide, fo as to form a 
fpreading Shrub : the Leaves are 
large, and deeply vein'd, and remain 
green thro' the Year, in which the. 
greateft Beauty of the Plant confifts : 
the Flowers are produced in Umbels 
at the Extremity of the Branches, 
which are of a yellowifh-green Co- 
lour, and are fucceeded by Seeds 
growing in a loofe Umbel. 

It is propagated by Seeds which 
muft be fown on a Bed of frefh light 
Earth in March ; and when the 
Plants are fit to tranfplant, they 
mould be put into feparate Pots, and 
placed in a fhady Situation until they 
have taken Root ; after which time 
they mould be placed in a Situation 
where they may have the morning 
Sun; and in Summer will require to 
have plenty of Water. In Winter 
they muft be fheltered from the 
Froit ; but require to have as much 
free Air as poffible, in mild Wea- 
ther ; and if in the Spring fome of 
the Plants are fhaken out of the Pots, 

Y y y a and 



P H 



P H 



a*id put into the full Ground, they 
will perfect their Seeds much better 
than thofe which remain in the Pots. 

As thefe Plants feldom continue 
in Health above four or five Years, 
it will be proper to raife a Supply of 
young ones to fucceed them. 

PHYTOLACCA, American 
Nightmade. 

The Characters are ; 

The Flower conffs of fever a I 
Lea-ves, which are placed in a circu- 
lar Order, and expand in form of a 
Rofe ; out of whofe Centre rifes the . 
Pointal, which afterward Incomes a 
foft Fruit, or almojl globular Berry 
full of Seeds, placed orbicularly : to 
which Jhould be added, That the Flow- 
ers and Fruit are produced on a Bunch 
like Currant. 

The Species are ; 

1. Phytolacca Americana , ma- 
jori fruclu. Tourn. American Night- 
fhade, with large Fruit, commonly 
call\l^/rg-wtf//Poke, orPorke Pbyfic. 

2. Phytolacca Mexicana, bac- 
cis feffilihus. Hart. Elth. Mexican 
Phytolacca, whofe Berries grow clofe 
to the Stalk. 

The firft of thefe Plants is very 
common m Virginia, New-England, 
and Maryland, where the Inhabit- 
ants take a Spoonful or two of the 
Juice of the Root, as a familiar 
Purge. The Berries thereof are full 
of a purple Juice, which gives a fine 
Tincture to Paper, from whence it 
hath the Name : this will not abide 
long, but fades in a mort time: 
therefore, if there could be a Me- 
thod found to fix this Colour, it 
might be of confiderable Ufe ; for 
it is one of the moft beautiful pur- 
ple Dyes yet known. 

It may be propagated by fowing 
Seeds in the Spring upon a Bed of 
light rich Earth; and when the 
Plants come up, they mould be 
tranfplanted into the Borders of 
large Gardens, allowing them Space 



to grow ; for they mull not be 
planted too near other Plants, left 
they overbear and deftroy them ; 
for they grow to be very large, es- 
pecially it the Soil be good. When 
they have taken Root, they will re- 
quire no farther Care but only to 
clear them from Weeds, and in Au- 
tumn they will produce their Flow- 
ers and Fruit: but when the Froft 
comes on, it will cut down the Stems 
of thefe Plants, which conftantly de- 
cay in Winter; but their Roots will 
abide in the Ground, and come up 
again the fucceeding Spring. There 
is no great Beauty in this Plant ; but, 
for Variety, a few of them may be 
placed in the Borders of large Gar- 
dens, fince they require but little 
Culture ; and as they grow very tall, 
they will make a Figure in the Bor- 
ders of large Gardens, efpecially in 
the Autumn, when the Spikes cf 
purple Fruit are ripe. I have'feen 
Plants of this Kind upward of fix 
Feet high, when they have been in 
good Ground. As thefe Plants fel- 
dom continue longer than three or 
four Years, young ones mould be 
raifed to fucceed them. 

The fecond Sort is a Native of 
the warmer Parts of America-, {<y 
will not live in the open Air in- 
England. This has been lately in- 
trodue'd into fome of the Britijb 
Iflands in America, from the Spanifb 
Wcf -Indies, where it grows fpon- 
taneoufly ; and the Inhabitants cut 
the green Herb, and boil it fori 
Spinach, which they eat without any 
ill Effect, tho' it has been by fomc 
Perfons thought to have the Quality 
of Nightmade. 

The Seeds of this Sort mould b 
fown upon an Hot-bed early in th 
Spring ; and when the Plants are £j 
to tranfplant, they mould be pi' 
into Pots; and after they have a< 
quir'd Strength, may be enured i 
bear the open Air, where they mi 
rema 



P I 

Remain till the Autumn, when they 
Ihould be remov'd into Shelter ; and 
if they are placed where they may 
have a moderate Share of Warmth, 
they will flower all the Winter, and 
ripen their Fruit in the Spring. Dr. 
Linnaeus fuppofes thefe two Species 
are the fame, in which he is greatly 
miftaken. 

PILOSELLA. ^Hieracium. 

PIMP] N EL LA. Vide Sangui- 
forba and Poterium. 
PINASTER. Fide Pinus Sylveftris. 

PINGUICULA, Buttenvort. 

This Plant is found growing up- 
on Bogs in many Parts of England ; 
but is never cultivated in Gardens ; 
fo I (hall pafs it over with barely 
.mentioning it. 

PINUS, The Pine-tnee. 
The Characters are ; 

It hath amentaceous Flowers, or 
Katkins, which are produced at re- 
Mote Dijlanccs from the Fruit on the 
fame Tree : the Seeds are produced in 
fquamous Cones : to ivhich fjovld be 
added, Thai the Leases are longer than 
thofe of the Fir-trees, and are produced 
by Two's or more out of each Sheath. 
The Species are ; 

1. Pinus fativa. C. B. P. The 
manured Pine. 

2. Pinus fyhejiris. C.B.P. The 
Pinafter, or Wild Pine. 

3. Pinus Jyfaeflris, foliis brevibus 
glaucis, conis partis albentibus. Rati 
Hijl. The Scotch Pine, commonly 
caird the Scotch Fir. 

4. Pinus Americana, foliis pr&- 
longis, fubinde tcrnis, conis plurimis 
confertim nafcentibus. Rand. Ameri- 
can Pine, with longer Leaves coming 
out by Threes, and many Cones 
growing in a Clatter ; commonly 
called the Clufter Pine. 

Pinus Americana, ex uno folli- 
culo, fetis longis tenuibus triquetris, ad 
Mnum unguium, per totam longiiudi- 
turn, minutijfimis crenis a/per atis. 



P I 

Pluk. Amalth. Lord TFcymcutb\ 
Pine ; or, by fome, the New- Eng- 
land Pine. 

6. Pinus Jyl<vefris montana tertia. 
C. B. P. The third wild mountain 
Pine, of Cafpar Bauhin. 

7. Pi N u s fylvejlris montana altera. 
C.B.P. Another wild mountain Pine. 

8. Pinus fylveflris maritima, conis 
firmiter ramis adharentibus. J. B. 
Wild maritime Pine, whofe Cones 
adhere firmly to the Branches. 

9. Pinus tnaritima altera Mat- 
thioli. C. B. P. Another maritime 
Pine of Matthiolus. 

1 o. Pinus maritima minor. C.B.P. 
LefTer maritime Pine. 

1 1. Pinus humilis, iulis <virefcen- 
tibus aut pallefcentibus. Injl. R. H. 
Dwarf Pine, with a green or pale 
Katkin. 

12. Pinus humilis, iulo purpura- 
fcente. Injl. R. H. Dwarf Pine, with 
a purplifti Katkin. 

13. Pinus conis creclis. Inf. R. 
H. Pi; e whofe Cones grow erect. 

14. Pinus Orient a lis, foliis duri- 
oribus amaris, fru5lu parvo peracuto. 
Toum. Cor. Eaitern Pine, with har- 
der bitter Leaves, and a fmall Iharp- 
pointed Cone. 

15. Pinus Hierofblymitana, pra- 
longis iff tenuijfimis <viridibus fetis. 
Pluk. Almag. Eaftern Pine, with 
long narrow green Leaves ; com- 
monly called the Aleppo Pine. 

16. Pinus Virginiana, pra longis 
foliis tenuioribus, cono echinata. Pluk. 
Almag. Virginian Pine, with long 
narrower Leaves, and a rough Cone ; 
commonly called Baftard three- leav'd 
Pine. 

17. Pinus V xrginiana, terms feu 
tripilisplerumque ex uno folli culo fetis, 
frobilis majoribus. Pluk. Almag, 
Virginian Pine, having, for the mod 
part, three Leaves, coming out of 
one Sheath ; commonly called the 
Frankincenfe-tree. 

, Yyy 3 18. Pi- 



p I 

1 8. Pin us Virginiana, binis Ire- 
njieribui Cff crajjioribus fetis, mincre 
(ono, Jingulis fquamarum capitibus 
aculeo donatis. Pluk. Aim. Virgi- 
nian Pine, with fhorter thicker 
Leaves, and fmaller Cones, with a 
Prickle on the Top of each Scale j 
commonly called the Jer/ey Pine. 

19. Pin us Americana palujiris, 
longijjimis & <viridibus fetis. Mar fa 
American Pine, with the longell 
green Leaves. 

The firft Sort is much cultivated 
in Italy, and the South of France ; 
where the Trees grow to a large 
Size ; and are the great Ornament 
of the Italian Villa's : this Sort is 
alfo in Spain, Portugal, and molt of 
the warm Parts of Europe ; where the 
Nuts which contain the Seeds are 
frequently ferved up to the Table, 
and are eaten in the fame manner as 
the Pijiachia Nut : and thefe were 
formerly ufed in Medicine in Eng- 
land; but of late Years they have 
been neglected, and Pijlacbia Nuts 
fubftituted in their Place. 

The Cones of this Sort are very 
large, and the Scales are b road and 
flat: the Nuts or Seeds are as largeas 
thofe of the Hazel, but are of an 
oval Figure : the Shell is very hard, 
and when frelh taken out of the 
Cone, is covered with a purple Fa- 
rina, which will colour the Hands : 
each of the Cones, if well grown, 
will contain upward of fourfcore 
Nuts : the Leaves of this Tree are 
Jong, and of a glaucous Colour : 
thefe are, for the moft part, produ- 
ced by Pairs out of each Sheath ; 
tho' fometimes, in young Plants, I 
liave obferyed three. If thefe Trees 
have room to fpread, they will ex- 
tend their Branches to a great Di- 
ftance on every Side, near the 
Ground ; and feldom make much 
Progrefs upward ; but rather form 
their Heads into a conical Figure. 

Where this Tree naturally grows^ 



p I 

is not eafy to determine ; for it is 
not a Native of Europe, there being 
none of them found now growing, 
but in fuch Places where they have 
been planted ; fo that there are not 
any of them found in Woods, or 
uncultivated Places : this Sort cer- 
tainly is in plenty in China, from 
whence I have fcveral times received 
the Seeds ; and in a Collection of 
the Materia Medica, which was 
brought me from thence, were a 
Parcel of thefe Nuts : in many of 
the China Paintings there are fome 
of thefe Trees exhibited ; but whe- 
ther it grows naturally in that Coun- 
try , I cannot learn. 

This Sort thrives very well in 
England, when it is planted in a 
warm Situation ; but it is too ten- 
der to thrive in cold expofedPlaces, 
where in fevere Froft the Leaves are 
generally killed ; and many times 
all the tender Shoots are deftroyed, 
whereby the Trees are rendered ve- 
ry unfightly ; but in warm Situa- 
tions, Where theieTrees thrive well, 
they make a very handfomeAppear- 
ance ; but in order to get them up 
with Stems, they mould be planted 
pretty clofe, that they may be drawn 
upright, otherwife they will fend 
forth many lateral Branches near the 
Ground to a great Diftance, which 
will prevent their growing tall : and 
as thefe refinous Trees are apt tQ 
bleed greatly when they are pruned, 
their lateral Branches fnould never 
be encouraged ; becaufe they cannot 
be pruned off with Safety, when 
they are grown large. 

This Tree is propagated bySeeds, 
which mould be fown in March, on 
a Border of light Earth expofed to 
the morning Sun : the beft Way will 
be to draw Drills about two Inches 
deep, into which the Seeds may 
be fcattered about an Inch afun- 
der : the Drills may be drawn 

about 



p I 

atout three Inches Diftance from 
each other. If the Spring mould 
prove very dry, it will be proper to 
fupply the Border with Water twice 
& Week : for as the Covers of the 
Seed are very hard unlefs they have 
a pretty good Share ofivloifture,they 
will not vegetate ; bat when the 
Coverings burlt,and the yoangPIants 
begin to come out, the Watering 
fliuft be but fparingly performed 
for too much Wet will rot the len- 
der Stems of the Plants : they mull 
alfo be carefully defended from 
Birds, otherwife they may be 
all deftroyed in a few Hours, by 
thefe rapacious Creatures, which are 
fond of pecking the Heads off thefe 
Plants before they are well out of 
the Ground : and if the Ped is (ha- 
ded in the Heat of the Day from the 
Sun, it will prevent the Earih from 
drying too- faft ; and preferve the 
.Plants from being injured by the 
Violence of the Sun's Heat, which 
they cannot well bear the firft- Sea- 
son. Sometimes in dry Seafons I 
have known the Seeds remain a 
Year in the Ground, and often three 
or four Months : therefore the Bor- 
der or Bed in wnich they are fovvn 
fhould not be difturbed, if the Plants 
ihould not come up fo icon as they 
are expected. 

If the Seeds fucceed well, the 
Plants will appear in about five or 
fix "Weeks after they are fown ; and 
then theDirections before given mull 
be obferved, as alfo to keep the Bed 
clean from Weeds; and if in dry 
Weather they are gently watered 
two or three times a Week, it will 
promote the Growth of the Plants : 
but this muft be performed with 
great Care ; for if it is poured too 
haftily, or given in too great Plenty, 
>t will caufe the Stems to rot juft at 
the Surface of the Ground ; and for 
want of chis Care great Numbers of 
thefe Plants have been deftroyed 



p I 

foon after they made their Appear- 
ance above-ground. 

As many of the Sorts of Pines are 
with fome Difficulty preferved thro* 
the firft Winter, but particularly the 
manured Pine, the beft Method of 
treating them is to tranfplant then* 
about AuiJ/hmmer, out of the Seed- 
bed, choofing, if poffible, a cloudy 
Day for this Work : but whenever 
this is done, the Plants mould be 
kept as little time out of the Ground 
as poffible, left their tender Fibres 
mould be dried by the Air : to pre- 
vent which, it will be proper to have 
/hallow Pans of Water, into which 
the Plants may belaid, as they are 
taken up, and fo carried to thePlace 
where they are to be planted. All 
the other Sorts of Pines may then be 
planted in Beds, at about four Inch- 
es Diftance every Way ; and the 
Beds fhould be arched over with 
Hoops, that they may be covered 
every Day with Mats, to fcreen the 
Plants from the Sun, until they have 
taken good Root : but as this Sort 
of Pine is with Difficulty tranfplant- 
ed, it will be the fureft Method to 
plant them into fnull Pots, at their 
firft removing out of the Seed-bed : 
if the Pots are plunged clofe toge- 
ther, either in a commonBorder, or 
an old Bed of Tan, which has no 
Heat, it will prevent the Earth in 
the Pocs from drying too faft : and 
then thefe may alfo be arched over, 
and covered with Mats in the fame 
manner as the other : and if thefe 
are continued in the fame Bed all 
the following Winter, they may be 
covered in fevere Froft, which often 
deftroys the Plants while they are 
young, when they are expofed'to k. 

The Plants fhould be mifted out 
of the Pots when their Roots have 
filled them, and planted into larger 
Pots ; being careful in the doing of 
this, not to maketheEarth from their 
Roots ; and if the Pots are plunged 

Y y y 4 into 



p I 

into the Earth, it will prevent the 
Earth in the Pots from- drying too 
faft in Summer, and alfo keep 
out the Froft in Winter : which, if 
the Pots flood on the Surface of the 
Ground, would penetrate thro' the 
Sides to the Roots of the Plants, and 
injure them greatly ; thefe Plants 
may remain three or four Years in 
Pots ; by which time they will have 
acquired fufhcient Sirength to be 
planted where they are dehgned to 
remain, which may be performed at 
almolt any time of the Year ; be- 
caufe they mult be fhaken out of the 
Pots with the whole Bali of Earth ; 
fo will not feel their Removal : but 
if it can be done in April* juft be- 
fore the Plants begin to flioot, they 
will then have the whole Summer to 
get rooting in their new Quarters ; 
fo will be in lefs Danger of fuffer- 
ing the following Winter by the 
Cold : altho' there is Trouble in the 
Management of the Plants in this 
Method, yet I am certain there is no 
other way of propagating or trans- 
planting them with Safety ; there- 
fore it is that I would recommend 
this to every Perfon, who is defirous 
to have thefe Trees in their Gardens 
or Plantations. 

ThePinafterhath been long cultiva- 
ted vriEngland : but of lateYears hath 
been in lefs Eiieem than formerly ; 
becaufe as they grow large, their 
Branches are ragged, and bare of 
Leaves ; fo that they have but an 
indifferent Appearance ; tho' while 
they are young, the Plants make 
great Progrefs, and have an hand- 
fome Appearance j which has 
tempted many Perfons to propagate 
thefe Trees ; but as they have ad- 
vanced in Stature, they have decli- 
ned in Beauty; and theirWood being 
of little Value, has in a great mea- 
fure brought them into Difrepute. 
The Scotch Pine, which isgeneraj- 



P I 

ly called the Scotch Fir, is the moft 
profitable of all the Sorts, to culti- 
vate in large Plantations ; and will 
grow in almoit any Soil or Situa- 
tion ; for in the moil barren Sand, 
where little elfe but Fern and Pleath 
would grow, I have feen Planta-* 
tions of thefeTrees thrive much be- 
yond Expectation ; and upon chalky 
Hills, where there have been fcarce 
three Inches of Earth, there are 
many noble Plantations of this Sort. 
I have alfo obferved, where they 
have been planted in a ftrong Clay, 
and alio in a moid peaty Soil, that 
they have grown to Admiration ; 
fo that there is no Part of E»gland x 
in which thefe Trees mignt not be 
propagated to confiderable Advan- 
tage. 

But where thefe Trees are de- 
fign'dto be planted in large Quan- 
tities, it will be much the better 
way to make a Nurfery on the Spot 
where the Seeds fhould be fown, 
and the Plants raifed until they 
are three Years old, which is 
a proper Age to plant them out 
for good ; for the younger they are 
planted, the better they will thrive, 
provided they are kept clear from 
Weeds : and if the Situation where 
they are intended to Hand is much 
expofed to Winds, the Plants fhould 
be planted clofer together, that they 
may be a Shelter to each other, and 
draw themlelves upward : and as 
the Trees advance, they may be 
thinned by degrees ; and the Thin- 
nings of thefe Plantations have, in 
many Places, paid the Expence of 
planting for ; thefe are very fervice- 
able for Scaffolding, and many 
other ufeful BufmeiTes. 

It is the Wood of thisTree which 
is the red or yellow Deals, and is 
more valuable than that of any 
other Sort of Pine or Fir : this is a 
Native of Denmark, Sweden, and 

ma.ny 



p I 

many other Northern Countries : 
and in the Highlands of Scotland 
there are feveral large Woods of 
this Tree now growing ; and the 
Seeds being brought from thence in- 
to England, has occafioned the Name 
of Scotch Fir being generally applied 
to it here ; but in Norway it is 
called Grana. 

The Clutter Pine is by moft Per- 
fons little known ; for thePinafter, 
as alfo the two other Sorts of moun- 
tain Pines, are in many Places culti- 
vated by this Name ; and, in fhort, 
every Sort, whofe Cones are pro- 
duced in large Bunches : but the 
Sort here mentioned was brought 
from America, and is very different 
from either of thefe: there were two 
or three of thefeTrees growing fome 
Years fince in the Gardens of the 
Bifiiop o{London,atFulbam, which pro- 
duced plentyof Cones feveralYears. 

The fifth Sort, which is common- 
ly called Lord Weymouth's Pine, 
or the New - England Pine, is by 
much the talleft-growing Tree of all 
the Kinds j and the Leaves being 
very long, and clofely placed on the 
Branches, renders it more beautiful 
than any other ; and the Bark of 
the Stems and Branches is alfo ex- 
ceeding fmooth, which is an Addi- 
tion to the Beauty of the Tree: the 
Leaves of this Sort are produced 
five out of each Sheath ; and are of 
a glaucous Colour : the Trees ge- 
nerally form themfelves into conical 
pleads, and have ftrait Stems, which 
rife to more than one hundred Feet 
high, in the Countries where it na- 
turally grows : there are fome very 
tall Trees of this Kind, at Sir Wynd- 
ha?nKnatchbull\ Seat near AJhj or d in 
Kent ; which have been many Years 
there unnoticed,till, about twenty-fix 
Years ago, the Seeds were brought 
toLondon forSale: there are alfo fome 
large Trees of this Kind growing at 



p i 

Longhet, the Seat of the Right 
Hon. the Lord Vifcount Weymouth, 
which have produced Cones many 
Years pail; and from thencetheTrees 
were called Lord Weymouth' 's Pine. 
The Cones of this Sort are long, the 
Scales loofe and flat : the Seeds are 
pretty large, and frequently drop 
from the Cones, if they are not ga- 
thered early in Autumn : this Tree 
delights in a moift loofe Soil ; for in 
the natural Places of its Growth the 
Ground is wet, and of a loofe Tex- 
ture. In New - England, Vir- 
ginia^ Carolina, and feveral other 
Parts of North-America, thefe Trees 
abound, where they are called the 
white Pine ; but the Wood is little 
efteemed there, being foft, and very 
white : however,for fuchPlantations 
as are defign'd for Pleafure, there 
is not any of the Species equal to 
this for Beauty, where the Trees 
thrive well. 

The fixth, feventh, eighth, ninth, 
tenth, eleventh, twelfth, and thir- 
teenth Sorts grow in Spain, Portu- 
gal, Italy, Aujiria, and other Parts 
of Europe , where there are fome 
other Varieties than are here enu- 
merated : but as very few of thefe 
have been introduced into England, 
they cannot be well diftinguilhed 
from the others, by the imperfect 
Defcriptions which we have of them 
in Books : moft of thefe Sorts areln- 
habitants of the mountainous Parts 
of Europe ; fo they are very hardy 
in refpecl to Cold ; therefore they 
may be eafily propagated mEngland, 
were their Seeds brought hither in 
the Cones : fome of thefe are of ve- 
ry humble Growth, particularly the 
eleventh and twelfth,which in many 
Places do not exceed four Feet high, 
and produce plenty of Cones : the 
other Sort grows after the fame man- 
ner as the fecond Sort ; fo are not 
very beautiful Trees 5 but a few of 



p I 

each Sort may be interfperfed with 
the other more valuable Kinds, in 
large Plantations of ever -green 
Trees, by way of Variety. 

The fourteenth and fifteenth Sorts 
grow in the Levant, from whence 
their Seeds have been brought to 
England, where there are feveral 
Plants of the fifteenth Sort now 
growing in fome curious Gardens ; 
but the fourteenth is more rare at 
prefent : thefe are not quite Co hardy 
as the others ; for in the fevere 
Winter of 1739. I had feveral 
Plants of both Kinds which were 
entirely deftroyed ; fome of which 
were upward of ten Feet high; 
but they will endure the Cold of 
our common Winters very well. 
There are two Plants of the fifteenth 
Sort in the Gardens of his Grace 
the Duke of Richmond at Goodwood 
in SuJ/ex, which have produced 
Cones for fome Years paft ; but they 
have not perfected theirSeeds as yet. 

The Branches of thefe Trees are 
flender, and extend to a great Di- 
ftanee from the Trunk ; they are 
produced in Circles at Diflances 
above each other ; but grow very 
irregular and loofe : the Leaves are 
long, (lender, and of a deep-green 
Colour : the Cones are ihaped fome- 
what like thofe of the manured 
Pine ; but are much fmaller : the 
Seeds of this Kind will keep good 
fome Years, when taken out of the 
Cones. I have fown of thefe Seeds 
when three Years old, which grew 
as well as any new Seeds of the fame 
Year; and the Plants came up in a 
Bed of common Earth without 
Trouble. 

The fixteenth, feventeenth , eigh- 
teenth, and nineteenth Sorts are Na- 
tives of Atiurica ; from whence their 
Cones have been fent to England ; 
and many of the Plants have been 
raifed : thefe grow in NtiV'England t 



p 1 

Maryland, Virginia, and Carolina t 
the fixteenth Sort grows to be a large 
Tree, and makes an handfome Ap- 
pearance; and when planted in a 
moift light Soil, is very quick of 
Growth : but the feventeenth is by 
far the finer Sort, tho' at prefent 
very rare in England: the Leaves of 
this Sort are of a great Length, and 
are three or four produced from 
each Sheath : the Cones are large, 
and almoft in Shape of thofe of the 
manured Pine : there was a great 
Number of thefe Trees growing in 
the Gardens of Mr. Ball, near Exe- 
ter, which were all deftroyed by 
tranfplanting them at an improper 
Seafon. 

The eighteenth Sort is fcarce 
worthy of a Place, on account of its 
irregular Growth. This Sort never 
grows to any great Size in its native 
Country, and foon becomes ragged 
and unfightly : there have been great 
Numbers of Trees of this Sort raifed 
in England, fmce the Tafte for in- 
troducing of Foreign Trees and 
Shrubs has prevail'd here ; but in 
many Places they are already be- 
come fo unfightly, that they are at 
prefent deftroying by their Owners. 

There are very few Plants of the 
nineteenth Sort at prefent in E?ig- 
land, which are grown to any 
Height ; but fome Years ago there 
were many of them growing at 
Mr. BalP<, near Exeter, which were 
upward of ten Feet high ; but thefe 
were deftroyed by their Owner, who 
did not like them : this Sort grows 
on Swamps in America, and is with 
Difficulty preferved upon dry Land; 
nor do the Plants make much Pro- 
grefs when placed in fuch Situa- 
tions : the Leaves of this Sort are 
very long, and of a dark-green 
Colour the Stems of the Plants 
are of a loofe Texture, covered with 
a rugged Bark ; fo are not ^very 
beautiful : 



p I 

beautiful e this Sort is not fo nardy 
»b the others j therefore requires to 
have a warm Situation, and mould 
be defended from fevere Froih while 
the Plants are young. 

There are fome other Species of 
thefe Trees, which are Natives of 
America ; but thofe here mentioned 
are what I have met with in the E ng- 
lijh Gardens ; nor can I learn how the 
other Sorts differ from thefe, altho' 
fome of the Inhabitants diltinguiih 
them by Names of their own adopt- 
ing : there are aifo fome Sorts which 
grow in RuJJia and Siberia, which 
are different from thofe here enume- 
rated : but the few Plants which 
have been raifed in England, from 
the Seeds which have been procured 
from thence, make fo little Progrefs 
here, as to give no Hopes of their 
growing to any Size in this Country; 
fo I have omitted their Names in this 
Lift. 

All the Sorts of Pines are propa- 
gated by Seeds, which are produced 
in hard woody Cones : the way to 
get out their Seeds is, to lay the 
Cones before a Fire, which will 
caufe the Cells to open ; and then 
the Seeds may be eaiily taken out : 
if the Cones are kept intire, the Seeds 
will remain good fome Years ; fo 
that the fureft way to preferve them 
is, to let them remain in the Cones 
until the time for fowing the Seeds : 
but if the Cones are kept in a warm 
Place in Summer, they will open, 
and emit the Seeds ; but if they are 
riot expofed to much Heat, they will 
remain intire fome Years ; and the 
Seeds which have been taken out of 
Cones of feven Years old, have grown 
very well; fo that thefe may be 
tranfported from any Diftance, pro- 
vided the Cones are well ripened, 
and properly put up. 

The ben time for fowing the Seeds 
©f Pines is, about the Middle of 



p i 

March ; and when the Seeds are 
fown, the Place fhould be covered 
with Nets, to keep off Birds ; other- 
wife, when the Plants begin to ap- 
pear with the Hufk of the Seed on 
their Tops, the Birds will pkk off 
the Heads of the Plants, and deftroy 
them. What is before mentioned 
of tranfplanting the young Plants 
about MiJfummcr, I beg leave to re- 
peat again here, becaule I have feen 
this pra&ifed with great Succefs : 
and it frequently happens, that the 
Plants which remain in the Place 
where they were fown, die away in 
Patches : nor do the Plants which 
remain grow near fo ftrong as thofe 
which are pricked out young : but 
when this is done, the Plants muft 
be water'd and {haded until they have 
taken frefh Root ; after which time 
the only Culture they require is, to 
keep them clean from Weeds. In 
thefe Beds the Plants may remain 
till the next Spring twelve Months 
sfter : by which time the Plants 
will be fit to tranfplant where they 
are to remain for good ; for the 
younger the Plants are, when plant* 
ed out, the better they will fucceed; 
for altho' fome Sorts will bear tranf- 
planting at a much greater Age, yet 
young Plants planted at the fame 
time will in a few Years overtake 
the large Plants, and foon outftrip 
them in their Growth: and there is 
an Advantage in planting young, by 
faving the Expence of Staking, and 
much Watering, which large Plants 
require. I have feveral times feen 
Plantations of feveral Sorts of Pines, 
which were made of Plants fix or 
feven Feet high ; and at the fame 
time others of one Foot high planted 
between them ; which in ten Years 
were better Trees than the old ones, 
and much more vigorous in their 
Growth : but if the Ground where? 
they are deiign'd to remain, cannot 



p I 

fee prepare'd by the time the Plants 
fhould be planted out, they may be 
removed out of the Beds into a Nur- 
fery, where they may remain two 
Years, but not longer ; for it will be 
very hazardous removing thefe Trees 
at a greater Age. 

The beft Seafon to tranfplant all 
the Sorts of Pines is about the Lat- 
ter-end of March, or the Beginning 
of April, juft before they begin to 
ihoot: for altho' the Scotch Pine, 
and fome of the mod hardy Sorts, 
may be tranfplanted in Winter, efpe- 
cially when they are growing in 
ftrong Land, where they may be 
taken up with Balls of Earth to their 
Roots ; yet this is what I would not 
advife for common Pra&ice, having 
frequently feen it attended with bad 
Confequences ; but thofe which are 
removed in the Spring rarely fail. 

Where thefe Trees are planted in 
cxpofed Situations, they fhould be 
put pretty clofe together, that they 
may ihelter each other ; and when 
they are too clofe, Part of the Plants 
may be cut down, to give room for 
the others to grow : but this muft be 
gradually performed, left by too 
much opening the Plantation, the 
Air fhould be let in among the re- 
maining Trees with too great Vio- 
lence, which will flop the Growth 
of the Trees. 

Altho 1 thefe ever-green Trees are 
by many Perfons defpifed on account 
of their Dark-green in Summer ; yet 
a proper Mixture of thefe in large 
Clumps makes a fine Appearance 
about a Seat in Winter j and in Sum- 
mer, by their Contrail with other 
Trees, has no bad Effett in diver- 
fifying the Scene. 

PISONIA, Fingrigo, vulgo. 
The Characters are ; 

// is Male and Female in different 
plants : the Male Flowers confift of 
a great Number ^/"Stamina, and have 



P I 

no Petals : the Female Flower tvnjifli 
of one Leaf which is bell-Jhaped, and 
divided at the Top into five Farts ; 
from whofe Cup artfes the Point al, 
which afterward becomes an oblong 
angular chanelled Fruit, containing 
oblong Seeds, 

The Species are ; 

1. Pi son i a aculeata mas. Houjl. 
The Male Fingrigo. 

2. Pi SON! a aculeata, fruclu gluti- 
nofo & racemofo. Plum. Nov. Gen. 
Prickly Pifonia, with a glutinous 
and branching Fruit. 

Tnefe Plants are feminal Varia- 
tions, which arife from the Seeds of 
the fame Plant ; but as they were 
not diftinguiftVd by any of the Bo- 
tanifts, till the late Dr. Houfl oun od- 
ferved their Difference, therefore I 
thought proper to mention the dif- 
ferent Sexes as feparate Plants. 

The Name of this Plant was given 
by Father Plumier in Honour to Dr. 
William Pifo, who publiftTd a Na- 
tural Hiftory of Brafil. The Name 
of Fingrigo is what the Inhabitants 
of Jamaica know it by. 

Thefe Plants are very common in 
the Savannah, and other low Places, 
in the Ifland of Jamaica, as alfo in 
feveral other Places in the Weft-In- 
dies ; where it is very troublefome 
to whoever palTes through the Places 
of their Growth, by faftening them- 
felves, by their ftrong crooked 
Thorns, to the Cloaths of the Per- 
fons ; and their Seeds, being gluti- 
nous, alio fallen themfelves to what- 
ever touches them : fo that the 
Wings of the Ground-doves, and 
other Birds, are often fo loaded with 
the Seeds, as to prevent their flying ; 
by which means they become an eafy 
Prey. 

It rifes about ten or twelve Feet 
high, with- a pretty ftrong Trunk : 
but the Branches are long and (len- 
der, which, being unable to fuppoyt 

them- 



p I 

themfelves, generally twift about 
whatever Plants are near them. 

In Europe this Plant is preferved 
in the Gardens of fome curious Per- 
fons for Variety : it is propagated by 
Seeds, which mould be fown in Pots 
filled with light rich Earth, and 
plunged into an Hot-bed of Tanners 
Bark ; and when the Plants come 
up, they mould be tranfplanted into 
ieparate Pots, and plunged into the 
Hot-bed again ; where they may 
remain till Michaelmas, when they 
mould be removed into the Stove, 
and plunged into the Bark-bed, and 
treated in the fame manner as hath 
been directed for feveral tender 
Plants of the fame Country ; observ- 
ing in hot Weather to give them 
plenty of Water; but in Winter they 
mould have it more fpairingly. 
They are too tender to thrive in the 
open Air of this Country at any Sea- 
fon of the Year ; wherefore they 
fhould be conftantly kept in the 
Stove. 

PISTACHIA. Tide Terebin- 
th us. 

PISUM, Pea. 

The Characters are ; 

It is a Plant with a papilionaceous 
Flower, out of <whofe Empalement 
rifes the Pointal, which afterward 
becomes a long Pod, full of rcundijh 
Seeds : to which muji he added, Fifiu- 
lous Stalks, fc:- the mojl part weak, 
which the Leaves embrace in fuch a 
manner, that they feem to he perfo- 
rated by them ; but the other Leaves 
grow by Pairs along the Mid-rib, end- 
ing in a Tendril. 

The Species are ; 

1. Pi sum hortenfe majus, flore 
fruclu que albo. C. B. P. The greater 
Garden Pea, with white Flowers and 
Fruit. 

2. Pisum pro? cox Anglicum. Boerh. 
Ind. Hotipur Pea, vulgo. 



P I 

3. Pi sum humile, caule firms* 
Tourn. The Dwarf Pea. 

4. Pi sum humile Gall: cum. Boerh, 
Ind. French Dwarf Pea. 

Pi sum cortice eduli. Tourn. Pea 
with an efculent Hufk. 

6. Pi sum filiqua carnofa incurva, 
feu falcata eduli. Raii Hifi. The 
Sickle Pea. 

7. Pi sum arvenfe, fruclu albo, 
C. B. P. Common White Pea. 

8. Pi sum arvcnfe, fruclu I'iridi. 
C. B. P. Green Rouncival Pea. 

9. Pi sum arnjenfe, fruclu cinereo, 
C.B.P. The Grey Pea. 

10". Pi sum ari-crfe, fore rofeo, 
fruclu wariegato. Raii Hif. Marble 
Rouncival Pea. 

11. Pi sum umbcllatum. C.B.P, 
The Rofe Pea, or Crown Pea. 

12. Pi sum maximum, fruclu ni- 
gra linea maculato. H. R. Par. The 
Spanijh Morotto Pen. 

13. PlSUM hortenfe, fliqua maxi- 
ma. H. R. Par. The Marrow-fat 
or Dutch Admiral Pea. 

14. Pi sum fruclu maximo ex vi- 
ridi obfoleto. Boerh. Ind. The Union 
Pea. 

15. Pi sum fpontaneum maritlmum 
Anglicum. Park. Thcar. Englijh Sea 
Pea. 

16. Pi sum ar<venfc 9 fruclu e lutto 
mreftenti. C. B.P. ' Pig Peas. 

There are feveral other Varieties 
of the Garden Peas, which differ in 
the Colour of their Flowers and 
Fruit, and are by fome Perfons di- 
ftinguim'd by Names as diftinct 
Sorts ; but as they are very fubjecl: 
to vary when fown two or three 
Years in the fame Place, there can 
be no Doubt of their being feminaj; 
Variations, which are not worth 
enumerating in this Place. 

The Englif j Sea Pea is found wild 
upon the Shore in Sujfex, and feve- 
ral other Counties in England. This 

was- 



p I 

was firft taken notice of in the Year 
1555. between Orford and Aldbo- 
rough, where it grew upon the 
Heath, where nothing, no not Graf?, 
was ever feen to grow ; and the poor 
People, being in Diftrefs, by reafon 
of the Dearth of that Year, gather- 
ed large Quantities of thefe Peas, and 
fb preferv'd themfelves and Fami- 
lies. This is mentionM by Stow in 
his Chronicle y and Camden in his 
Britannia : but they were both mif- 
taken, in imagining that they were 
Peas call on Shore by a Shipwreck, 
feeing they grow in divers otln j r 
Farts of England, and are undoubt- 
edly a different Species from the 
common Pea. 

The fixtecnth Sort is greatly cul- 
tivated in the Fields in Dorfetjhire, 
where they are known by the Name 
of Pig Peas, the Inhabitants making 
great Ufe of them to feed their Hogs. 
Thefe are often brought up to Lon- 
don, and fold for the fame Purpofe. 

I (hall now proceed to fet down 
the Method of cultivating the feve- 
ral Sorts of Garden Peas, fo as to 
continue them throughout the Sea- 
ion. 

It is a common Practice with the 
Gardeners near London, to raife Peas 
upon Hot-beds, to have them very 
early in the Spring; in order to 
which, they fow their Peas upon 
warm Borders under Walls or 
Hedges, about the Middle of Oclo- 
brr ; and when the Plants come up, 
they draw the Earth up gently to 
their Stems with an Hoe, the better 
to protect them from Froft : in thefe 
Places they let them remain until 
the Latter-end of January, or the 
Beginning of February \ obferving to 
earth them up from time to time, 
as the Plants advance in Height (for 
the Reafons before laid down) ; as 
al fo to cover them in very hard Froft 
with Peas -haulm, Straw, or fome 



p I 

other light Covering, to prefervc 1 
them from being deflroy'd : then, 
at the time before-mention'd, they 
make an Hot-bed (in proportion to 
the Quantity of Peas intended), 
which mud be well work'd in lay- 
ing the Dung, that the Heat may not 
be too great. The Dung mould be 
laid about two Feet thick, or fome- 
what more, according as the Beds 
are made earlier or later in the Sea- 
fon : when the Dung is equally 
levell'd, then the Earth (which mould 
be light and frem, but not over-rich) 
muft be laid on about fix or eight 
Inches thick, laying it equally all 
over the Bed. T his being done, the 
Frames (which mould be two Feet 
on the Back-fide, and about four- 
teen Inches in Front) muft be put 
on, and cover M with GlafTes ; after 
which it (hould remain three or four 
Days, to let the Steam of the Bed 
pafs otF, before you put the Plants 
therein ; obferving every Day to' 
raife the G lanes either with Bricks 
or Stones,- to gjve Vent for the rifing. 
Steam to pafs off ; then, when yoa 
find the Bed of a fine moderate Tem- 
perature for Heat, you fnould, with 
a Trowel, or fome other Inftrument, 
take up the Plants as carefully as 
pomble, to preferve fome Earth to 
the Roots, and plant them into the 
Hot-bed in Rows, about a Foot 
afundey ; and the Plants mould be 
fet about an Inch and an half, or two 
Inches, diftant from each other in 
the Rows ; obferving to water and 
fhade them until they have taken 
Root : after which you muft be care- 
ful to give them Air, at all times 
when the Seafon is favourable ; 
otherwife they will draw up very 
weak, and be fubject to grow 
mouldy, and decay. You mould 
alfo draw the Earth up to the Shanks 
of the Plants, as they advance in 
Height; and keep them always clear 

from 



p I 

I from Weeds : the Water they mould 
1 have, mull be given them fparingly; 
1 for if they are too much watered, it 
| will caufe them to grow too rank, 
I and fometimes rot off the Plants at 
their Shanks, juft above - ground. 
! When the Weather is very hot, you 
fhould cover the Glaffes with Mats 
in the Heat of the Day, to fcreen 
them from the Violence of the Sun, 
which is then too great for them, 
caufing their Leaves to flag, and 
I their Bloffoms to fall off without 
I producing Pods ; as will alfo the 
I keeping of the Glaffes too clofe at 
that Seafon. But when the Plants 
begin to fruit, they mould be wa- 
ter'd oftener, and in greater Plenty, 
than before ; for by that time the 
Plants will have nearly done grow- 
ing, and the often refrelhing them 
will occafion their producing a great- 
er Plenty of Fruit. 

The Sort of Pea which is always 
ufed for this Purpofe, is the Dwarf ; 
for all the other Sorts ramble too 
much to be kept in Frames : the Rea- 
fon for fowing them in the common 
Ground, and afterward tranfplanting 
them on an Hot-bed, is alfo to check 
their Growth, and caufe them to 
bear in lefs Compafs ; for if the Seeds 
were fown upon an Hot- bed, and 
the Plants continued thereon, they 
would produce fuch luxuriant Plants 
as not to be contained in the Frames, 
and would bear but little Fruit. 

The next Sort of Pea, which is 
fown to fucceed thofe on the Hot- 
bed, is the Hotfpur, of which there 
are reckon'd three or four Sorts ; as 
the Charlton Hotfpur, the Mafter's 
Hotfpur, the Reading Hotfpur, and 
fome others ; which are very little 
differing from each other, except in 
their early Bearing, for which the 
Charlton Hotfpur is chiefly prefer- 
red ; though, if either of thefe Sorts 
are cultivated in the fame Place for 



P I 

three or four Years, they arc apt tode* 
generate, and be later in Fruiting : 
for which Reafon, mod curious Per- 
fons procure their Seeds annually 
from fome diftant Place ; and in the 
Choice of thefe Seeds, if they could 
be obtained from a colder Situation, 
and a poorer Soil, than that in which 
they are to be fown, it will be much 
better than on the contrary, and they 
will come earlier in the Spring. 

Thefe muff alfo be fown on warm 
Borders, toward the Latter-end of 
Oflober ; and when the Plants are 
come up, you mould draw the Earth 
up to their Shanks in the manner be- 
fore directed ; which mould be re- 
peated as the Plants advance in 
Height (always obferving to do it 
when the Ground is dry), which 
will greatly protect the Stems of the 
Plants againft Froft ; and if the Win- 
ter mould prove very fevere, it will 
be of great Service to the Plants to 
cover them with Peas-haulm, or fome 
other light Covering ; which mould 
be conftantly taken off in mild Wea- 
ther, and only fuffer'd to remain on 
during the Continuance of the Froft : 
for if they are kept too clofe, they 
will be drawn very weak and ten- 
der, and thereby be liable to be de- 
ftroy'd with the leaff Inclemency of 
the Seafon, 

In the Spring you muff carefully 
clear them from Weeds, and draw 
fome frefh Earth up to their Stems ; 
but do not raife it too high to the 
Plants, left, by burying their Leaves, 
you mould rot their Stems ; as is 
fometimes the Cafe, efpecially in wet 
Seafons. You fnould alfo obferve to 
keep them clear from Vermin ; 
which, if permitted to remain 
amongft the Plants, will increafe 
fo plentifully, as to devour the great- 
eft Part of them. The chief of the. 
Vermin which infeft Peas, are the 
Slugs, which lie ail theDayin the fmall 
Hollows 



p I 

Hollows of the Earth, near the Stems 
of the Plants, and in the Night-time 
come out, and make terrible De- 
ftruc"lion of the Peas ; and thefe 
chiefly abound in wet Soils, or 
where a Garden is neglecled, and 
over-run with Weeds : therefore you 
fhould make the Ground clear every 
Way round the Pea% to deftroy their 
Harbours; and afterward-, in a fine 
mild Morning, very early, when 
thefe Vermin are got abroad from 
their Holes, you mould flake a 
Quantity of Lime, which fhould be 
fown hot over the Ground, pretty 
thick ; which will deftroy the Ver- 
min, where-ever it happens to fall 
upon them ; but will do very little 
Injury to the Peas, provided it be 
not fcatter'd too thick upon them : 
this is the beft Method I could ever 
find to deitroy thefe troublefome 
Vermin. 

If this Crop of Peas improves, it 
will immediacely fucceed thofe on 
the Hot-bed ; but for fear this mould 
inifcarry, it will be proper to fow 
two more Crops, at about a Fort- 
night's time from each other ; fo 
that there may be the more Chances 
to fucceed : this will be fufficient 
until the Spring of the Year, when 
you may fow three more Crops of 
thefe Peas ; one toward the Begin- 
ning of January, the other a Fort- 
night after, and the third at the End 
of January. Thefe two late Sow- 
ings will be fufficient to continue the 
early Sort of Peas through the firft 
Seafon, and after this it will be pro- 
per to have fome of the large Sort 
of Peas to fucceed them : in order to 
which, you fhould fow fome of the 
Spanijb Morotto, which is a great 
Bearer, and an hardy Sort or Pea, 
about the middle of February, upon 
a clear open Spot of Ground : thefe 
mull be fown in Rows, about three 
Feet afunderj and the Peas lhould 



p I 

be dropp'd in the Drills about ari 
Inch and an half Diflance, covering 
them about two Inches deep with 
Earth ; being very careful that none 
of them lie uncover'd, which will 
draw the Mice, Pigeons, or Rooks, 
to attack the whole Spot ; and it of- 
ten happens by this Negleft, that a 
whole Plantation is devour'd by thefe 
Creatures ; whereas, when there are 
none of the Peas left in Sight, they 
do not fo cafily fir.d them out. 

About a Fortnight after this, you 
mould fow another Spot, either of 
this Sort, or any other large Sort of 
Pea, to fucceed thofe ; and then con- 
tinue to repeat lowing once a Fort- 
night, till the middle or Latter-end 
of May, fome of thefe Kinds ; only 
obferving to allow the Marrow-fats, 
and other very large Sorts of Peas, 
at leaft 3 Feet and an half or 4 Feet 
between Row and Row ; and the 
Rofe-pea fhould be allowed at Ieaft 
8 or 10 Inches Diitance Plant from 
Plant, in the Rows ; for thefe grow 
very large, and if they have not 
room allowed them, they will fpoil 
each other by drawing up very tall, 
and will produce no Fruit. 

When thefe Plants come up, the 
Earth lhould be drawn up to their 
Shanks (as was before direcled), and 
the Ground kept intirely clear from 
Weeds ; and when the Plants are 
grown eight or ten Inches high, you 
fhould ftick fome rough Boughs, or 
Brum- wood, into the Ground clofe to 
the Peas, for them to ramp upon; 
which will fupport them from trail- 
ing upon the Ground, which is very 
apt to rot the large-growing Sorts of 
Peas, efpecially in wet Seafons ; be- 
fides, by thus fupporting them, the 
Air can freely pafs between them, 
which will preferve the BlofToms 
from failing off before their time, 
and occafion them to bear much bet- 
ter, than if permitted to lie upon the 
Ground j 



p I 

Ground ; and there will be room to 
pafs between the Rows to gather the 
feas when they arc ripe. 

The Dwarf Sorts of Peas may be 
fown much clofer together, than 
thofe before - mention'd ; for thefe 
feldom rife above a Foot high, and 
rarely fpread above half a Foot in 
Width ; fo that thefe need not have 
more room than two Feet Row from 
Row, and not above an Inch afunder 
in the Rows. Thefe will produce a 
good Quantity of Peas, provided the 
Seafon be not over-dry ; but they 
feldom continue long in bearing ; fo 
that they are not fo proper to fow 
for the main Crop, when a Quantity 
of Peas is expe&ed for the Table; 
their chief Excellency being for Hot- 
beds, where they will produce a 
greater Quantity of Peas (provided 
they are well manag'd) than if ex- 
pos'd to the' open Air, where the 
Heat of the Sun foon dries them up. 

The Sickle - pea is much more 
common in Holland than in England, 
it being the Sort moftly cultivated in 
that Country ; but in England they 
are only propagated by curious 
Gentlemen for their own Table, and 
are rarely brought into the Markets. 
This Sort the Birds are very fond of ; 
and if they are not prevented, many 
times deftroy the whole Crop. This 
fhould be planted in Rows, about 
two Feet and an half afunder ; and 
be managed as hath been directed 
for the other Sorts. 

Although I have directed the fow- 
ing of the large Sorts of Peas for the 
great Crop, yet thefe are not fo 
fweet as the early Hotfpur Peas ; 
therefore it will alfo be proper to 
continue a Succeflion of thofe Sorts 
through the Seafon, in fmall Quan- 
tities, to fupply the beft Table ; 
which may be done, by fowing fome 
every Week : but all thofe which 
are fown late in the Seafon, fhould 

Vol. III. 



P I 

have a ftrong moift Soil ; for in hot 
light Land they will burn up, and 
come to nothing. 

The large-growing Sorts may be 
cultivated for the common Ufe of the 
Family; becaufe thefe will produce 
in greater Quantities than the other, 
and will endure the Drought better ; 
but the early Kinds are by far the 
fweeter tailed Peas. 

The beft of all the large Kinds is 
the Marrow*fat ; which, if gathered 
young, is a well-tafted Pea ; and 
this will continue good through the 
Month of Auguji i if planted on a 
ftrongSoil. 

The Grey, and other large Win* 
ter-peas, are feldom cultivated in 
Gardens, becaufe they require a great 
deal of room ; but are ufually fown 
in Fields, in moft Parts of England. 
The bell time for fowing of thefe is 
about the Beginning of March, when 
the Weather is pretty dry; for if 
they are put into the Ground fn a 
very wet Seafon, they are apt to rot, 
efpecially if the Ground be cold ; 
thefe mould be allowed at lead three 
Feet Diftance Row from Row, and 
mull be fown very thin in the Rows; 
for if they are fown too thick, the 
Haulm will fpread fo as to fill the 
Ground, and ramble over each other; 
which will caufe the Plants to rot, 
and prevent their Bearing. 

The common White Pea will do 
beft on light fandy Land, or on a 
rich loofe Soil, The ufual Method 
of lowing thefe Peas is with a broad 
Caft, and fo harrow them in : but 
it is a much better way to fow them 
in Drills, about two Feet and an 
half afunder ; for half the Quantity 
of Seed will do for an Acre ; and 
being fet regularly, the Ground may 
be llirr'd with an Hoe-plough to de- 
ftroy the Weeds, and earth up the 
Peas, which will greatly improve 
them ; and thefe Peas may be much 

Zzz eafier 



p I 

cafier cat in Autumn, when they 
are ripe. The ufuai time for fowing 
of theie Peas is about the Latter- 
end of March, or the Beginning of 
April, on warm Land ; but on cold 
Ground they mould be fown a Fort- 
night or three Weeks later. In the 
common way of fowing, they allow 
three Bufhels or more to an Acre ; 
but if they are drilled, one Bulhel 
and an half will be full enough. 

The Green and Maple Rouncivals 
require a ftronger Soil than the 
White, and fhould be fown a little 
later in the Spring ; alfo the Drills 
fhould be made at a greater Difrance 
from each other ; for as thefe are 
apt to grow rank, efpecially in a wet 
Seafon, they fhould be fet in Rows 
three Feet afunder ; and the Ground 
between the Rows mould be itirr'd 
two or three t'mes with an Hoe-- 
plough ; which will not only deftroy 
the Weeds, but, by earthing up the 
Peas, will greatly improve them ; 
and alfo render the Ground better, 
to receive whatever Crop is put on 
it*the following Seafon. 

The Grey Peas thrive belt on a 
ilrong clayey Land : thefe are com- 
monly fown under Furrows; but by 
this Method they are always coo 
thick, and do not come up regular : 
therefore all thefe rank- growing 
Plants mould be fown in Drills, 
where the Seeds will be more equally 
fcatter'd, and lodged at the fame 
Depth in the Ground ; whereas, in 
the common way, fome of the Seeds 
lie twice as deep as others, and are 
not fcatter'd at equal Diltances. 
Thefe may be fown toward the End 
of February, as they are much har- 
dier than either of the former Sorts; 
but the Culture mould be the fame. 

The beft Method tofow thefe Peas 
is, to draw a Drill with an Hoe by 
a Line, about two Inches deep, and 
then fcatter the Seeds therein ; afttr 



p i 

which, with a Rake you may draw 
the Earth over them, whereby they 
will be equally cover'd ; and this is 
a very quick Method for Gardens ; 
but where they are fown in Fields, 
they commonly make a lhallow Fur- 
row with the Plough, and fcatter the 
Seeds therein, and then with an Har- 
row they cover them over again. 
After this, the gre<K Trouble is, to 
keep them clear from Weeds, and 
draw the Earth up to the Plants : this, 
in fuch Countries where Labour is 
dear, is a great Expence to do it by 
the Hand with an Hoe ; but this may 
be eaiiiy effected with an Hoeing- 
plough, which may be drawn thro* 
between the Rows ; which will in> 
tirely eradicate the Weeds, and, by 
ftrrring the Soil, render it mellow, 
and greatly promote the Growth of 
the Plants. 

When any of thefe Sorts are in- 
tended for Seed, there Ihould be as 
many Rows of them left ungather'd, 
as may be thought neceffary to fur- 
nilh a fufKcient Quantity of Seed ; 
and when the Peas are in Flower, 
they fhould be carefully look'd over, 
to draw out all thofe Plants which are 
not of the right Sort ; for there will 
always be fome roguim Plants (as 
the Gardeners term them) in every 
Sort, which, if left to mix, will de- 
generate the Kind. Thefe mull re- 
main until their Pods are changed 
brown, and begin tofplit, when yoij 
fhould immediately gather them up, 
together with the Haulm ; and, if 
you have not room to ftack them up' 
till Winter, you may threfh them 
cut as foon as they are dry, and put 
them up in Sacks for Ufe : but you 
muft be very careful not to let them 
remain too long abroad after the/ 
are ripe; for if Wet fhould happen, 
it would rot them; and Heat, after 
a Shower of Rain, would caufe their 
Pods to burft, and caft forth their 

Setds, 



p I 

Seeds, fo that the greateft Part of 
them would be loll ; but, as I faid 
before, it is not advifeable to con- 
tinue (owing of the lame Seed longer 
titan two Years, for theReafons there 
laid down ; but rather to exchange 
their Seeds every Year, or two Years 
at leaft, whereby you may always ex- 
pect to have them prove right. 

PISUM CORDATUM. Vide 
Corindum. 
PITTONIA. 

The Characters are ; 
// hath a globular hell - fhaped 
Flower, confijling of one Leaf y which 
is cut into federal Segments at the 
Brim ;from whofe Cup arifes the Poin- 
tal, which afterward becomes a [oft 
fpherical Berry full of Juice, inclofing 
t<wo Seeds , which are for the mojl 
part oblong. 

The Species are ; 

1. Pitto"NIa arborefcens cham<e- 
drifolia major. Plum. Nov. Gen. 
Greater tree -like Pittonia, with a 
Germander- leaf. 

2. Pittonia arborefcens cbamte- 
drifolia minor . Plum. Nov. Gen. Small- 
er tree -like Pittonia, with a Ger- 
mander-leaf. 

3. Pittonia humilis, anchufa fo- 
liis. Plum. Nov. Gen. Dwarf Pitto- 
nia, with Alkanet-leaves. 

4. Pittonia f: and ens, haccis ai- 
r;eis, nigris tnaculis votatis. Plum. 
Nov. Gen. Cliiabing Pittonia, with 
white Berries fpotted with Black. 

5. Pittonia frutefcens, folio xar- 
tiofo, hirfuto vff obtufo Plum. Nov. 
Gen. Shrubby Pittonia, w;th an 
hairy fleihy obtufe Leaf. 

6. Pittonia hirfutijjima cjf ra- 
mojijfima, baccis albis. Plum. Nov. 
Gen. The moft hairy and branching 
Pittonia, with white Berries. 

7. Pittonia raccmofa, Nicotian* 
foliis faitidifiimis. Plum. Nov. Gen. 
The moft (linking branching Pitto- 
nia, with Tobacco-leaves. 



P L 

All thefe Plants are Natives of the* 
warmeft Parts of America, where the 
nrft Sort grows to the Height of 
twelve or fourteen Feet, and divides 
into many Branches, fo as to form a 
fmall Tree. The fecond, fifth, and 
feventh Sorts grow to the Height cf 
eight or nme Feet, and produce 
many Branches near their Roots, fo 
as to form thick Bufhes. 

They may all be propagated by - 
Seeds, which fliould be fown early in 
the Spring, in Pots rilled with frefh 
Earth, and plunged into an Hot- 
bed of Tanners Bark ; and when the 
Plants are come up, they may be 
treated after the fame manner as hath 
been directed for the Perfea : with 
which Management thefe Plants will 
thrive very well, and in a few Years 
will produce their Flowers. Thefe 
are preferved by thofe Perfons who 
are curious in collecting rare Plants, 
though there is no great Beauty in 
their Flowers ; however, as they are 
ever-green, they make a Diverfity 
amongft other Exotic Plants in the 
Stove in the Winter- feafon. 

PLANT AGO, The Plantain. 

There are feveral Species of this, 
which are diftinguifli'd by Botanifts, 
fome of which are very troublefome 
Weeds, in every Part of England, 
and the others are fo in the Coun- 
tries where they grow ; fo they are 
not cultivated in Gardens : therefore 
1 mall not trouble the Reader with 
an Enumeration of them ; but fhall' 
only obferve, that the broad-leav'd 
Plantain, and the Ribwort Plantain, 
which are both ufed inMedicine,grovv 
wild in almoft every Part of England; 
fo may be eafily procur'd for Ufe. 

PLANTAIN-TREE. VideMah. 

PLATANUS, ThePiane-tree. 
The Charterers are; 

It hath an amentaceous Tlower, 
confifting cf feveral Jlertder Stamina, 
v/bicb are colleBed into fphcrical tih 

Zzz 2 fU 



P L 

tie Balls, and are barren ; but the 
Embryoes of the Fruit, 'which are 
produced on Jiparate Parts of the 
fame Tree, are turgid, and after- 
ward bscome large fpherical Balls, 
containing many cklong Seeds, inter- 
mixed with Down. 
The Species are ; 

1. Platanus Orient alts <verus. 
Park. Theat. The true Oriental 
Plane-tree. 

2. PlatanusO ccid en talis ant V ir~ 
ginienfis. Pari:. Theat. The Weftern 
or Virginian Plane-tree. 

3. Platanus Orient alts, a certs 
folio. T. Cor. The Maple -leav'd 
Plane-tree. 

The firft of thefe Trees (though 
the firft-known Sort in Europe ) is lefs 
common than the fecond ; which has 
been introduc'd fince the Englijb fet- 
tled in Virginia ; which may be, in 
a great meafure, owing to the latter 
Sort being much eafier to propagate 
than the former : for every Cutting 
of this, if planted in a moift Soil, 
in the Autumn, or early in the 
Spring, will take Root, and in a few 
Years make very large Trees ; 
whereas the firft is only propagated 
from Seeds, or by Layers. 

The third Sort, although by fome 
fuppcfed to be a diftincl Species 
from either of the former, yet is 
ro more but a feminal Variety of 
the firft : for I have had many Plants, 
which came up from the Seeds of the 
jirft Sort, which ripen'd in the Phy- 
fu-garden, which do moft of them 
degenerate to this third Sort, which, 
in the manner of its Leaves, feems to 
be very different from either, and 
imight reafonably be fuppos'd a di- 
iiinct Sort, by thofe who have not 
traced its Original. 

Thefe Trees delight to grow on a 
moift rich Soil, on which they will 
arrive to a prodigious Size in a few 
Years,, and during the Summer-fea- 
6 



P L 

fon afford a glorious Shade ; their 
Leaves being of a prodigious Size, 
efpecially on a good Soil, fo that 
there i r > fcarcely any Tree at prefent 
in England, which does afford fo good 
a Shade. But the Backwardnefs of 
their coming out in Spring, together 
with their Leaves fading early in 
Autumn, has occafion'd their not 
being fo generally etleem^d, as other- 
wife they would be. 

The firft Sort was brought out of 
the Levant to Rome, where it was 
cultivated with much Coft and In- 
duftry : the greateft Orators and 
Statefmen among the Romans took 
great Pleafure in their Villa's, which 
were furrounded with Platanus : and 
their Fondnefs for this Tree became 
fo great, that we frequently read of 
their irrigating them with Wine in- 
ftead of Water. Pliny affirms, that 
there is no Tree whatfoever which 
fo well defends us from the Heat of 
the Sun in Summer, nor that admits 
it more kindly inWinter, the Branches 
being produe'd at a proportionable 
Diftance to the Largenefs of their 
Leaves (which is what holds through 
all the different Sorts of. Trees yet 
known) ; fo that when the Leaves 
are fallen in W T inter, the Branches, 
growing at a great Diftance, eafily 
admit the Rays of the Sun. 

This Tree was afterwards brought 
to France, where it was cultivated 
only by Perfons of the firft Rank ; 
and fo much was the Shade of it 
priz'd, as that if any of the Natives 
did but put his Head under it, they 
exacted a Tribute from him. 

It is generally fuppos'd, that the 
Introduction of this Tree into Eng- 
land is owing to the great Lord 
Chancellor Bacon, who planted a 
noble Parcel of them at Verulam, 
which were there, very flourifhing, 
a few Years fince. Bur notwith- 
ftanding its having been fo long in 
England, 



P L 

England, yet there are but very few 
large Trees to be feen of it at pre- 
fers ; which may, perhaps, be ow- 
ing to the great Efteem the Perfons 
of the lait Age had for the Lime, 
which being much eafier to propa- 
gate, and of quicker Growth during 
the three or four firft Years, than the 
Plane-tree, thereby it became the 
moll common Tree for Planting of 
Avenues, and (hady Walks near Ha- 
bitations, in England. But fince the 
Defects of that Tree have been more 
generally difcover'd, the Elm has had 
the Preference, and is the moil com- 
monly planted for fuch Purpofes. 

However, notwithstanding what 
has been faid of the Plane-tree, of 
its Backwardnefs in coming out in 
the Spring, and the fudden Decay of 
its Leaves in Autumn ; yet, for the 
goodly Appearance, and great Mag- 
nitude to which it will grow, it dc- 
ferves a Place in large Plantations, 
or Ihady Receffes near Habitations, 
efpecially if the Plantation be defign- 
ed on a moiltSoil, or near Rivulets 
of Water ; in which Places this Tree 
will arrive to a prodigious Size. 

We read of one of thefe Trees, 
which was growing at a Villa of the 
Emperor Caligula, whofe Trunk was 
fo large, as, when hollow'd, to make 
a Room therein, capacious enough to 
entertain ten or twelve Perfons at a 
Repaft, and for their Servitors to 
wait upon them. And there is men- 
tion made of one of thefe Trees, 
which was growing in the Eajlern 
Country, which was of fo great a 
Magnitude, that Xerxes made his 
Army (which confilled of leventeen 
hundred thoufand Men) halt, for 
fome Days, to admire the Beauty 
and Procerity of this Tree ; and be- 
came fo fond of it, as to take his 
own, his Concubines, and all the 
great Perfons Jewels to cover it; and 
was fo much enamour'd with it, that 



P L 

for fome Days*, neither the Concern 
of his grand Expedition, nor Intereft, 
nor Honour, nor the necefTary Mo- 
tion of his prodigious Army, could 
difluade him from it : he filled it, 
His Mijirefs, Hit Minion, His Goddefs : 
and when he was obliged to part 
with it, he caused a Figure of it to 
be rtamp'd on a Gold Medal, which 
he continually wore about him. 

And fuch was the Efteem which 
the People of Afia had for this Tree, 
that where ever they erected any 
fumptuous Buildings, the Porticoes, 
which open'd to the Air 4 terminated 
in Groves of thefe Trees. 

The Eaftern Plane-tree is propa- 
gated either from Seeds, or by Lay- 
ers, the latter of which is generally 
praclifed in England-, though the 
Plants thus raisd feldom make fo 
large ftrait Trees, as thofe which are 
produc'd from Seeds : but it has been 
generally thought, that the Seeds of 
this Tree were not productive, be- 
caufe they have not been fown at a 
proper Seafon, nor managed in a 
right Manner; fori have had thou- 
fands of the young Plants fpring up 
from the Seeds of a large Tree, 
which fcatter'd upon the Ground 
in a mciit Place; and I fince find, 
that if thefe Seeds are fown, foon 
after they are ripe, in a moift 
lhady Situation, they will rife ex- 
tremely well ; and the Plants, thus 
obtain'd, will make a confiderable 
Progrefs after the fecond Y ear, being 
much hardier, and lefs liable to lofe 
their Tops in Winter, than thofe 
which are propagated by Layers. 
And fince the Seeds of this Tree ri- 
pen well in England, they may be 
propagated in as great Plenty as any 
other Forelt-tree. 

The Virginian Plane-tree will 
grow extemely well from Cuttings, 
if they are planted the Beginning of 
Qttoher, upon a moift Soil ; and,*f 

Z z z 3 they 



P L 

they are water'd in dry Weather, 
will make a prodigious Progrefs : 
fo that in a few Years from the Plant- 
ing, they will afford nobie Tree? for 
planting of Avenues, and other fliady 
Walks ; and their Trunks are per- 
fectly ftrait, growing nearly of the 
fame Size to a confiderable Height, 
there being the leaft Difference in 
the Girt of this Tree, for feveral 
Yards upwards, of any other Sort of 
Tree whatfoever. The Honourable 
Paul Dudley, Efq; in a Letter to the 
Royal Society, mentions one of thefe 
Trees, which he obferv'd in New- 
England, whofe Girt was nine Yard?, 
and held its Bignefs-a great Way up ; 
which Tree, when cut down, made 
twenty two Cords of Wood. He al- 
fo fays, in the fame Letter, That 
he had propagated many of thefe 
Trees by cutting off Sticks of five or 
fix Feet long, and fetting them a 
Foot deep into the Ground in the 
Spring of the Year, when the Sea- 
fon was wet ; and that they always 
thrive befl in a moift Soil. 

The Leaves of this Sort are lar- 
ger, and lefs divided, than thofe of 
the Oriental Plane-tree; and the Tree 
grows much fafter, and is hardier ; 
and being thus eafily propagated, is 
jiow the moft common in England. 

The Maple-leav'd Plane-tree hath 
its Leaves lefs divided than the firft, 
but more than the fecond Sort; fo 
that it is a middle Kind between both: 
though, as I before faid, it comes 
Originally from the Eaftern Sort. 

This is propagated very eafily by 
Layers, every Twig of which will 
take Root, if they are but cover'd 
with Earth ; and when tranfplanted 
out in a moift Soil, will grow equally 
fait with the Virginian Kind. But 
whether this will take from Cuttings 
or not, I cannot fay, having never 
made Trial of it ; though from the 
Readinefs pf the Branches taking 



p L 

!&oot, there is s little Reafon to douct 
of it. The bell time to tranfplant 
thefe Trees is in March ; for if they 
are removed in Winter, and the Sea- 
fon mould prove very fevere, the 
tender Shoots are often kill'd by the 
Froft. 

PLINIA. 

The Characters are ; 

// hath a hell Jhafed Flower confin- 
ing of one Le af, which is divided into 
five Segments at the Brim ; from 
whofe Cup rifes the Pointal, which 
afterward becomes a globular foft 
chanelfd fruit, in which is included 
one Seed of the fame Form. 

We know but one Species of this 
Plant ; which is, 

Pli n i a fruQu croceoodorato. Plum, 
AW. Gen. Plinia with a fweet-fcent- 
ed faffron-colour'd Fruit. 

This Plant was difcover'd by Fa- 
ther Plumier in the Wtfi-Indies, who 
gave it this Name, in Honour to 
Pliny the famous Natural Hifiori- 
an. 

It grows in feveral Places in the 
warmer Parts of America, from 
whence the Seeds have been fent to 
Europe. Thefe Seeds muft be fown 
in Pots filled with light rich Earth, 
and plunged into an Hot-bed of Tan- 
ners Bark ; obferving to moifren the 
Earth with Water whenever it ap- 
pears dry, as alfo to prefer ve a mo- 
derate Temperature of Heat in the 
Bed ; fo that if the Nights mould 
prove cold, the G lanes of the Hot- 
bed fnould be every Night cover'd 
with Mats ; and in the middle of the 
Day the Glafies may be raifed to 
admit frefh Air, when the Weather 
is warm. Thefe Seeds will fome- 
times remain long in the Ground be- 
fore the Plants appear ; and when- 
ever it fo happens, the Pots mure be 
connantly kept clear from Weeds, 
and duiy watered : and when the 
Plants come up, they mould be 

tranf- 



PL 

tranfplanted into Pots, and may be 
managed as is directed for the Pitto- 
nia. 

PLUMBAGO, Lead wort. 
The Cbaraclers are ; 

The Flower c on ft ft s of one Leaf, 
which is Jhafd like a Funnel, and cut 
into federal Segments at the Top ; out 
of wbofe ftftulous Flower-cup rifes the 
Pointed, wbicb afterward becomes one 
vblovg Seed, for the moft part Jharp- 
pointed, which ripens in the Flower- 
■cup. 

The Species are ; 

1 . Plumbago quorundam. Cluft 
Hift. Leadwort, or Toothwort. 

2. Plumbago fore albo. Inft. R. 
H. Leadwort with a white Flow- 
er. 

j.Plumbaco Or ten talis, lapathi 
folio, fore ?ninori albido. Tourn. Cor. 
Eaftern Leadwort, with a Dock- 
leaf, and a fmaller vvhitifh Flower. 

4. Plumbago Americana fcandens 
aculeata r bet re folio minor 7. Plum. 
■Cat. Prickly climbing American 
Leadwort, with a letter Beet-leaf. 

5. Plumbago Americana, be tee 
folio ampliori. Plum. American Lead- 
wort, with a broad Beet-leaf. 

The firft of thefe Sorts grows 
about Naples, in Sicily, and the 
Southern Parts of France ; but is 
hardy enough to endure the Cold of 
our Climate in the open Ground, 
provided it be planted in a warm dry 
Soil. This is propagated by parting 
of the Roo r s in the Spring before 
they lhoot : in doing of which, you 
Ihould be very careful to preferve 
an Head to each Slip, otherwife they 
will not grow. They fiiould be 
planted in a warm Situation, and a 
dry Soil, about two Feet afunder, 
and water' d until they lake Root ; 
after which they will require no far- 
ther Care, but to clear them from 
Weeds, and fupport their Branches 
from being broken by the Wind. 



p L 

They commonly rife about three 
Feet high ; but, unlefs the Autumn 
be very favourable, they feldom 
flower in this Country. The Flow- 
ers of this Sort are blue, and the 
Root of it is fometimes us'd in Me- 
dicine. 

The fecond Sort differs little from 
the firft, except in the Colour of the 
Floweps, thofe of this being white ; 
and the Plants grow taller, and flow- 
er later in the Year. This is as hardy 
as the firlt, and may be treated in the 
fame way. 

The third Sort was difcover'd by 
Dr. Tournefort in the Levant, from 
whence he fent the Seeds into Eu- 
rope. This Sort hath much broader 
Leaves than either of the former, and 
the Plant is of humbler Growth. It 
may be treated in the fame manner 
as the two former Sorts, and will live 
in the full Ground, provided it is 
planted in a dry Soil, and a IhelterM 
Situation. 

The fourth and fifth Sorts are ten- 
der ; therefore will not live in Eng- 
land in the open Air. Thefe grow 
in plenty in the Britijh Iflands of 
America, from whence the Seeds 
were fent me by the late Dr. Wil- 
liam Houftoun. The fifth Sort was 
brought from Ceylon to fome curious 
Gardens in Holland, fo that it is 
probably an Inhabitant of mcii of 
the hot Countries. 

Thefe Plants may be propagated 
by Seeds, which mould be fovvn on 
an Hot- bed in the Spring ; and when 
the Plants are fit to remove, they 
mould be each planted into a fe- 
parate Pot, and plunged into a frefh 
Hot-bed, to bring them forward ; 
and afterward ihould be treated in 
the fame manner as other tender 
Exotic Plants. For although thefe 
Plants will- live in the open Air in 
the Summer-feafon ; yet they will 
not thrive well, nor produce their 

Z 7, z 4 Flowers 1 



PL 

Flowers ; whereas, if they arc kept 
in the Stove in a moderate Warmth, 
they will flower, and produce good 
Seeds every Year. Thcfe two Sorts 
may alfo be propagated by parting 
of their Roots in April ; bat as they 
produce good Seeds, they are com- 
monly propagated by thofe ; for the 
feedling Plants flower better than the 
OfF-fets. They flower moft Part of 
Winter in the Stove, and the Seeds 
are ripe in the Spring. 

PLUM-TREE. Vide Prunus. 

PLUMERIA, The Jafmine-tree, 
<vulgo. 

The Characters are ; 

It hath a funnel - Jhap^d Flonver, 
conf fling cf one Leaf njohich is cut in- 
to federal Segments at the Brim, out 
cj ' uohofe Cup arifes the Point al, ivhich 
fifter<ward becomes the Fruit or Pod ; 
•which, for the moft party grow dou- 
ble, and open lengthwoife ; difco<vering 
the Seeds, which are oblong, and have 
a Border round them ; thefe are rang- 
ed aver each other ; like Slates on an 
Houfe ; and are fajlened to the Pla- 
centa. 

The Species are ; 

1. Plumeria fore rofeo odor at if- 
fimo. Inft. R. H. Plumeria with a 
rofe- coloured fweet-fcented Flower, 
commonly call'd, in the Weft -Indies, 
Red Jafmine. 

2. Plumeria ftore majore odorato 
Iff incarnate Plumeria with a larger 
fweet - fcented and incarnate Flow- 
er, called, in the Weft-Indies, The 
Japan-tree. 

3. Plumeria fore niveo, foliis 
longis anguftis & acuminatis. Inft. 
R. H. Plumeria with a fnowy Flow- 
er, and long narrow-pointed Leaves. 

4. Plumeria flare niveo, foliis 
brevioribus &f ob tufts. Inft. R. H. 
Plumeria with a fnowy Flower, and 
fhorter blunt Leaves. 

r. Plumeria foliis longiftimis, mi- 
nus fuccuhntibus, fore pallido. HoujK 



P L 

Plumeria with very long and lets, 
fucculent Leaves, and a pale Flow- 
er. 

6. Plumeria folio latiore obtufo, 
flore luteo minore. Plumeria with a 
broad ootufe Leaf, and a fmaller yel- 
low Flower. 

This Name was given to this 
beautiful Genus of Plants, by Dr. 
Tournefort, in Honour to Father 
Plumier, who was Botanift to the 
late King of France, and a long time 
in America, fearching after new 
Plants ; and who has publiihed a 
Catalogue of the Plants he discover- 
ed, with the new Genus's he confti- 
tuted ; and two Volumes in Folio, 
with Figures and Descriptions of 
many ot the Plants. 

Thefe Plants grow wild in the 
Spanijb Weft - Indies, from whence 
fome of the moll beautiful Kinds 
were brought into the Englijb Set- 
tlements in America, and are culti- 
vated in their Gardens for Ornament, 
The firft Sort here mentioned is the 
moft common Kind, which is pre- 
ferv'd in the Gardens of the Inhabit- 
ants of Jamaica and Barbados. The 
Flowers of this Kind nearly refemble 
thofe of the red Oleander ; but are 
larger, and have an agreeable Odour. 
Thefe are produced in fmall Bunches, 
at the Extremity of the Shoots, and 
generally appear in July and Auguft > 
in this Climate ; but in the Weft- 
Indies they flower a great Part of 
the Year. 

The fecond Sort I receiv'd from, 
the Ifland of St. Chriftophers, by the 
Name of Japan-tree : this Sort is 
very rare in the Fnglijh Settlements 
at prefenr, having been but lately 
introdue'd from the Spanijk Weft- 
Indies. It is in Leaf and Stem very 
like the firft; but the Flowers of 
this are of a paler Colour, and are 
produced in much larger Bunches. 
It is very common to have upward 



P L 

of twenty of thefe Flowers open in 
one Bunch, and a Number to fue- 
ceed thefe as' they decay, fo that the 
Bunches have continued in Beauty 
upward of two Months ; during 
which time they make a moft beau- 
tiful Appearance in the Stove, and 
have a very agreeable Flavour. 

The third Sort grows plentifully 
at Campecby, from whence the late 
Dr. Hou/louu fent the Seeds. He al- 
fo obferved fome Plants of this Kind 
at Jamaica. The fixth Sort is alfo 
pretty common in both thofe Places. 
Thefe are not near fo beautiful as 
the two former Sorts, their Flowers 
being fmaller, and produc'd in lefier 
Bunches, and are moreover of fhort- 
er Duration. But for the Beauty of 
their Stems and Leaves, and for the 
fake of Variety, they deferve room in 
every curious Collection of Plants. 

The fourth and fifth Sorts were 
difcover'd by Dr. Houjloun, growing 
in great Plenty near Carthagena in 
the Spanijh Weft-Indies, from whence 
he fent their Seeds to England. The 
fourth Sort produces fmall white 
Flowers, refembling thofe of the 
third ; fo is lefs valuable than the 
two firft. The fifth Sort produces as 
large Flowers as the firft ; but they 
are of a pale red Colour, and fmell 
very fweet. The Leaves of this Sort 
are fometimes ten Inches, or a Foot, 
in Length, and about three Inches 
over in their broadeft Part. Thefe 
are not near fo thick, or full of Juice, 
as thofe of the other Sorts : nor are 
they io deeply veined ; but being of 
a bright mining-green Colour, they 
make an agreeable Variety amongft 
other tender Exotic Plants in the 
Stove. 

All thefe Plants may by propaga- 
ted hy Seeds, which mould be fown 
in Pots filled with light rich Earth, 
and plunged into an Hot -bed of 



P h 

Tanners Bark ; and when the Plants 
are come up about two Inches high^ 
they fhould be tranfplanted into fe- 
parate fmall Pots filled with light 
fandy Earth, and plunged into the 
Hot-bed again ; obferving to fhade 
them from the Heat of the Sun in 
the Middle of the Day, until they 
have taken Root : but they muft not 
have much Water ; for as all the 
Sorts are very fucculent, being full 
of a milky Juice, fomewhat like the 
Euphorbiums, Moifture will caufe 
them to rot. In hot Weather the 
Plants fhould have a pretty large 
Share of frefh Air admitted to them, 
by raifing the Glafles of the Hot-bed 
every Day, in proportion to the 
Warmth of the Seafon. Toward 
Michaelmas, when the Nights begia 
to be cold, the Plants fhould be re- 
moved into the Stove, and plunged 
into the Bark-bed ; where they mult 
remain during the Winter. As thefe 
Plants all caft their Leaves in the 
Middle of Winter, and continue de- 
flitute of them till about the Begin-, 
ning of May, fo, during that time, 
they fhould be watered very fparing- 
ly ; becaufe they are in more Dan- 
ger of rotting, while they are in a 
lefs active State, by too much Moift- 
ure, than when they are furniftYd 
with Leaves, through which the 
Moifture is more freely perfpired. 

All thefe Sorts are too tender to 
thrive in the open Air of this Coun- 
try, in the Summer-feafon ; therefore 
fhould be conftantly preferved iu 
the Stove, where, in warm Weather, 
they muft have a large Share of free 
Air ; but in cold Weather they mull 
be kept very warm. While they are 
young, it will be proper to continue 
them in the Bark-bed ; but when 
they have obtained Strength, they 
may be placed in the dry Stove, 
where they will thrive very well, 
provided 



P o 

provided they are kept in a moderate 
Temperature of Heat, and have not 
too much Water. 

Thefe Plants may alfo be propa- 
gated by Cutting?, which mould be 
taken from the old Plants a Month 
before they are planted ; during 
which time, they mould be laid on 
<he Flues in the Stove, that the Part 
which joined to the old Plant may 
be thoroughly healed, otherwise 
they will rot. Thefe Cuttings mould 
be planted in fmall Pots filled with 
light fandy Earth, and plunged into 
a moderate Hot -bed of Tanners 
Bark ; obferving to lhade them in 
the Heat of the Day from the Sun, 
and refrefh them every third or 
fourth Day with Water ; but it mull 
be given to them fparingly each 
time. If the Cuttings fucceed, they 
will have taken Root in about two 
Months ; when they mould have a 
larger Share of Air, to harden them 
by degrees to bear the Sun and Air; 
and afterward may be treated as the 
eld Plants. 

The milky Juice of thefe Plants is 
very cauftic, and reckon'd very 
poifcmous. In cutting off any of the 
Branches of the Plants, if the Knife 
be not immediately cleaned, thejuice 
will corrode it, and turn the Blade 
almoit black in a very little time, fo 
as not to be cleaned off again ; and 
if dropped on Linen, will caufe it to 
waih in Holes, equal to Aqua fortis. 

POINCIAN A, Barbados Flower- 
fence, or Spanijh Carnations. 
The Characlers are ; 

^he Flower conjifts of five Leaves, 
which are placed in a circular Order ; 
in the Centre of which arife ten 
erooked Stamina : the Pointal, which 
ari/es from a quinquefid Flower-cup, 
becotnes a long, broad, flat Pod, open- 
ing into two Parts, and filVd with 
broad, flat, roundijh Seeds, each of 
<zubich is lodged in a feparate Cell, 



p o 

which are divided by a thin Parti" 
tion. 

The Species are ; 

1. Poikc-tana flore pulcherrimo. 
Toum. Barbados Flower-fence, with 
a fair Flower. 

2. Po INC i an a fore luteo. Uoufi. 
Barbados Flower-fence, with a yel- 
low Flower. 

3 . Po i s c i a N A flore rubente. Houfi. 
Flower-fence with a redifti Flow- 
er. 

4. P01NCI ana ffinofa,i]ulgo Tara, 
Feuil. Prickly Flower-fence, com- 
monly called Tara. 

The firft Sort is very common in 
the Caribbee Iflands, where it is plant- 
ed for a Fence to divide Fields ; and 
is greatly eileem'd for the Beauty of 
its Flo were, which are produced on 
long Spikes in vaft Quantities. The 
Leaves of this Plant are alfo us'd in- 
Head of Sena, to purge withal. 

This was carry 'd from Cape Verd 
Iflands to Barbados, as is related by 
Ligon, and hath fince been difperfed 
thro' the other Iflands. It grows in 
thofe Countries to be ten or twelve 
Feet high, and the Stem, is often as 
large as the Small of a Man's Leg, 
and the Wood is very hard ; from 
whence it hath obtain'd the Name of 
Ebony in fome Places. 

The Seeds of this Plant 2re annu- 
ally brought over in plenty from the 
Wefi-lndies, which, if fown upon 
an Hot bed, will rife ealily : and 
when the Plants are come up, they 
mould be tranfplanted into fmall 
Pots, and plung'd into an Hot-bed 
of Tanners Bark, obferving to {hade 
them until they have taken Root ; 
after which you muft give them Air 
in proportion to the Warmth of the 
Seafon, and they muft be frequently 
refrefh'd with Water. When the 
Plants have fill'd the Pots with their 
Roots, they mould be taken out, and 
plac'd into larger ones, that they may 

have 



P o 

have room to grow. If Care be 
taken to water and fhifc them as of- 
ten as is neceffary, they will grow to 
be three Feet high the firft Seafon. 
At Michaelmas the Pots mould be 
plung'd into a frefh Hot-bed of Tan- 
ners Bark, in the Stove; which mould 
be kept to the Anana's Heat, mark'd 
on the Botanical Thermometers, and 
frequently refrenYd with Water; but 
you muft never give them large Quan- 
tities, which is very injurious to thefe 
Plants at that Seafon. The Earth 
which thefe Plants fnould be planted 
in, mail be frelh, light, and fandy 
(but not over-rich); in which they 
will ftand the Winter better than if 
planted in a ftronger Soil. 

With this Management I have 
rais'd feveral Plants to be eighteen 
Feet high ; fome of which I have 
preferv'd five or fix Years, which 
have produe'd Flowers in the Depth 
of Winter, when they made a fine 
Appearance in the Stove. 

The fecond and third Sorts were 
difcover'd by Dr. William Houjloun 
at Campechy, where he found them 
growing in plenty. Thefe do not 
differ from the firft in the outward 
. Face of the Plants, but only in the 
Colour of their Flowers ; one of 
thefe having yellow, and the other 
red Flowers ; whereas thofe of the 
firft are red and yellow variegated. 

The fourth Sort was difcover'd by 
Pere Feuillee, growing plentifully in 
the Vallics of Id ma The Flowers of 
this Kind are fmaller than thofe of 
the other Sorts, and are of a greenifh- 
yellow Colour, fo that they are not 
near fo beautiful. The Seed-pods 
of this Sort are ufed by the Dyers 
in the Spanijk Weji-Indies y for dyeing 
of Black ; and they are alfo ufed for 
making of Ink : the Infufion of thefe 
Pods with Galls affords the moft 
beautiful black Ink in the. World. 



p o 

Thefe Sorts are propagated by 
Seeds, in the fame manner as the 
firft ; and the Plants muft be treated 
in the fame way, being all of them 
very tender Plants : and although 
they are fome Years before they pro- 
duce their Flowers, yet the regular 
Beauty of their branching winged 
Leaves renders them worthy of a 
Place in every good Stove : and 
when they flower, they are the great- 
eft Ornaments in a Collection of rare 
Plants. 

POKE VIRGINIAN. Phy- 
tolacca. 

POLEMONIUM, Greek Vale- 
rian, or Jacob's Ladder. 
The Characters are ; 

The Flower conffs of one Leaf, 
which is deeply divided into Jive 
Parts, and is wheel-Jkap'd : the Poin- 
tal, which rifes from the Flower-cup, 
afterward becomes a roundifh Fruit, 
divided into three Cells, which are 
flfd with oblong Seeds: to which 
Jhould be added y [he Leaves are pin- 
nated. 

The Species are ; 

1. Polemonium vulgar e cceru- 
hum. Toum. Greek Valerian, with, 
a blue Flower. 

2 . Polemonium vulgar e album. 
Toum. Greek Valerian, with a 
white Flower. 

3. Polemonium vulgar e, fore 
variegato. Toum. Greek Valerian, 
with a ftrip'd Flower. 

4. Polemonium vulgar e, foliis 
eleganter variegatis. Boerh. Ind. 
Greek Valerian, with beautiful 
ftriped Leaves. 

The two firft: Species are very 
common in many Englifb Gardens, 
where they are cultivated for the 
Beauty of their Flowers. They have 
alfo been found wild in Carleton 
Peek, and about Malham Cove near 
Craven. The Sort with variegated 
flowers, 



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Flowers, as alfo that with ftrip'd 
Leaves, are Varieties which have 
been obtain'd from the former. 

Thefe Plants are eafily propaga- 
ted by fowing their Seeds in the 
Spring upon a Bed of light Earth ; 
and when they are come up pretty 
llrong, they mould be prick'd out 
into another Bed of the fame light 
Earth, about three Inches afunder ; 
obferving to made and water them 
until they have taken Root, after 
which they will require no farther 
Care but to keep them clear from 
Weeds, until Michaelmas ; at which 
time they mud be tranfplanted into 
the Borders of the Flower-garden, 
where, being intermix'd with differ- 
ent Sorts of Flowers, they will make 
a beautiful Appearance. Thefe pro- 
duce their Flowers mMay and June, 
and their Seeds ripen in Augujl. 

The variegated Kinds are preserv- 
ed by parting of their Roots ; be- 
caufe the Plants raifed from Seeds 
would be fubject to degenerate, and 
become plain. The beft time to 
part them is about Michaelmas, that 
they may take good Root before the 
cold Weather prevents them. Thefe 
fhould have a frem light Soil ; but 
if it be too rich, their Roots will 
rot in Winter, and the Stripes will 
go off. 

POLYANTHES, TheTuberofe. 
The Char afters are ; 

*The Flovoer hath no Empalement, 
and it funnelftajted, of ' one Leaf , haw- 
ing a long curved Tube, and fpread 
open at the Top, where it is divided 
into fix Parts : in the Bottom of the 
Flower is fituated the roundijh Poin- 
tal, attended by fix thick Stamina, 
which are ohtufe : the Point al after- 
nvard becomes a roundijh triangular 
Seed-vejel, having three Cells, vuhich 
arg full of roundijh Seeds. 
The Species are; 



p o 

!. Polyanthes fiorihus alternis. 
Lin. Hort. Cliff. TheTuberofe. 

2. Polyanthes ft^ribus al terms, 
flore plena. The double Tuberofe. 

3. Polyanthes fori bus umbella- 
tis. Lin. Vir. The African blue 
umbellated Hyacinth. 

The firft Sore has been long culti- 
vated in the tvglijh Gardens for the 
exceeding Beauty and Fragrancy of 
its Flowers : the Roots of this Sort 
are annually brought from Genoa, 
by the Perfons who import Orange- 
trees ; for as thefe Roots are too 
tender* to thrive in the full Ground 
in England, there are few Perfons 
who care to take the Trouble of 
nurfing up their Off-fets, till they 
become blowing Roots ; becaufe it 
will be two or three Years before 
they arrive to a proper Size for pro- 
ducing Flowers : and as they muft 
be protected from the Froft in Win- 
ter, the Trouble and Expence of 
Covers is greater than the Roots are 
worth ; for they are generally fold 
pretty reafonable, by thofe who im- 
port them from Italy. 

The fecond Sort is a Variety of 
the firft, which was obtained from 
the Seed by Monfieur Le Cour, of 
Leyden in Holland, who for many 
Years was fo tenacious of parting 
with any of the Roots, even after he 
had propagated them in fuch Plenty, 
as to have more than he could plant, 
as to caufe them to be cut in Pieces, 
that he might have the Vanity to 
boaft of being the only Perfon who 
was poffeiTed of this Flower : but of 
late Years the Roots have been 
fpread into many Parts ; and as there 
is no other Method to propagate this, 
but by the Off-fets, moft People who 
have had of this Sort are careful to 
multiply and increafe it ; which is 
done by planting the Off-fets upon 
a moderate "Hot- bed, early tttMartk; 



P o 

and covering the Bed in cold Wea- 
ther with Mats or Straw ; and in 
Summer they mud have plenty of 
Water in dry Weather : in this Bed 
theRoots may remain till the Leaves 
decay in Autumn ; but if there 
mould happen any Froft before that 
time, the Bed mould be covered to 
guard the Roots from the Froft, be- 
caufe it will deftroy them if the Froft 
enters fo low as to reach the Roots : 
and where there is due Care taken to 
fcreen them from Froft, and too 
much Wet, it will be the beft Way 
to let the Roots remain in the Bed 
till the End of November, or the Be- 
ginning of December, provided hard 
Frofts do not fet in fooner ; for the 
lefs time the Roots are out of the 
Ground, the ftronger they will be, 
and the fooner they will flower : 
when the Roots are taken up, they 
mould "be cleaned from the Earth, 
and laid up in dry Sand, where they 
may be fafe from Froft and Wet ; 
where they fhould remain until the 
Seafon for planting them again : this 
fame Method mould be pra&ifed by 
thofe who are defirous to cultivate 
the fingle Sort. 

I (hall next give Direftions for 
the Management of thofe Roots, 
which are annually brought from 
Italy : and firft, in the Choice of the 
Roots, thofe which are the largeft 
and plumpeft, if they are perfectly 
firm and found, are the belt ; and 
the fewer Off-fets they have, the 
ftronger they will flower : but the 
Under-part of the Roots mould be 
particularly examined, becaufe it is 
there that they firft decay: after the 
Roots are chofen, before they are 
planted, the OfF-fets mould be taken 
off ; for if thefe are left upon the 
Roots, they will draw away part of 
the Nourilhment from the old Root, 
whereby the Flower-ftems will be 
greatly weakened. 



p o 

As thefe Roots commonly arrive 
in England in the Month of Februa- 
ry, thofe who are defirous to have 
thefe early in Flower, fhould make 
a moderate Hot-bed the Beginning 
of March, which fhould have good, 
rich Earth laid upon the Dung,about 
eight or nine Inches deep ; this Bed 
fhould be covered with a Frame ; and: 
when the Bed is in a proper Tempe- 
rature for Warmth, the Roots mould 
be planted at about fix Inches Di- 
ftance from each other every Way. 
The upper-Part of the Root fhould 
not be buried more than one Inch 
in the Ground : when the Roots are 
planted, there fhould be but little 
Water given them, until they fhoot 
above-ground ; for too much Wee 
will rot them, when they are in an 
unaclive State : but afterward they 
will require plenty of Water, efpe- 
cially when the Seafon is warm : 
when the Flower-ftems begin to ap- 
pear, the Bed fhould have a large 
Share of Air given to it ; otherwife 
the Stalks will draw up weak, and 
produce but few Flowers : for the 
more Air thefe Plants enjoy in good 
Weather, the llronger they will grovr, 
and produce a greater Number of 
Flowers : therefore, toward the Be- 
ginning of May, the Frame may be 
quite taken off the Bed, and Hoops 
faftened over ir, to fupport a Cover- 
ing of Mats, which need not be laid 
over, but in the Night, or in very 
cold Weather ; fo that by enjoying 
the free open Air, their Stems will 
be large : and if they are well water- 
ed in dry Weather, their Flowers 
will be large, and a great Number 
on each Stem. 

This firft Planting will require 
more Care than thofe which are dc- 
fign'd to come after them ; for in 
order to have aSucceffionof thefe 
Flowers, the Roots mould be plant- 
ed at three different times ; vhs, the 

firft 



P o 

nrft the Beginning of March ; the 
fecond the Beginning of April ; and 
the third at the End of that Month, 
or the Beginning of May : but thefe 
Beds will require a much lefs Quan- 
tity of Dung than the fir it, efpeciai- 
ly that Bed which is the laft made ; 
for if there is but Warmth enough 
to put the Roots in Motion, it is as 
much as will be required : and this 
laft Bed will need no Covering ; for 
many times thofe Roots which are 
planting in the full Ground at this 
Seafon, will produce ftrong Flowers 
in Autumn : but in order to fecure 
their Flowering, it is always the beft 
way to plant them on a gentle Hot- 
bed. As to the fecond Bed, that 
mould be arched over with Hoops, 
and covered with Mats every Night, 
and in bad Weather ; otherwife the 
late Froits, which frequently happen 
in May, will pinch them. 

Thefe Plants may remain in the 
Beds until the Flowers are near ex- 
panded ; at which time they may be 
carefully taken up, preferving the 
Earth to their Roots, and planted in 
Pots, and then placed in the Shade 
for four or live Days: after which 
time the Pots may be removed into 
Halls, or other Apartments, where 
they will continue in Beauty a long 
time ; and their fragrant Odour will 
perfume the Air of the Rooms where 
they are placed ; and by having a 
Succemon of them, they may be 
continued from Midfummer to the 
End of Oclober : but as the Stems 
of thefe Plants advance, there ihould 
be fome Sticks put down by each 
Root ; to which the Stems fhould 
be faftened, to prevent their being 
broken by the Wind. 

It is a common Practice with many 
People, to plant thefe Roots in Pots, 
and plunge the Pots into an Hot- 
bed : but there is much more Trou- 
ble in raifing them in this Method, 



p o 

than in that before directed ; for if 
the Roots are not planted in very 
fmall Pots, there will be a Neceffity 
of making the Beds much larger, in 
order to contain a Quantity of the 
Roots : and if they are firft planted 
in fmall Pots, they mould be (haken, 
out of thefe into Pots of a largerSize, 
when they begin to moot out their 
Flower-Items ; otherwife the Stalks 
will be weak, and produce but few 
Flowers : therefore 1 prefer the other 
Method, as there is no Danger in re- 
moving the Roots, if it is done with 
Care. 

When the Roots are ftrong, and 
properly managed, the Stems will 
rife three or four Feet high ; and 
each Stem will produce twentyFlow- 
ers or more : and in this the great 
Beauty of thefe Flowers confifts ; for 
when there are but a few Flowers 
upon the Stalks, they will foon fade 
away, and muft be frequently re- 
newed ; for the Flowers are produ- 
ced in Spikes coming out alternately 
upon the Stalk, the lower Flowers 
opening fir ft ; and as thefe decay, 
thofe above them open ; fo that in 
proportion to the Number of Flow- 
ers upon each Stalk, they continue 
in Beauty a longer or fhorter time. 

The Sort with double Flowers 
will require a little more Care, in 
order to have the Flowers fair ; but 
this Care is chiefly at the time of 
Blowing ; for the Flowers of this 
Sort will not open, if they are ex- 
pofed to the open Air ; therefore 
when the Flowers are completely 
formed, and near opening, the Pots 
mould be placed in an airy Glafs- 
cafe, or a Shelter of Glafles fhould 
be prepared for them, that theDews 
and Rains may not fall upon them; 
for that will cauls the Flowers to rot 
away before they open ; and the' 
Heat of the Sun drawn thro' the 
Glaffes will caufe their Flowers to 
expand 



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P o 



expand very fair. With this Ma- 
nagement, I have had this Sort with 
very double Flowers extremely fair, 
and upward of twenty upon one 
Stem; fo that they have made a 
beautiful Appearance : but where 
this has not been pradlifed, I have 
rarely feen one of them in any Beau- 
ty- 

The third Sort is a Native of the 
Cope of Good Hype, from whence the 
Seeds were brought to fome curious 
Gardens in Holland, where the Plants 
were raifed and multiplied, and have 
fince been difperfed into moft of the 
curious Gardens in Europe : this 
Plant is well figured and defcribed 
by Dr. Commelin, in the HortusAm- 
fielodamenfis, by the Tittle of Hya- 
cinthus Africanus tuberofus 3 fore ccc- 
ruleo umbellato : but Dr. Linnaus 
has removed this from the Genus of 
Hyacintbus, becaufe the Flowers of 
thefe Plants have an incurvedTube, 
and the Apices are inferted in the 
upper Part ; whereas the Flower of 
the Hyacinth is bell-lhaped, and has 
three Neftariums, which are joined 
in the Centre. 

The«Roots of this Plant are com- 
pofed of many thick fleihy Tubers, 
fomewhat in Shape like thofe of the 
Ranunculus, but are much larger : 
the Leaves are long and flat, retem- 
bling thofe of Daffodil ; but are of a 
«1 ark-green Colour. Thefe remain 
green all the Year ; but in Summer 
they are not fo ftrong and vigorous 
as in Winter, which is the Seafon of 
their Growth : the Flowers are pro- 
duced in an Umbel, upon the Top 
of a naked Stalk, which is about a 
Foot and an half high : thefe Flow- 
ers are maped fomewhat like thofe 
of the Hyacinth, being large, and of 
a fine blue Colour : the Seafon of 
this Plant's flowering, is about Mi- 
chaelmas : but when the Plants are 
ftrong, the Flowers will be in greater 



Quantity ; fo that they will continue 
in Beauty near two Months : and 
this being at a Seafon when there is 
a Scarcity of Flowers, renders this 
the more valuable. Indeed, there 
are few Plants which are preferved 
in the Green- ho uie, that merit a 
Place more than this Plant ; for 
where they are in plenty, they may 
be fo managed, as to have a Succef- 
f;on of them in Flower upward of 
three Months ; and this in the Win- 
ter-feafon, when they are placed i& 
the Green- houfe. 

This Plant is propagated by part- 
ing of the Roots ; for the Seeds are 
feldom perfected in England: the 
bell time for parting the Roots is 
about the End of May ; at which, 
time the Leaves are not in a growing 
State: but in the parting of the 
Roots, they muft not be divided too 
fmall, efpecially if there is regard 
paid to their Flowering ; for the 
fmaller the Roots are, the weaker 
will be the Flowers ; fo that by ia- 
creafmg the Number of Roots too 
faft, they will not produce fo man/ 
Flowers as they otherwife would do : 
thefe Roots muft be planted in Pars 
filled with rich frefhEarth,and mould 
be placed in the Summer-feafon in 
the openAir, in alheltered Situation,, 
and not too much watered during 
that time ; for as they are then in 
the moft unactive State, much Wet 
often rots their Roots. In Autumn, 
when the Nights begin to be cold, 
the Pots mould be removed into the 
Green-houfe, and placed near the 
Windows, where they may have a 
large Share df Air ; for if they are 
much crouded by otherPlants,w here- 
by the Air is excluded from them, 
the Flowers are fubject to Mouldi- 
nefs, which will foon fpoil their 
Beauty. During the Winter-feafon 
the Plants muft be frequently re- 
frefhed with Water, efpecially while 

they 



P o 

they continue in Flower ; but they 
xnuft not have it in too great Quan- 
tities ; for as the Roots are thick and 
flefliy,muchMoifture will caufe them 
to rot: thefePlants do not require any 
artificial Heat in Winter ; fo may 
be preferved in a good Green houfe; 
or if they are placed in a dry airy 
Glafs-cafe with Ficoides, and other 
hardy fucculent Plants of the fame 
Country, they will thrive and flower 
extremely well : and with this Ma- 
nagement I have had the Seed-vef- 
iels formed, which have grown to a 
confiderable Size ; but the long cold 
Nights, which then came on, caufed 
the Air to be very damp, which 
occafioned a Mouldinefs, that de- 
ftroyed the Seeds : but I believe by 
removing the Plants into a moderate 
Stove, as foon as the Flowers are 
over, this might be prevented, and 
good Seeds may be obtained. 

POLIUM, Poley-mountain. 
The Charadlers are ; 

It hath a labiated Flower, cotijiji - 
ing of one Leaf, whofe Stamina Jupply 
the Place of the Cref : the Beard, or 
Under- lip, is divided into fi<ve Seg- 
ments, as the Germander : out of 
the Flower-cup rifes the Pointal, at- 
tended, as it were, by four Embryoes, 
which afterward become fo many 
Seeds,Jkut in the Flower- cup : to theje 
Marks muft be added, That the Flow- 
ers are collecled into an Head upon the 
Tops of the Stalks and Branches. 
The Species are ; 

1. Polium montanum luteum. C. 
B. P. Yellow Mountain-poley. 

2. Polium montanum album, C. 
B. P. White Poley-mountain. 

3. Polium lawendulte folio. C. 
B. P. Poley-mountain with a nar- 
rower Lavender-leaf. 

4 . Polium la<vendular folio angu- 
Jliori. C. B.P. Poley-mountain with 
a narrower Lavender-leaf. 



p o 

5. Polium Pyrenaicum fupinun^ 
hederts terrejiris folio. Tourn. Creep- 
ing Pyrencan Poley-mountain, with 
a Ground-ivy-leaf. 

6. Polium maritimum ereclum 
Monfpeliacum. C. B. P. Upright 
Poley-mountain of Montpelier. 

7. Polium montanum lutcum, fer- 
rat is angujiioribus incanis foliis. Bar- 
rel. Yellow Poley-mountain, with 
narrow hoary ferrated Leaves. 

8. Polium montanum alterum, 
foliis angujiioribus, capitulis longiori- 
bus. C. B. P. Another Moun- 
tain-poley, with narrower Leaves, 
and longer Heads. 

9. Polium montanum repens. C. 
B. P. Creeping Mountain-poley. 

10. Polium maritimum fupinum, 
Venetum. C.B.P. Creeping mari- 
time Venetian Mountain-poley. 

11. Pol 1 u m Hifpanicum, chamtv- 
dryas folio, flare purpurafcente. Inf. 
R. H. Spanijh Mountain - poley, 
with a Germander-leaf, and a pur- 
plifh Flower. 

12. Polium Lufitanicum fupinum 
tninus incanum, caulibus purpurafcen- 
tibus,flore albo. Injl. R. H. Creep- 
ing leis hoary Portugal Mountain- 
poley, with purplifh Stalks, and a 
white Flower. 

13. Polium Hifpanicum latifoli- 
um, capitulo bnviori, purpurafcente 
fore. Inft. R. H. Broad-leav'd 
Spanijh Mountain - poley, with a 
fhorter Head, and a purplifh Flower. 

14. Polium Hifpanicum maximum 
album. Inf. R. H. The largeit 
white Spanijh Mountain-poley. 

15. Po l I u m Hifpanicum maximum 
luteum. Inf. R. H. The greateft 
yellow Spanijh Mountain-poley. 

16. Polium Hifpanicum mari- 
timum frutefcens, rorifmarini folio s 
fore rubra. Jnf. R.H. Shrubby ma- 
ritime Spanijh Mountain-poley, with 
a Rofmary-leaf, and a red Flower. 

17. PoLi- 



P o 

17. Polium Hifpanicum fupinum^ 
Jiore fiavejcente. Inji. R. H. Creep- 
ing Spanljh Poley-mountain, with a 
yellowifh Flower. 

18. Polium Hifpanicum, linari* 
foliis brevioribus, fore albo. Inji. R. 
H. Spanijb Poley - mountain, with 
fhorter Toadflax-leaves, and a white 
Slower. 

19. Polium montanum gnapha- 
loides incifum, Jiore rubro, & fupinum. 
Barr. Icon. Creeping Poley-moun- 
tain, refembling Cudweed, with a 
red Flower. 

20. Polium Hifpanicum luteum, 
majorance folio. Inf. R. H. Yellow 
Spanijb Poley - mountain, with a 
Marjoram-leaf. 

21. Polium Hifpanicum, ferpylli 
folio, purpurafcente Jiore. Inji. R. H. 
Spanif? Ppley-mountain, with aMo- 
ther-of- thyme-leaf, and a purplilh 
Flower. 

22. Polium Hifpanicum, thymi fo- 
tio, purpurafcente coma. Inji. R. H. 
Spanifh Poley - mountain, with a 
Thyme- leaf, and purplifh Top. 

23. Polium Creticum maritimum 
humijujum. Toum. Cor. Trailing 
maritime Poley-mountain of Crete. 

24. Polium Smym.<eum, Jcordii 
folio. Toum. Cor. Smyrna Poley - 
mountain, with a Water-germander- 
leaf. 

Thcfe are all of them perennial 
Plants, exeept the third and fourth 
Sorts : thefe two feldom continue 
longer than two or three Years, fo 
are propagated by Seeds ; but the 
others, which are abiding Plant?, are 
propagated by Cuttings. Thefe 
Plants grow wild in the South of 
trance, in Spain, Portugal, and fome 
in the Levant ; from whence their 
Seeds have been obtained by thofe 
Penons who delight in Botanical 
Studies : fome of thefe Sorts grow 
upright to the Height of two Feet ; 
bat the greatefl Part of them trail 
Vol. ill 



P 

upon the Ground, and have woody 
Branches: the chief Beauty of thefe 
Plants confifts in their hoary Leaves ; 
for the Flowers are fmall, and have 
very little Beauty in them ; fo the 
Plants are feldom preferved in Gar- 
dens for their Beauty : however, 
fome of the fhrubby Kinds may be 
admitted into the Pleafure-garden ; 
where, if they are planted on a dry 
lean Soil, they will abide many 
Years, and add to the Variety. 

Thefe Plants may be difpofed in a 
Garden, fo as to afford Pieafure, by 
mixing them with Alarum, Maftich, 
and feveral other aromatic Plants, 
upon the Hoping Sides of Banks, 
which are expofed to the Sun ; or 
upon little Hillocks raifed in a mel- 
tered Situation ; where, by the Di- 
verfity of their hoary Branches, being 
of various Shapes, they will make a 
pretty Appearance : and in fuch Pla- 
ces they will refill the Cold much 
better than when they are planted 
in a good Soil ; for it they grow 
freely in Summer, their Shoots will 
be replete with Moifture, and the 
Froft will be much more likely to 
deftroy thefe than it will thofe whole, 
Shoots are fhort, dry, and hard r. 
and this holds thro' moft of the aro- 
matic Plants ; for Sage, Rofmary, 
Lavender, &c* which have been 
growing out of dry Walls, tho' 
greatly expofed to all Wmds, have 
refilled the Cold of the fevereft Win- 
ters, when moll of the Plants which 
were growing in Gardens were de- 
ftroy ed. 

They are propagated in England, 
where they feldom produce Seeds, 
by Cuttings or Slips, which mould be 
planted the Beginning of April, j a it 
before they are about to moot, upon 
a Border expofed to the Eaft : and 
if the Seafon proves dry, they mufl 
be watered and faaded until they 
have taken Root ; and afterward 

4 A ,they 



P o 



they will require no other Care but 
to keep them clean from Weeds ; 
and at Michaelmas the Plants mould 
be removed where they are defign'd 
to remain ; but it will be proper to 
put a Plant of each Sort in Pots, that 
they may be fneltered in Winter, to 
preferve the Kinds. 

The fecond and fixth Sorts are 
fometimes ufed in Medicine. 

POLYANTHUS. Vide Primu- 
la. 

POLYGALA, Milkwort. 
The Char after s are ; 

// hath a Flower con fifing of we 
Leaf, of an anomalous Figure, per- 
forated behind, but divided into two 
L'ps before : the upper mojl L'p is di- 
vided into tivo Parts ; but the under 
one is eurioufy fringed: out of the 
lower Part cf the Floxver rifes the 
Pointer/, tvhich afterward becomes a 
broad Fruit , divided into two Cells, 
which contain oblong Speeds : the Fruit 
is generally inch. rV hi the Flower- 
cup, which is composed of five Leaves', 
viz. three fmall ones, and tivo larger, 
itvhieh afterward embrace the Fruit 
like Wings. 

The Species are ; 

1 . Poly gala major caerulea. 7a- 
hern. Greater blue Milkwort. 

2. Polygala m:jor alba. Tabern. 
Greater white Milkwort. 

3. Poly gala vulgaris. C. B. P 
Common Milkwort, with a blue 
Flower. 

4. Polygala alba. Tabern. White 
common Milkwort. 

5. Polygala montana minima 
mv 'tifolia. hji. R H. The hail 
mountain Milkwort, with a Myrtle- 
leaf. 

6. Poltgala C ret tea vulgari fi- 
tnJlis, fl.'re albido lonpiore. Tourn. Cor. 
Milkwort of Crete, like the common 
Sort, with a longer whitifli Flower. 

7. Polygala Orient 'a lis fujiua 



myrti folia, fore carruleo. 7ourn. Cor. 
Low Ealtern Milkwort, with a Myr- 
tle-leaf, and a blue Flower. 

8. Polygala Orient a lis lim folia, 
f ore magno aibo. Toum. Cor. Eaftern 
Milkwort, with a Flax-leaf, and 3 
large white Flower. 

9. Polygala Orient alis liniflia, 
fore magno purpureo. Tcum.Cor. Eaft- 
ern Milkwort, with a Flax-leaf r 
and a large purple Flower. 

10. Polygala Luftaniea frute- 
fcens, magna fore, foliis minimis. Injt. 
R. H. Shrubby Portugal Milkwort, 
with a large Flower, and very fmall 
Leaves. 

It, Polygala Africana fute* 
fcens angufii folia major. 01 denl. Great- 
er flirubby African Milkwort, with 
a narrow Leaf. 

12. Polygala Africana, lini fo- 
lio, magno fore, Oldenl. African 
Milkwort, with a Flax-leaf, and a 
large Flower. 

13. Polygala Virginiana, folii* 
oblongis, floribus in thvrfo candidis, 
radice alexipharmica. Milkwort of 
Virginia, with obiong Leaves, and 
white Flowers, growing in a loofe 
Spike, whofe Root is alexipharmac ; 
commonly called the Senegaw Rat- 
tle -fnake-root. 

14. Polygala caerulea America- 
na, angufis iff denfioribus foliis, vul- 
go Clin-clin. Feuillee. Blue Ameri- 
can Milk wort, with narrow Leaves ; 
commonly called by the Indians Clin- 
clin. 

15. Polygala rubra V irginiana, 
fpica parva compacla. Baniji. Red 

Virginian Milkwort, with a fmall 
compact Spike. 

16. Polygala fpicat a rubra ma- 
jor, foliis iff caulibus caerulefcentibus. 

BamJL Greater red fpiked Milk- 
wort, with bluifii Leaves and Stalks. 

1.7. Polygala f Flos amharvalis- 
V irginiana, flvi ibus lutcis in caput ob- 

longum 



P o 

longum congefth. Banift. Virginian 
Milkwort, with yellow Flowers col- 
lected in an oblong Head. 

I 8. Polycala quadrifolia f tru- 
ciata, foribus cxnjirirfi rubentibus, in 
globum compaelis. Sanift. Four-reav'd 
Milkwort, with redilh-green Flow- 
ers, growing in a compact Globe. 

19. Polycala q uadri folia minor 
Virginiana, fpica parnja rubenti. Ba- 
;ii(i. Smaller four leav'd Virginian 
Milkwort, with a fmall redifh 
Spike. 

20. Polycala Mariana, angu- 
fiiore folio, fore purpureo. Pluk.Man- 
tif. Narrow- leav'd Milkwort of 
Maryland, with a purple Flower. 

zi. Polygala Mariana quadri- 
folia minor, fpica par-va albicante. 
Pluk. Mantif. Smaller four-leav'd 
Milkwort of Maryland, with a fmall 
whitifh Spike. 

•22. Polycala Africana frute- 
feens, folio buxi, fore maxim*. 01- 
denl. Shrubby African Milkwort, 
with a Box- leaf, and a very large 
Flower. 

The four firft Species are found 
wild in moift Meadows in divers 
.Parts of England, and are never pre- 
ferved in Gardens, except for the 
fake of Variety : however, I thought 
proper to infert them in this Place, 
to introduce .the other Sorts ; fome 
of which are beautiful Plants, and 
are worthy to be prefcrved in all 
curious Collections of rare Plants. 

The fifth, fixth, feventh, and 
eighth Sorts are alfo very humble 
Plants, which grow wild in Spain^ 
h:dy, and the South of Frcr.cr, and 
are feldom introduced in Gardens ; 
for it is Very difficult to get any of 
thefe Plants to grow, when they are 
tranfplanted from Fields to Gardens; 
for they delight to grow amongft the 
Grafs ! io that when it is clear'd 
from about them, they feldom 
thrive. 



P o 

The fixth, feventh, eighth, and 
ninth Sorts were difcovered by Dr. 
Tournefort, in the Levant : thefe are 
alfo low Plants, which grow in the 
fame manner as the former ; there- 
fore are not eafily cultivated in Gar- 
dens : the only Method to get thefe 
to grow in a Garden, is, to fow their 
Seeds in Autumn, foon after they 
are ripe, in a fhady Situation, and 
a moift Soil ; where the Plants will 
come up the following Spring, and 
produce Flowers ; but they feldom 
continue long after. 

The tenth, eleventh, and twelfth 
Sorts are Ihrubby Plants, which are 
preferved in fome curious Gardens 
for Variety. Thefe may be alfo 
propagated by Seeds, which m*ou!d 
be fown on a moderate Hot-bed in 
the Spring ; and when the Plants 
are come up, they mould be tranf- 
planted into feparate Pots filed with 
frefh light Earth, and then plunged 
into the Hot bed again, obferving 
to made them from the Sun until 
they have taken P^oot ; after which 
time they mould have a large Share 
of frefh Air in warm Weather, and 
muft be frequently watered. About 
the middle of May thefe Plants 
mould be inured to bear the open 
Air by degrees; and in June they 
may be placed abroad in a meltered 
Situation, where they may remain 
during the Summer-feafon ; and in 
Autumn they muft be removed into 
the Grcen-houfe, and managed as 
hath, been directed for Myrtles and 
Oleanders. Thefe Plants continue a 
long time in Flower ; io are worthy 
of a Place in every curious Garden, 
for the fake of Variety. 

The fourteenth Sort is a Native of 
the Mountains in the Kingdom of 
Chily, in the Spanifh Weft -Indies, 
where it is ufed by the Indians to 
cure Pleurifiei, and all Complaints - 
of the Side. This Sort is of low 

4 A z Growth, 



P o 

Growth, feldom rifing higher than 
the common Sort ; but is too tender 
to live in the open Air in England ; 
fo the Plants fhould be planted in 
Pots, and preferred in the Green- 
houie in Winter. This may be 
propagated by Seeds, as the two for- 
mer Sorts. 

The next feven Sorts, as alfo the 
thirteenth, are all of them Natives 
of Virginia, Maryland, Ne<w - Eng- 
land, and fcveral other Places in the 
North of America ; fo are hardy 
enough to live in the open Air in 
England, provided they are planted 
in a warm Situation, and on a light 
Soil. Thefe are very pretty Plants, 
and require very little Trouble to 
cultivate them ; for after they are 
come up from Seeds, the only Care 
they require, is, to keep them clear 
from Weeds, and in very dry Wea- 
ther to water them while they are 
young ; for when thej have obtain- 
ed Strength, they will not be in 
muchDanger of fufFering by Drought ; 
for the Roots run pretty deep into 
the Ground, fo will find Nouri foment 
to fupport them. 

The Root of the thirteenth Sort 
hath been long ufed by the Senegas 
Indians to cure the Bite of the Rat- 
tle-make ; which, if taken in time, 
is an infallible Remedy. And of late 
Years it hath been ufed by the Inha- 
bitants cf Virginia in many Difor- 
<iers, which are occafioned by a 
thick fizy Blood ; fo that the Root 
of this Plant, when its Virtues are 
fully known, may become one of 
the moil ufeful Medicines yet difco- 
yered. The fourteenth Sort, by the 
Account which Pere Feuillce gives of 
it r partakes of the fame Qualities 
with this, tho' the Indians ufe it dif- 
ferently ; for he fays they make a 
Deco&ion of the Plant, which they 
drink to cure the Pain of the Side ; 
whereas the Senegaiu Indians, ufe the 



p o 

Root of the thirteenth Sort, which 
they powder, and generally carry 
about them, when they travel in the 
Woods, left they mould be bit by 
the Rattle-fnake ; and whenever this, 
happens, they take a Quantity of 
the Powder inwardly, and apply 
fome of it to the Part bitten ; which, 
is a fure Remedy. 

The twenty. fecond Sort is propa- 
gated by Seeds, which mould be 
fown in Pots of light Earth, foon af- 
ter it is ripe, and Iheltered in Win- 
ter ; and in the Spring the Pots 
mould be placed upon a moderate 
Hot-bed : and when the Plants are 
come up, they mould be prick'd in- 
to fmall Pots fill'd with light rich 
Earth, and plunged into another 
Hot-bed r where they mould be 
maded until they have taken Roov 
and often refrefhed with Water ; af- 
ter which they muft have Air given 
them in proportion to the Warmth 
of the Seafon - r and in July they* 
may be removed into the open Air, 
placing them in a warm Situation,, 
where'they may be iheltered from 
itrong Winds;, and in dry Weather 
they mull be often refrefhed with 
Water: in this Place they may re- 
main until Oclober, when the Nights 
begin to be frolty ; then you mould 
remove them into the Green-houfe, 
placing them where they may have 
the Advantage of the free Air r when 
the Weather is favourable enough to. 
admit of the Glafles being open'd ; 
for they only require to be protected 
from Froft. During the Wiriter- 
feafon they fhould olten be refrefhed 
with Water; but it mould not be 
given to them in large Quantities,, 
which will injure their Roots. In 
Summer they may be expofed with 
Myrtles, Geraniums, in a Si- 

tuation where they are defended 
from ftr.ong Winds ; and as their 
Roots increafe, the Size of theur 

Pocs. 



P o 

Pots mould be inlarg'd ■, but you 
muft be very cautious not to over- 
pot them, which is injurious to all 
Sorts of Exotic Plants. 

The Earth in which thefe Plants 
are fet, mould be rich, frefti, and 
light, in which they will thrive 
exceedingly, and continue in Flow- 
er molt Part of the Year, which ren- 
ders it very valuable ; and if the 
Seafon proves favourable, the Seeds 
will ripen very well : but you muft 
be careful to gather them when ripe, 
otherwife they will drop off, and be 
loll. The Seeds of this Plant will 
fometimes remain above a Year in 
the Ground, fo that the karth in the 
Pots mould not be difturbed when 
the Plants do not come up the firft 
Seafon. 

POLYGONATUM, Solomon's 
Seal. 

The Characlers are ; 
The Flovjer conjljis of one Leaf is 
tubulate, and expands at the Top in 
Shape of a Bell, and is divided into 
fever al Segments : the Ovary, which 
is ftuated in the Centre of the Flow- 
er, becomes a foft globular Fruit, con- 
taining roundijh Seeds 
The Species are ; 

1. PolygonaTum lati folium <vul- 
gare. C. B. P. Common broad- 
leav'd Solomons Seal. 

2. Polygon atum latifolium vul- 
gar e, cculibus rubentiius. H. L. 
Common broaO-leav'd Solomon % Seal, 
with red Stalks. 

3. Polygon atum latifolium mi- 
nus, fore majre. C. B. P. Lefler 
broad-leav'd Solomons Seal, with a 
larger Flower. 

4. Polygonatum latifolium, 
fiore duplici odore. H. R. Par. Broad - 
leav'd Solomon's Seal, with a double 
fweet-fmelling Flower. 

Polygonatum latifolium 
maximum. C. B. P. The greateft 
broad-leav'd Solomons Seal. 



p o 

6. Polygonatum latifolium, hel~ 
lebori albi foliis. C. B. P. Broad- 
leav'd Solomon's Seal, with Leaves 
like the white Hellebore. 

7. Polygonatum latifolium, fore 
majore odoro. C. B. P. Broad-leav'd 
Solomon's Seal, with a large fweet 
Flower. 

8. Polygonatum Orient ale lati- 
folium, fore par vo. Tourn. Cor. Eaft- 
ern broad - leav'd Solomon's Seal, 
with a fmall Flower. 

9. Polygonatum anguflifolium 
non ramofum. C. B. P. Narrow- 
leav'd unbranched Solomon's Seal. 

10. Polygonatum anguflifolium 
ramofum. C. B, P. Narrow-leav'd 
branching Solomons Seal. 

11. Polygonatum Americanum 
fcandens altijjimam, foliis tamni. Plum. 
The talleft climbing American Solo- 
mon's Seal. 

Thefe Plants are eafily propagated 
by parting of their Roots in the 
Spring, before they begin to moot, 
obferving always to preferve a Bud 
to each Off- fet : they mould be 
planted in a frelh light Earth, where 
they will thrive exceedingly ; but if 
it be over-rich, it will deftroy their 
Roots. The firft Sort is the moft 
common in England, and is what the 
College has directed for medicinal 
Ufe. 

The fifth and fixth Sorts grow 
very tall, provided they are planted 
in a pretty good Soil. In a moiit 
Seafon it is common for thefe to be 
upward of three Feet high ; whereas 
the ordinary Sort feldom rifes above 
half that Height. The Leaves of 
thefe Sorts are alio very large, fo thai 
they make an handfome Appearance 
in the Borders of large Gardens. 

The feyenth Sort hath broader 
Leaves than the common Sort; but 
doth not grow much higher. The 
Flowers of this Sort beinu i«;ger, str><< 
having an agreeable bCent, rendei 

4 A 3 it 



P o 



P o 



it worthy of a . Place in large Gar- 
dens. 

The eighth Sort was difcovered by 
Dr. Tourhefirt in the Levant ; but 
is not common in Europe : this hath 
a broader Leaf than the common 
Sort, and the Flower is much fmall- 
cr. It is preferved in feme curious 
Botanic Gardens, for the fake of 
Variety. 

The ninth and tenth Sorts are very 
different from either of the former : 
thefe have four or five Leaves, pro- 
duced at each Joint, which are 
much longer and narrower than thofe 
of the common Sort; fo that they 
make a very different Appearance ; 
therefore mould be allowed a Place 
in large Gardens, for the fake of 
Variety. 

All thefe Sorts are as hardy as the 
common Solomon's Seal, and may be 
propagated by parting of their Roots, 
in the fame manner as is directed for 
the common Sort. 

The eleventh Sort is a Native of 
the warmeft Parts of America, where 
it grows in the Woods, and climbs 
on whatever Trees grow near it ; by 
the Help of which it riles to a great 
Height. This produces its Flowers 
in long Bunches, femewhat like the 
black Brlovy. 

The Seeds of this Plant were fent 
from Campechy by Mr. Robert Millar, 
Surgeon. This Plant mutt be pre- 
ferved in Stoves, otherwife it will 
not live thro' the Winter in this 
Country : it may be propagated by 
Seeds, which mould be fown on an 
Hot-bed early in the Spring: and 
when the Plants are come up, they 
fhonld be treated in the fame man- 
ner as hath been directed for Diof- 
coria : with which Management this 
Plane will thrive, and produce 
flowers in this Country. 

PQLYPODiUM, Polypody, 



The Characters are ; 
It is a capillary Plant, with oblong 
jagged Leaves, having a middle Rib f 
which joins them to the Stalks running 
thro' each Divijion. 
The Species are ; 
I . Polypodium vulgare. C.3.P. 
Common Polypody. 

2. Polypodium majus, j errata 
folio. Barr. Icon. Greater Poly- 
pody, with a ferrated Leaf. 

3. Polytodium Cumbro-Britan- 
ma m, pinnulis ad margines lacinia- 
tis. Raii Syn. Weljh Polypody, with 
laciniated Leaves. 

There are feveral other Species of 
this Plant, which- are Natives of 
America ; fome of which are pre- 
ferved in fome curious BcisniC Gar- 
dens for Variety : but as they are 
rarely cultivated in other Cardens, 
it is not worth while to enumerate 
them in this Place. 

The firft Sort is that which is ufed 
in Medicine, and is found growing 
upon old Walls, and fhady Banks, in 
divers'" Parts of England. The fecond 
feems to be only a Variety of the 
firft, which differs therefrom in be- 
ing larger, and having ferrated 
Leaves. The third Sort was brought 
from Wales, where it grows in great 
Plenty, and is the moll beautiful of 
all the Sorts. Thefe Plants may be 
propagated by parting of their 
Roots in the Spring before they 
fhcot, and mould be planted in a 
very poor moid Soil, under the 
Shade of a Wall ; for if they are 1 
expos'd to the Sun, they will not 
thrive : they chiefly delight to grow 
put of the Joints of Walls, and old 
Buildings ; but are commonly found > 
expofed to the North. 

FOMGRANATE. Vide Puni-: 

ca. 

FOMUM AD AMI. Vide Au 
rami urn. 

FOPU 



P o 



P o 



POPULAGO, Marfh-marigold. 
Toe Characters are ; 

The Flower conffls of federal 
Leaves, which are placd circularly , 
and expand in form of a Rofe ; in the 
middle of which rifes the Pointal, 
which afterward becomes a membra- 
naceous Fruit ; in which there are fe- 
deral Cells, which are, for the mcfi 
part, bent downward, collecled into 
little Heads, and are full of oblong 
Seeds. 

The Species are ; 
I. Populaco fore majore. Tourn. 
Marfii-marigold with a large Flow- 
er. 

r. Populaco fiore minore.Tourn. 
Marfti - mangold with a fmaller 
Flower. 

3. Populaco fore pleno. Toum. 
Marfh - marigold with a double 
Flower. 

The two nrft Sorts are very com- 
mon on boggy and watry Places in 
divers Partb of England, and are fel- 
dom cultivated in Gardens : but the 
third. Sort, which is a Variety from 
the fecond, is preferved in Gardens 
for its fine double Flowers. 

This Plant is propagated by part- 
ing of the Rcots in Autumn, and 
mull be planted on a moill Soil, 
otherwife the Flowers will not be 
near lb fair, nor will the Plants thrive. 
Thefe are very proper to place in 
very wet Parts of the Garden, where 
few other Plants will thrive ; and 
will afford an agreeable Variety du- 
ring their Seafon of Flowering, which 
is from the Middle ofJp il until the 
Latter-end of May: fo that they are 
worthy of a Place in every curious 
Flower-garden. 

POPULUS, The Poplar-tree. 
The Characters are ; 

The Leaves are brood, and, for the 
nt-'fi part, angular: the Male Treei 
produce amentaceous Flowers, which 
kwue many little Leaves and Apices, 



but are barren : the Female Trees pro* 
duce membraneous Pods, which open 
into two Parts, containing many Seeds, 
which have a large Quantity of Down 
adhering to them, and are collecled into 
Spikes, 

The Species are ; 

1. Populus alba, mi nor i bus foli' 
is. C. B. P. White Poplar, with 
fmaller Leaves 

2. Populus alba, majorilus fali- 
is. C. B. P. White Poplar, with 
large Leaves, commonly call'd the 
Abele tree. 

3. Populus tremula. C. B. P. 
The trembling Poplar, or#fpen-tree. 

4. Populus nigra. C. B. P. The 
black Poplar -tree, by fome falfly 
called the Cotton-tiee. 

5. Populus alba, folio minore 
variegato. The whrte Poplar, with 
itriped Leaves. 

6. Populus nigra Caroliniana, 
folio maximo, gemmis balfamum odo- 
ratiffunum fundentibus. Catefb. The 
Carolina black Poplar, with the 
largelt Leaf ; from whofeBuds ilfcies 
a very fweet Balfam. 

Thefe Trees may be propagated 
either from Layers or Cuttings, 
which will readily take Root ; as al- 
fo from Suckers, which the white 
Poplars fend up from their Roots in 
great Plenty. The belt time for 
traniplanting thefe Suckers is in 
Oclober, when their Leaves begin to 
decay. Thefe may be placed in a 
Nurfery for two or three Years, to 
get Strength, before they are planted 
out where they are defign'd to re- 
main : but if you intend to propagate 
them from Cuttings, it is better to 
defer the doing 01 that until Ftbru- 
ary ; at which time you may plant 
Truncheons of four or five Feet long, 
thrufting them about a Foot into the 
Ground : thefe will readily take 
Root j and if the Soil be moift in 
which they are planted, will arrive 

4 A 4 tc 



to a confiderable Bulk in a few 
Years. 

The black Poplar is not fo apt to 
take Root from large Truncheons ; 
therefore 'tis the better Method to 
plant Cuttings about a Foot and an 
half in Length, thrufting them a Foot 
deep into the Ground : thefe will 
take Root i*ery freely, and may be 
afterward tranfplanted where they 
are to remain. This Sort will grow 
upon almoft any Soil ; but will 
thrive beft in moift Places. 

I have planted Cuttings of this 
Tree, which in fourYears have been 
bigger in the Trunk than a Man's 
Thigh, and near twenty Feet in 
Height, and this upon a very indiffer- 
ent Soil ; but in a moift Soil, it is 
common for thefe Trees to Ihoot ten 
or twelve Feet in a Seafon : fo that 
where a Perfon hath a mind to make 
a Shelter in a few Years, there is 
fcarce any Tree fo proper for that 
Purpofe as this : but they mould 
not be planted too near the Pleafure- 
garden.becaufe theDown which falls 
from thefe Trees will make a prodi- 
gious Litter in the Spring. 

The white Sorts, as alfo the Af- 
pen-tree, likewife caufe a great Lit- 
ter in the Spring, when their Down 
falls off ; and their Roots being ve- 
ry apt to produce a large Quantity 
of Suckers, efpecially thofe Trees 
that came from Suckers, this renders 
them unfit to be planted near an 
Houfe or Garden ; but when they 
are interfpers'd with other Trees in 
large Plantations, they afford an 
agreeable Variety ; their Leaves be- 
in <? very white on their Under fides, 
which, when blown with the Wind, 
are turn'd ro Sight- 

A confiderable Advantage may 
be obtam'd by planting tjiefe Trees 
epon rno'il koggy Soils, where few 
fit her Trees Will thrive : many fuch 
Places thpc are in En?lana\ which 



dp not, at prefent, bring in much 
Money to their Owners; whereas s 
if they were planted with thefe Trees, 
they would, in a very few Years, 
over-purchafe the Ground, clear of 
all Expence: but there are many 
Perfons in England, who think no- 
thing, except Corn, worth cultivate- 
ing: or, if they plant Timber, it 
muft be Oak, Alii, or Elm ; and if 
their Land be not proper for either 
of thefe, it is deem'd little worth ; 
whereas if the Nature of the Soil 
was examined, and proper Sorts of 
Plants adapted to it, there might be 
very great Advantage made of feve- 
ral large Tracts of Land, which at 
this time lie neglected. 

The Wood of thefe Trees, efpe- 
cially of the Abele, is very good to 
lay for Floors, where it will laft 
many Years ; and, for its exceeding 
Whitenefs, is, by many Perfons, 
preferr'd to Oak ; but, being of a 
foft Contexture, is very fubjeft to 
take the Impreffion of Nails, &c* 
which renders it lefs proper for thi§ 
Purpofe : it is alfo very proper for 
Wainfcotmg of Rooms, being lefs 
fubjedr to fwell or fhrink, than moffc 
other Sorts of Wood : but for Turn- 
ery-ware, there is no Wood equal 
to this for its exceeding Whitenefs, 
fo that Trays, Bowls, and many 
other Utenfils, are made of it ; and 
the Bellows - makers prefer it for 
their Ufe ; as do alfo the Shoema- 
kers, not only forHeels, but alfo for 
the Soles of Shoes : it is alfo very 
good to make light Carts ; and the 
Poles are very proper to fupport 
Vines, Hops, &c. and the Lopping 
will afford good Fuel, which in many 
Countries is much wanted. 

The fixth Sort of Poplar-tree 
grows by the Sides of Rivers, and 
in other moift Places, in South-Ca- 
rolina, where it riles to a very large 
Tree. The young ^ranches of this 

Tree 



P o 



P o 



Tree are commonly angular, fome- 
times having three, and at other 
times four Angles. The Leaves are 
much broader, and are not fo point- 
ed as thofe of the common black 
Poplar. The Buds of the Leaves 
are very large ; and in the Spring, 
juft before they pulh, there iflues out 
of them a very fweet Balfam. 

Although this Tree is a Native of 
a much warmer Country than Eng- 
land, yet it is hardy enough to en- 
dure the Cold of our Winters in 
the open Air ; and may be propa- 
gated by Cuttings, in the fame man- 
ner as the common black Poplar. 
The belt time to plant thefe Cuttings 
is in the Beginning of November : 
they mould be about a Foot or four- 
teen Inches long, and mould be 
planted fix or eight Inches in the 
Ground. If the Spring following 
fhould prove dry, they muft be fre- 
quently watered until they have 
made Roots ; after which time they 
will require no farther Care, but to 
keep them clear from Weeds. Thefe 
Cuttings will be rooted enough to 
bear tranfplanting in one Year ; and 
the Oclober following they Ihould be 
removed ; and planted either in a 
Nurfery, where they may be train'd 
up to Stems, or in the Places where 
they are delign'd to remain, which 
muft be in a moift Soil, where they 
will grow to be large Trees ; and 
being intermix'd with other Trees 
of the fame Growth, will make an 
agreeable Diverfity. 

PORRUM, Leek. 
The Characters are ; 

The Flower confijis, of fix Petals, 
and is Jhap'd, as it were, like a Bell : 
in the Centre arifes the Pointal, which 
afterward becomes a roundijh Fruit, 
divided into three Cells, which con- 
tain roundi/h Seeds : to thefe Notes 
rnuj? be added, The Stamina are gene- 
rally broad and fiat, ending in three 



Capillaments ; of which the middle- 
one is furnifipd with a Chive : the 
Flowers are alfo gathered into, almtfjl 
globular Bunches : the Roots are long^ 
cylindrical, and coated ; the Coats 
ending in plain Leaves. 
The Species are ; 

1. Porrum commune capitatum, 
C. B. P. The common Leek. 

2. Porrum feclivum latifolium. 
C. B. P. Broad-leav'd Leek, com- 
monly caird the London Leek. 

There are fome other Species of 
this Plant, which grow wild in the 
South of France, and Spain j but as 
they are feldom cultivated in Gar- 
dens, I mall forbear to mention 
them here. The two Sorts here 
mention'd are by many Perfons af- 
firm'd to be the fame, both of them 
rifing from the fame Seed : but this 
is what theGardeners nearLondonwill 
not believe ; for they never fow 
Seeds of the latter, if they can pro- 
cure thofe of the firft Sort, there be- 
ing a great Difference in the Size of 
the Head, or principal Part of the 
Leek; but whether by long culti- 
vating they may not alter, I cannot 
pofitively affirm, having never fown 
the Seeds of the latter Sort above 
one Year. 

Thefe Plants are cultivated by 
fowing their Seeds in the Spring, in 
the fame manner as was directed for 
Onions, with which thefe are com- 
monly fown, the two Sorts of Seeds 
being mix'd according to the Pro- 
portion which is dehYd of either 
Sore ; though the moft common 
Method is, to mix an equal Quan- 
tity of both ; for the Onions will 
greatly out-grow the Leeks in the 
Spring ; but thefe being drawn off 
in July, the Leeks will have time to 
grow large afterwards, fo that there 
may be a moderate Crop of both 
Sorts. The Management of Leeks 
being exaftly the fame with Onion?, 



P o 



I mall not repeat it in this Place ; 
but fhall only add, that many Per- 
fons fow their Leeks very thick 
in Beds in the Spring ; and in June, 
after lome of their early Crops arc 
taken off, they dig up the Ground, 
and plant their Leeks out thereon, 
in Rows a Foot apart, and fix Inches 
afunder in the Rows, obferving to 
water them until they have taken 
Root ; af:er which they will require 
no further Culture, but to clear the 
Ground from Weeds : the Leeks, 
thus planted, will grow to a great 
Size, provided the Ground be good; 
and this Method is very proper for 
fuch Perfons whc have little room. 

If you wculd lave the Seeds of 
this Plant, you mould make choice 
of fome of the largeft and belt you 
have, which muft remain in the 
Piace where they grew, until Fe- 
bruary ; when they mould be tranf- 
p'anted in a Row againft a warm 
Hedge, Pale, or Wall, at about eight 
Inches afunder ; and when their 
Stems advance, they mould be fup- 
ported by a String, to prevent their 
being broken down, to which they 
are very liable, efpecially when in 
Head ; and the clofer they are drawn 
to the Fence in Autumn, the better 
the Seeds will ripen ; for it fome- 
times happens, in cold Summers or 
Autumns, that thole which grow in 
the open Garden, do not perfect 
their Seeds in this Country, efpeci- 
al'v if there mould be lharp Frolts 
tarly in Autumn, which will intire- 
Jy fpoil the Seed. 

When it is ripe {which may be 
bftown by the Heads changing 
brown), you mould cut oil* their 
Heads w ieh about a Foot or more of 
the Stalk to each, and tie them in 
Bundles, three or four Heads in 
each, and hang them up in a dry 
Place, where they may remain till" 
Cbrijlm&s s or af;er, when you isay 



threfh out the Seeds for Ufe. The 
Hulk of thefe Seeds is very tough, 
which renders it very difficult to get 
out the Seeds ; therefore fome Per- 
fons, who have but a fmall Quantity, 
rub it hard againft a rough Tile, 
which will break the Hulks, and get 
the Seeds out better than molt other 
Methods I have known ufed. 

PORTULACA, Purflane. 
The Chambers are ; 

The Flower conftjls of many Leaves, 
•which expand in form of a Rofe ; out 
of whofe Tlower-cup ( which conjtjls 
of one Leaf) arifes the Pointal y which, 
together with the Flower - cup, be- 
comes a Fruit for the mojl part oval, 
full of fmall Seeds, and furniffd with 
two o hells or Hujks at top \ of which 
the outer one, which --was the Part of 
the Flower-cup that was fplit in two, 
opens prjl ; and the inner one, which 
is the Pointal inlargd, opens lajl, dou- 
bly and tranPverfly , while the lower 
Part of the Flower-cup adheres to the 
Footjlalk. 

The Species are ; 

1 . PO rt u L a c A latifolia feu fati- 
<va. C. B. P. Broad-leav'd or Gar- 
den Purflane. 

2. Portulac a fativa latifolia, 
foliis fat-is. Mor. Hif. Broad- 
leav'd Garden Purflane, with yellow 
Leaves. 

3. Portulac a angufti folia f<v& 
■ jlris. C. B. P. Narrow-leav'd 
or Wild Purflane. 

4. Portulaca Curaffawca, fo- 
lio capparidis. Par. Bat. Purflane 
from Curaffo, with a Caper-leaf. 

The nril'Sort here mentioned is 
what the Gardeners near London do 
chiefly cultivate ; though the fecond 
Sore does very often come up mix'd 
wuh the firft ; but whether it is only 
an accidental Variety arifmg from 
the fame Seeds, or that the Seeds are 
promifcupufly faved, I cannot deter- 
mine : indeed, there is no other Dif- 
ference 



P o 

fcrence between them, but only the 
Colour of their Leaves, fo that 
they are both equally -good forUfe ; 
but the green Sort, having a better 
Appearance, is generally preferr'd in 
the Markets. 

The wild Sort is not a Native of 
England, but grows plentifully in 
many warm Countries ; where when 
it has once obtain'd fo as to fried its 
Seeds, 'tis very difficult to extirpate 
again. This is feldom us'd ; though 
'tis not different from the Garden 
Kind, except in the Smalnefs of its 
Leaves. 

The fourth Sort is very common 
in moft of the warm Parts of Ameri- 
ca, where it grows in great Plenty 
upon the Shores and Rocks near the 
Sea. This is preferv'd in fome cu- 
rious Gardens for Variety, but is a 
Plant of no great Beauty. 

Purilane is propagated from Seeds, 
which may be fown upon Beds of 
light ricn Earth during any of the 
Summer-months ; but if you intend 
to have it early in the Seafon, it 
mould be fown upon an Hot bed; 
for it is too tender to be fown in the 
open Air before April, and then it 
mull be in a warm Situation. This 
Seed is very fmall, fo that a little of 
it will be fufficient to fupply a Fa- 
mily. There is no other Culture 
which this Plant requires, but to 
keep it clear fromWeeds, and in dry 
Weather 10 water it three or four 
times a Week In warm Weather 
this Plant will be fit forUfe in fix 
Weeks after fowing ; fo that,in order 
to continue a SucceiTion of thisPlant, 
you mould fow it at three or four 
different Seafons, allowing a Fort- 
night between each Sowing, which 
will be fufficient to Jail the whole 
Seafon, while it is proper to be eat- 
en ; for, being of a very cold Na- 
ture, it is unfafe to be eaten, except 
in the Heat of Summer, in EngLnd; 



p o 

for which Reafcn, it is not to any 
Purpofe to fow it upon an Hot-bed, 
fince it will come early enough for 
Ufe in the open Air. 

POTENTILLA, Cinquefoil. 
The Char afters are ; 

The Empalement of the Flower is 
of one Leaf which is /lightly cut into 
f<ve Parts, and alternately cut deep 
into fve Parts : the Flower is compo- 
fed office Leaves, which are infer ted 
into the Etnpalement , and fpread open: - 
in the Centre of the Flower there an 
federal Pointals collecled into one 
Head, and are attended hv a Number 
of Stamina, which rife out of theEm- 
palement : after the Flower is pajl 9 
the Pointals become an Head of rcundijh 
Seeds included in the Empalement. 
The Species are ; 

1. Potenti lla foliis pinnatis, 
caule repente. Lin. Flor. Silver-weed, 
or wild Tan fey. 

2. Potent i lla foliis pinnatis 
quinatis, foliolis cvatis crenatis, caule 
ereclo. Lin. Hort. Cliff. Upright 
Cinquefoil, with Meadow - fweet- 
leaves. 

5. Potenti lla caule fruticofo, 
Lin. Hort. Cliff. Shrubby Cinque- 
foil. 

4. P0TENTILLA foliis digit at is in* 
cifoferratis, cattle redo. Lin. Hort. 
Cliff Greater upright Cinque- 
foil. 

5. Potent ill a foUit digit atis 
longitudinaliter patenli-ferratis, caule 
repente. Lin. Hort. Cliff. Common 
creeping Cinquefoil. 

6. Potentilla foliis ternat*s 
incifis, caule diffufo. Li ?i. Hort. Cliffi 
The barren Strawberry, with up- 
right Stalks. 

There are fome other Species of 
this Genus, which grow wild in fe- 
veral Parts of Europe ; but are rarely 
admitted into Gardens ; therefore I 
(hall not enumerate them here : and 
of thofe above-mention'd, it is only 
3 the 



P o 



the third Species which is cultivated 
in Gardens ; and this is found grow- 
ing wild in Tome of the Northern 
Counties of England, The firft Sort 
here mention'd ftands in the Cata- 
logue of Medicinal Plants in theD:f- 
penfatory : therefore I have men- 
tion'd it here, though it is one of the 
inoft common Weeds in England, 
growing plentifully on Commons 
and wafte Land every-where, but ef- 
pecially on all cold Ground j where 
by its creeping Stalks, which put out 
Roots at every Joint, it fpreads over 
the Surface of the Ground, and be- 
comes a very troublefome Weed. 

The fifth Sort is alfo a bad Weed, 
having the fame fort of creeping 
Stalks as the firft ; fo that where 
ever it once gets PofleiTion of the 
Ground, it multiplies and fpreads to 
a great Diftance ; therefore thefe two 
Sorts mould be extirpated from eve- 
ry good Garden, 

The fecond, fourth, and fixth 
Sorts are fometimes preferv'd in Gar- 
dens for the fake of Variety ; but as 
they are Plants of no Beauty, few 
Perfons care to allow them room in 
rheir Gardens : thefe will propagate 
very fad: by Seeds, which if permit- 
ted to fall on the Ground, the Plants 
will come up and thrive without any 
Culture. Thefe Plants, which come 
up from felf-fown Seeds, will flower 
and produce Seeds the next Seafon, 
and the Roots of the fecond and 
fourth will continue feveral Years ; 
but the fixth U biennial, and gene- 
rally periflies (con after the Seeds are 
ripe. 

The third Sore is propagated in 
many of the Nurfery- Gardens near 
London for Sale. This is a lew Shrub, 
feldom rifirig above four Feet high, 
branching out on every Side from 
the Stem : > the Leaves are divided 
into feveral narrow Segments, which 
join kit the Footflalk: the Flowers are 



yellow, and in Shape like thofe of 
the common Cinquefoil ; thefe are 
produced at the Extremity of the 
Branches, and by their Succeflion 
continue to flower upward of two 
Months, efpecially when they grow 
upon a moift Soil. 

This Plant is commonly propaga- 
ted by Suckers, or laying down the 
tender Branches, which will take 
Root in one Year, and may then be 
taken ofF from the old Plants, and 
planted in a Nurfery for a Year or 
two, to get Strength, before they are 
planted where they are defignd to 
remain : it may alfo be propagated 
by Cuttings, which may be planted 
during any of the Summer-month*, 
in amoiftfhady Border, where they 
will foon takeRcot, and ^Michael- 
mas following, may be tranfplanted 
into the Nurfery. 

The beft Seafon for tranfplanting 
of thefe Plants is in October, that 
they may get new R.oots before the 
hard Froft fets in : for as this Plant 
grows naturally upon moift boggy 
Land, fo when it is remov'd in the 
Spring, if due Care is not taken to 
water it in dry Weather, it is apt to 
mifcarry : nor will this Plant live 
in an hot dry Soil ; but in a fhady 
Situation, and on a cool moift Soil, 
it will thrive exceedingly. 

The Title of this Genus has been 
long applied to the firft Species by 
feveral Writers on Botany and Me- 
dicine ; but Dr. Tournefort has fepa- 
rated all thofe Species which have 
wing'd Leaves, and conftituted a 
Genus of them, by the Title of Fen~ 
tapbyiloides ; which, being a com- 
pound Name. Dr. Linn <e us has re- 
jected : the other Species with hand- 
ed Leaves has been ranged under the 
Genus of ^uinqtte folium ; but now 
they are both join'd umJer the Title 
of Psttntiila. 

PR A* 



P R 

PRASIUM, Shrubby Hedge- 
nettle. 

The Characters are ; 

The Empalement of the Flower is of 
one Leafy divided into t?xo Lips, the 
upper being cut into three acute Seg- 
ments : the Flower is of the Lip -kind, 
the upper Lip being oval and ere ft ; 
hut the Beard is divided into three 
Parts, the middleSegment being broad- 
er than the other two ; after the 
Flower is paft, the four Germens in 
the Flower turn to fo many pulpy Brr 
vies, each inclofing a fingle Seed. 
The Species are ; 

1. Prasium foliis ci'atc-oblongis 
ferratis. Lin. Hort. Qfiff. , Shrubby 
{linking Hedge-nettle, with oblong 
fa wed Leaves. 

2. Prasium foliis cvatis, duplic.: 
utrinque crena notatis. Lin. Hort. 
Clijf. Shrubby linking Hedge net- 
tle, with' oval Leaves indented cn 
every Side. 

The full Sort hath by forae Bo- 
tanies been rang'd with the Lami- 
um, by others under the Genus of 
Melifla, and by Dr. Toumtfort un- 
der that of Galeopfis, to which laft 
it agrees very well in all its Chara- 
cters, excepting that of the Seed be- 
ing inclofed in a pulpy Cover, like 
a Berry, which is fufficient Reafon 
for feparating it from Galeopfis ; 
though, by the eftablinYd Rules of 
Dr: Linntcus s Method, it cannot be 
juftified: yet he has feparated it from 
that Genus, and applied this old 
Name of Diofcorides, which he bad 
applied to a Plant of this Clais, to 
this. 

The fecond Sort is ranged under 
the fame Genus by Dr. tioerhaa<ve ; 
but in the Hort us Catholicus it is 
ranged with the Lamium. 

Thefe are both low fhrubby Plants, ' 
which feldom rife above two Feet 
high, and retain their Leaves thro' 
the Year : they will live abroad in 



p R 

England, provided they are planted 
on a dry Soil, and in a warm Situa- 
tion, and produce Flowers from the 
Beginning of June to the End of 
Auguji but there is little Beauty in 
their Flowers ; fo they are only pre- 
fer vM by thofe who are curious in 
collecting of rare Plants. 

Thefe Plants are Natives of Spain, 
Portugal, and Sicily, fo that they arc 
impatient cf fevere Cold : therefore 
a Plant or two of each Sort mould 
be fhelter\J in Winter; becaufe when 
the Fro II is very fevere, they are of- 
ten deftroy'd when they are planted 
in the fill Ground, though they 
will abide the Cold of our com- 
mon Winters verv well in the open 
Air. 

They may be propagated either by 
Cuttings, or from the Seeds : if they 
are propagated by Cuttings, they 
mould be planted on a fhady Border, 
toward the End of April, but the 
Cuttings mould not be taken from 
thofe Plants which had been drawn 
weak, but rather from thofe which 
hid been expos'd to the open 
Air, whofe Shoots are fhort and 
ftrong; and if a Joint of the former 
Year's Wood is cut to each of them, 
they will more certainly fucceed : 
thefe Cuttings may remain in the 
fame Border until the following Au- 
tumn, when they may be tranfplant- 
ed iiuo the Places where they are to 
remain, or into Pots, that they may 
be meker'd in Winter under a com- 
mon Frame, where they may haye 
as much free Air as poifib'c in mild 
Weather, but only require to be 
fcreen'd from hard Froft. 

If they are propagated by Seeds 
(which the Plants produce in Plenty 
every Year), they mould be fown on 
a Bed of light Larth in April; and 
in May the Plants will come up, 
when they require no other Care, 
but that of keeping them dean from 

Weed*. 



T R 

Weeds ; and in the Autumn follow- 
ing they may be tranfplanted in the 
fame manner as before directed for 
thoferaifed from Cuttings, and may 
be afterward treated more hardily, 
as they acquire Strength. 

A Plant or two of each of thefe 
Species may be allow'd to have a 
Place where there are Collections of 
the different Sorts of ever - green 
Shrubs, for the fake of Variety, ef- 
pecially where the different Sorts of 
Ciftus, Phlomis, Tree - wormwood, 
and Medicago, are admitted, becaufe 
thefe are equally hardy, and when a 
fevere Winter happens, which c)e- 
ftroys the one, the others are fure of 
the fame Fate. 

PRENANTHES, Wild Lettuce. 
The Characlers are ; 

// hath fiofculous Flowers, which 
are included in one common Empale- 
ment, which is cylindrical and f qua - 
mous : the Florets are hermaphrodite-, 
each being monopetalous, having one 
Side jlretched out like a Tongue, and 
divided into four Segments, each of 
thefe having a Point al in their Centre 
attended by five fender Stamina ; and 
afterward the Point al becomes an ob- 
long Seed y crowned with a Down. 
The Species are ; 

1. Prenanthes fiofculis quints, 
foliis pinnato - kaftatis. Lin. Hort. 
Cliff. Wild Lettuce, or Sowthiftle, 
with fpear - fhap'd wing'd Leaves, 
and a yellow Flower. 

2. Prenanthes fiofculis quinis, 
foliis lanceolatis denticulatis. Lin. 
Hort. Cliff. Purpie mountain wild 
Lettuce. 

3 . P r e n a n t h e s fiofculis plurimts, 
foliis hajiaiis. angulatis. Lin. Hort. 
Cliff. American VVild Lettuce, with 
ftngular Leaves. 

4. Prenanthes cutumnalis. fiore 
diiu'c purpurea deorfum nutante, fpi- 
eaHUn ad cftulem diffefifo, foliis [ca- 



P R 

hris incifts, caule fingulari. Flor. 
Virg. Dr. Witt's Rattle-fnake Root. 

5. Prenanthes foliis integris 
ferratis fcabris t rad/ce repente, fiore 
purpuro - caeruleo. American wild 
Lettuce, with whole faw'd rough 
Leaves, a creeping Root, and pur- 
ple Flower. 

The firft Sort grows wild upon 
the Sides of dry ftony Banks, and on 
the Tops of Walls, in feveral Parts 
of England. The fecond grows wild 
in feveral Parts of Europe : but the 
others are Natives of America. The 
fourth Sort has been efteem'd a fure 
Antidote to expel the Poifon of the 
Rattle-fnake, and therefore I have 
mention'd thefe Plants ; for they 
are never preferv'd in Garden-, ex- 
cept for the fake of Variety, being 
troublefome Weeds, where they are 
permitted to fcatter their Seeds; fo 
that whoever is defirous to cultivate 
them, need be at no Trouble but to 
fow their Seeds in a moid fhady Si- 
tuation, where the Plants will come 
up and thrive without any farther 
Care. 

PRIMULA, Primrofe. 
The Chara£iers are ; 

The Flower confifis of one Leaf ; the 
lower Part of which is tubulofe, but 
the upper Part expands iff If fiat in 
form of a Salver, and is cut into fe- 
deral Segments : from the Flower -cup 
( which is fjlulous ) arifes the Poin- 
tal ', which , when the Flower is de- 
cayed, becomes an oblong Fruit or 
FLufk, lying almoji conceal'd in the 
Flowcr-cupy and opens at the Top; in 
which are contain d many round 'tjh 
Seeds fafiend to the Placenta. 
Tne Species are ; 

I Primula vnlgaris . Park. Cam> 
mon Primrofe. 

2. Primula CanfiantitioffSt Altai 
fiore albo. Toum. Primrofe of Con- 
Jtantinofle, wilk a white Flower, 

com- 



P R 

commonly call'd the Paper-white 
Primrofe. 

3. Primula Confiantinopolitana, 
fiore dilute cameo. Tourn. Primrofe 
of Conjlantinoflc, with a pale flehV 
colour'd Flower. 

4. Primula Confiantinopolitana, 
fiore dilute purpurea, fount. Primrofe 
of Conjianfittople, with a pale-purple 
Flower. 

5. Primula Conjlantircpolitana, 
fiore alba ditplici. Primrofe of Con- 
fiantinople, with a double white 
Flower, commonly call'd the doable 
Paper-white Primrofe. 

6. Primula vulgaris, fijrc £hte 
purpureo. Common Primrofe, with 
a pale-purple Flower. 

7. Primula vulgaris* fioij flei 
Common Primrofe, with a very dou- 
ble Flower. 

' 8. Primula vulgaris* fiore pleno, 
dilute rubente. Common Primroie, 



with a double paie-red Flower. 

9. Primula pallida fiore, elatior. 
Cluf. Common Pagik or Cowflips. 

10. Primula vmbcllata odor at a 
pratenfis. Great Cowflips, or Ox- 

lipS - 

1 1. Primula gemmato fiore. n. 
Eyfi. Double Cowflips, cr Hofe in 
Hole. 

1 z. Primula caul if era, fiore luteo 
plenoodorato J. B. Cowflip or Pagil; 
with a very double Flower. 

13. Primula bortenfis umbellata, 
caule fiore foliofo coccinec majore. 
H. L Garden Primrofe or Polyan- 
thus, with a large red Flower. 

14. Primulte umbellatcs odor at & 
hortenfis fimplicis varietal uberrima 
pro <vuriitate jucundijjima, colons mul- 
tiplies. Bocrh. Ind. 

There are a great Variety of the 
Garden Primroies, or Polyanthus's, 
which are annually produced from 
\ Seeds ; the Flowers of which are 
beautifully ftrip'd, and fome of them 
have a great Number of Flowers 



p R 

upon a Stalk, fo that they equal the 
Auricula's in the Beauty of their 
Flowers ; and as they require but 
little Culture, they have, in many 
Garden?, obtain'd the Preference to 
moil other Spring Flowers. 

The firft Sort of Primrofe grow* 
wild in Woods, and other fhady Pla- 
ces, in molt Parts of England, from 
whence their Roots may be eafily 
tranfplanted into the Garden; where, 
if they are placed under Hedges, and 
in fhady Walks, they make a beau- 
tiful Appearance early in the Spring, 
when few other Plants are in Flow- 
er. 

The belt Time to tranfplant them 
19 at Mie&aeTmaSj that their Roots 
may have Strength to produce their 
Mowers early in the Spring. Thefe 
delight in a ltrcng rich Soil, but will 
grow in almoft any Sort of Earth* 
provided they have a fhady Situa- 
tion. 

The fixth, feventh, and eighth 
Sorts are Varieties of the firft, which 
have been accidentally produced 
from Seeds : thefe may be propaga- 
ted by parting of their Roots at 
Michaelmas, and mull be treated as 
the common Sort. 

The ninth and tenth Sorts alfo 
grow wild in the Meadows in diver* 
Parts of England, the Roots of 
which are often tranfplanted into 
Gardens; where, if they are inter- 
mix'd with other early - flowering 
Plants, they afford an agreeable Va- 
riety. 

The eleventh and twelfth Sorts 
are Varieties which were produced 
from Seeds of the former ; but the 
lail is, at prefent, very rare in Eng- 
land. Thefe may be propagated by 
parting their Roots at Michaelmas, 
and mould be planted on a ftrong 
Soil, and expos'd to the morning 
Sun. 

The feveral Varieties of rVvan- 



P R 

thus's are produced by fowing of 
Seeds, which mould be fav'd from 
fuch Flowers as have large upright 
Stems, producing many Flowers 
upon a Stalk, the Flowers large, 
beautifully ftrip'd, and that open flat : 
from the Seeds of fuch Flowers there 
is room to hope for a great Variety 
of good Sorts. 

Thefe Seeds mould be foon in 
Boxes fillM with light rich Earth, in 
December, being very careful not to 
bury the Seed too deep ; for, if it 
be only cover'd with light Earth, it 
will be fufficient : thefe Boxes mould 
be plac'd where they may receive 
the Benefit of the morning Sun until 
Ten of the Clock ; but muft by no 
means be expos'd to the Heat of the 
Day, efpecially when the Plants be- 
gin to appear ; for at that time one 
whole Day's Sun will intirely de- 
ftroy them : in the Spring, if the 
Seafon mould prove dry, you muil 
often refrefh them with Water ; and 
as the Heat increafes, you mould 
remove the Boxes more in the Shade ; 
for the Heat it very injurious to 
them. 

In May thefe Plants will be ftrong 
enough to plant out ; at which time 
you mould prepare fome fhady Bor- 
ders, which mould be made ricii ; 
upon which you muft fet the Plants 
about four Inches afunder, obferv- 
ing to water them until they have 
taken Root ; after which they will 
require no farther Care but to keep 
them clear from Weeds, until the 
Latter - end of Auguft following ; 
when you fnould prepare fome Bor- 
ders, which are expos'd to the Eaft, 
with good light rich Earth, into 
which you muft tranfpiant your 
Polyanthus's, placing them fix Inches 
afunder equally in Rows, obfervlng, 
if the Seafon prove dry, to water 
them until they have taken Root. Jn 
thefe Border? your Plants will flow- 



P R 

er the fucceeding Spring ; at which 
time you muft obferve to mark fuch 
of them as are fine, to prcferve ; and 
the reft may be tranf plan ted intd 
WildernefTes, and other fhady Pla- 
ces in the Garden ; where, although 
they are not very valuable Flowers, 
they will afford an agreeable Varie- 

Thofe which you intend to pre- 
ferve, may be remov'd foon after 
they have done flowering (provided 
you do not intend to fave Seeds from 
them), and may be then parted and 
tranfplanted into a frefh Border of 
the like rich Earth, allowing them 
the fame Diftance as before ; obferv- 
ing alfo to water them until they have 
taken Root, after which they will 
require no farther Care, but only to 
keep them clean from Weeds ; and 
the following Spring they will pro- 
duce ftrong Flowers ; and if the 
Kinds are good, will be little in- 
ferior to a Shew of Auricula's. 

Thefe Roots mould be conftantly 
remov'd and parted every Year, and 
the Earth or the Border chang'd, 
otherwife they will degenerate, and 
lofe the greateft Part of their Beau- 
ty- 

If you intend to fave Seeds, which 
is the Method to obtain a great Va- 
riety, you muft mark fuch of them, 
which, as I faid before, have good 
Properties : thefe mould be, if pof- 
fible, feparated from all ordinary 
Flowers ; for if they ftana furround- 
ed with plain-colour'd Flowers, they 
will impregnate e^ch other ; where- 
by the Seeds of the valuable Flow- 
ers will not be near fo good, as if 
the Plants had been in a feparate 
Border where no ordinary Flowers 
grew : therefore the beft Way is to 
take our the Roots of fuch as you 
do not efleem, as foon as the Flow- 
ers open, and plant them in ano- 
ther Place, that there may be nor*e 

left 



P R 



P R 



left in the Border, but fuch as you 
would choofe for Seeds. 

The Flowers of thefe fhould not 
be gacher'J, except fuch as are pro- 
duced fingly upon Pedicles, leaving 
all iuch as grow in large Bunches ; 
and if the Seafon fhould prove dry, 
you muft now-and-chen refrefh them 
with Water, which will caufe their 
Seeds to be larger, and in greater 
Quantity, than if they were intirely 
negle&ed. Towards the Latter-end of 
May the Seed will be ripe, which may 
be eafily known by the Pods change - 
ing brown, and opening ; fo that you 
fhould at that time look over it three 
times a Week, gathering each time 
fuch of it as is ripe, which fnould 
be laid upon a Paper to dry, and 
may then be put up until the Seafon 
of fowing. 

PRIMROSE-TREE. Vide Ona- 
gra. 

■ PRINOS, Winter-berry. 
The Char a furs are ; 

Ike Empalemenl cf the Floiver is of 
one Leaf cut at the Brim into fix 
Parts : the Floiver is cf the Wheel- 
1 i Jbap'd Kind, cut into fix Parts at the 
Top, but is of one Leaf : in the Cen- 
tre of the Flo*wer arifes the Pointal, 
attended by fix Stamina, fupporting 
bbtufe Summits : the Pointal after- 
ward becomes a roundifij Berry , hav- 
ing fix Cells containing one bird an- 
gular Seed. 

We have but one Species of this 
Genus; 

Prinos. Flor. Virg. The Winter- 
berry. 

This is but a low Shrub with us in 
England, rarely growing above four 
Feet high j but in North America, 
which is the native Place of its 
Growth, it rifes much higher, and 
branches out on every Side : the 
Branches are flender and pliant, and 
are garnifh'd with oblong blunt 
Leaves, which are intire. In June 

Vol. III. 



the Flowers are produced, which are 
white, and not very beautiful ; but 
thefe are fucceeded by round Ber- 
ries, which are fhap'd like thofe of 
the Holly, and are of a bright red 
Colour : thefe remain upon the 
Shrubs after the Leaves are fallen, 
and make a pretty Appearance, and 
from thertce had the Title of Win- 
ter-berry applied to it, by the Inna- 
bitants of tnofe Countries. 

It is propagated by Seeds, which 
fhould be fown foon after thev are 
ripe, upon a Bed of light Earth, 
covering them about one Inch with 
the fame Sort of Earth : the Seeds 
which are fo foon put into the 
Ground will many of them come 
up the following Spring, wheieas 
thofe which are kept lor.ger out of 
v the Ground, will remain a whole 
Year in the Ground before the Plants 
will appear, in the fame manner as 
the Holly, Hawthorn, and fume 
others i therefore the Ground ihould 
not be difturbed, if the Plants do 
not come up the firfl Year, The 
young Plants may be treated in the 
fame manner as hath been directed 
for the American Haw thorns, and 
are full as hardy ; but they delight 
in a moiit Soil, and a fhady Situa- 
tion : for in hot dry Land they 
make but little Progreis, and rarely 
produce any Fruit. 

PRIVET. /'/V* Liguftrum. 

PROTEA, The Silver-tree, W- 

g°- 

The Characters are ; 

The Floiver is of one Leaf and are 
many of them collected in an Head, 
like ihofe of the Artichoke : in each of 
thefe the Pointal is fituated at the 
Bottom, attended by four Stamina, 
ivhich extend beyond the Petal of the 
Floiver: the Point al afteri'.ard be- 
comes a fingle roundijh Seed: the Seeds 
aie colli 8ed together in fuch a manner 
as to form a Jort cf Cone. 

4 B Th« 



P R 

The Species are ; 

1. Protea foliis lineari-lanecola- 
tis integcrrimis, fupcrioribus hirfutis 
nitidis. Flor. Leyd. The narrow or 
willow-leav'd Silver-tree. 

2. Protea foliis lanceolatis inte- 
gerrimis acutis hirfutis nitidis. Lin. 
Hort. Cliff. The broad - leavM Sil- 
ver-tree. 

3. Protea foliis lanceolatis acu- 
minatis fexuofs, capitulis corona fo- 
liacea fuccinfiis, Flor. Ltyd. Silver- 
tree with flexible pointed fpear- 
Ihap'd Seeds, and the Heads crown" d 
with Leaves. 

Thefe Plants are Natives of the 
Country near the Cape of Good Hope 
in Africa, where there are a great 
Number of Species : in the Cata- 
logue of the Lyden Garden there are 
upward of twenty Sorts enumerated : 
not that they have them growing 
there, but they have gcod Drawings 
of them, which were made in the 
Country where they are Natives. 
The three Sorts here mention'd are 
what I have feen growing ; but at 
piefent we have but two of them in 
the Englijb Gardens, which are the 
firft and fecond Species, and thefe 
are but in few Gardens here. 

Thefe Plants are many of them 
well figured in the Index of the 
Plants of the Ley den Garden, which 
was publiuVd by Dr. Boerbaawe in 
the Year 171 9. by the Titles of Le- 
pidocarpodcndrcn, Conocnrpodenaron, 
and H)pcphyllocarpodcndron ; and by 
fome former Writers on Botany, this 
Genus was intituled Scolymo-ccphalus, 
from the Refembiance which the 
Cones of thefe Trees have to the 
Head of an Artichoke. 

As thef? Plants are Natives of the 
Cape of -Gout Hope, they are too ten- 
der to live abroad through the Win- 
ter in England; but the lirft Sort is 
hardy .enough to live in a good 
Green-houle : this Sort will grow to 



p R 

The Height of ten or twelve Feet, 
and may be train'd up with a regu- 
lar ftrait Stein, and the Branches 
will naturally form a regular large 
Head : the Leaves are long and nar- 
row, and of a mining filver Colour ; 
and as they remain the whole Year, 
lb the Plants make a fine Appear- 
ance, when they are intermix'd with 
others in the Green-houfe. In the 
Summer thefe may be plac'd in the 
open Air, in a fhady Situation ; for 
if they are expos'd to Winds, the 
Plants will be torn, and render'd un- 
sightly, nor will they make any Pro- 
grefs in their Growth : in warm 
Weather "they mull be frequently 
water'd ; but in cold Weather this 
mull not be done in large Quanti- 
ties, nor too often repeated, left it 
fhould rot their Fibres. 

The other Sorts are not fo hardy 
as this; therefore they muft be plac'd 
in a moderate Stove in the Winter, 
otherwife they cannot be preferv'd 
here. Thefe do not form fo large 
Heads as thefirlr.; but, however, for 
the fme'filver Leaves with which 
their Branches are clofely garnihYd, 
they merit a Place in every good 
Collection of Exotic Plants. 

I have not as yet feen either of 
thefe Sorts in Flower; though as 
the Plants grow older, we may hope 
to have them produce their Flowers 
in England: but if they Ihould not 
produce any, yet the fine Appear- 
ance which the Leaves of thefe 
Plants make, renders ^them worthy 
of being preferv'd. 

The firft Sort may be propagated 
by Cuttings, which fhould be plant- 
ed in JpriL in Pots of rich Earth, 
arid plunged into a moderate Hot- 
bed, and mult be (haded from the 
Sun in the Heat of the Day, and 
duly water'd. Thefe Cuttings wiil 
have good Roots by the Month of 
Amupy when they Ihould be care- 
fully 



P R 

Fully tranfplanted, each> into a fe- 
parate fmall Pot filPd with light rich 
Earth, and plac'd in a lhady Situa- 
tion until they have taken new Root; 
after which they may be placed in 
a fheltered Situation, where they 
may remain till October, when they 
muft be remov'd into the Green- 
houfe. 

The other Sorts are not fo eafily 
propagated ; for I have not been 
able to get one Plant from the Cut- 
tings ; nor do the Branches which 
are laid down take Root, fo that 
they are propagated from Seeds only ; 
and as it is very difficult to procure 
their Seeds from the Country where 
thefe Trees are Natives, fo th.-y are 
very rare in Europe. 

PRUNING OF TREES: There 
is not any Part of Gardening, which 
is of more general Ufe than that of 
Pruning ; and yet it is very rare to 
fee Fruit-trees fkilfully manag'd : al- 
moft every Gardener will pretend to 
be a Mailer of this Bufmefs, though 
there are but few who rightly un- 
derstand it ; nor is it to be learn'd by 
Rote, but requires a Uriel Gbferva- 
tion of the different Manners of 
Growth of thefeveral Sorts of Fruit- 
trees ; fome requiring to be manag'd 
one way, and others muft be treated 
in a quite different Method, which 
is only to be known from careful \y 
obfervinghow each Kind is naturally 
difpofed to produce its Fruit: for 
fome Sorts produce their Fruit on 
the fame Year's Wood, as Vines ; 
others produce their Fruit, for the 
moll part, upon the former Year's 
Wood, as Peaches, Nectarines, cjfr . 
and others upon Curfons or Spurs, 
which are produe'd upon Wood of 
three, four, or five, to fifteen or 
twenty Years old, as Pears, Plums, 
Cherries, &c. therefore, in erder to 
the right Management of Fruit-trees, 
there mould always be Provifion 



P R 

made to have a fuiftcient Quantity 
of bearing Wood in every Part of 
the Trees ; and at the fame time there 
mould not be a Superfluity of ufelefs 
Branches, which would exhauil the 
Strength of the Trees, and caufe 
them to decay in a few Years. 

The Reafous which have been laid 
down for Pruning of Fruit-trees, are 
as follow : Firil, to preierve Trees 
longer in a vigorous bearing State ; 
the fecond is, to render the Trees 
more beautiful to the E\e; and, 
thirdly, to caufe the Fruit to be 
larger, and better tailed. 

1. It preferves a Tree longer in 
an healthy bearing State; far by 
pruning off all fuperiluous Branches, 
lo that there are no more left upon, 
the Tree than are neceflary, or than 
the Roots can nourifh prope^, the 
Root is not exhaulled in Supplying 
ufeiefs Branches, which mull after- 
wards be cut out ; whereby much of 
the Sap will be ufelefly expended. 

2. By fkilful Pruning of a Tree, it 
is render'd much more pleafmg to 
the Eye : but here I would not be 
underllood fo be an Advocate for a 
fort of Pruning, which I have fecn 
too much praclis'd of late ; ^viz. 
the drawing a regular Line againll 
the Wall, according to the Shape or 
Figure they would reduce the Tree 
to, and cutting all the Branches, 
flrong or weak, exactly to the chalked. 
Line ; the Abfurdky of which. Pra- 
ctice will foon appear to every one 
who will be at the Pains of obferving 
the Difference of thofe Branches 
(hooting the fucceeding Spring. All 
therefore that I mean by rendering 
a Tree beautiful, is, that the Branches 
are all prun'd according to their fe- 
veral Strengths, and are nail'd at 
equal Diitances, in proportion to the 
different Sizes of their Leaves and 
Fruit ; and that no Part of the Wall 
(fc far as the Trees are advanced) be 

4B2' felt 



P R 

left unfurnifrTd with bearing Wood. 
A Tree well manag'd, though it 
does not reprefent any regular Fi- 
gure, yet will appear very beautiful 
to the Sight, when it is thus dreU'd, 
and naird to the Wall. 

3. It is of great Advantage to the 
Fruit; for the cutting away all ufe- 
lefs Branches, and fhortening all the 
bearing Shoot?, according to the 
Strength of the Tree, will render 
the Tree more capable to nourifh 
thofe which are lelt remaining, fo 
that the Fruit will be much larger, 
and better tailed. And this is the 
Advantage which thofcTrees againil 
Walls or Efpaliers have, to fuch as 
are Standards, and are permitted to 
grow as they are naturally inclined : 
for it is not their being trained either 
to a Wall or Efpalier, which renders 
their Fruit fo much better than 
Standards, but becaufe they have a 
lefs Quantity of Branches and Fruit 
for their Roots to nourifh ; and con- 
fequently their Fruit will be larger, 
and better tailed. 

The Reafons for Pruning being 
thus exhibited, the next Thing is 
the Method of performing it ; but 
this being fully handled under the 
feveral Articles of the different Kinds 
of Fruit, I (hall not repeat it again 
in this Place. 

PRUNUS, The Plum-tree. 
The Char afters are ; 

7 he Flovoer confjls of five Leaves, 
'which are placed in a circular Or- 
der, and expand in form of a Rofe ; 
from vchoft Flower-cvp rifes the Poin- 
tal, which afterward becomes an oval 
or globular Fruit, having a foft.flejby 
Pulp, furrounding an hard oblong 
Stone, for the mojl part pointed : to 
which Jhould be added, "The Foot/talks 
tire long and finder, and have but a 
(ingle Fruit upon each. 
The Species are ; 

I, Prunus fruttu farvo pnecoci. 



P R 

Toum. The Jean-hative, or Whife 
Piimordian. This is a fmall longilrt- 
white Plum, of a clear yellow Co- 
lour, coverM over with a white 
Flew, which eafily wipes off. The 
Juice is fweetj is a pretty good 
Bearer ; and, for its coming very 
early, one Tree may be allowed to 
have a Place in every good Garden 
of Fruit. This ripens the Begin- 
ning of July, but foon becomes 
mealy. 

3. Prunus fruBu magno craffo 
fubacido. Toum. Damas noir bative, 
/. e. the early black Damafk, com- 
monly called The Morocco Plum. 
This is a pretty large Plum, of a 
round Shape, divided with a Fur- 
row in the Middle (like Peaches); 
the Outiide is of a dark-black Co- 
lour, covered with a light-violet 
Bloom ; the Flefh is yellow, and 
parts from the Stone. It ripens in 
the Middle of July, and is efteem'd 
for its Goodnefs. 

3. Prunus fruclu parvo dulci atro 
caeruleo. Toum. The little black 
Damafk Plum. This is a fmall black 
Plum, cover'd over with a violet 
Bloom ; the Juice is richly fugar'd; 
the Flefh parts from the Stone; and 
it is a good Bearer. Ripe the Mid- 
dle of July. 

4. Prunus fruclu magno dulci 
atro-coeruleo. Toum. Gros Damas 
Violet de Tours, i. e. Great Damafk 
Violet of Tows. This is a pretty 
large Plum, inclining to an oval- 
Shape ; the Outfide is of a dark 
Blue, cover'd with a violet Bloom ; 
the Juice is richiy fugar'd, the 
Flefh is yellow, and parts from the 
Stone. Ripe the Middle of July. 

5. Prunus fruclu rot undo atro~ 
rubente* The Orleans PJum. The 
Fruit is fo well known to almoft 
every Perfon, that it is needlefs to 
defcribe it; is a very plentiful Bear- 
er, which has occajion'd its being fo 

gene- 



P R 

generally planted by thofe Perfons 
who fupply the Markets with Fruit; 
but it is an indifferent Plum. 

6. Prunus fruclu oblongo atro-ru- 
bente. The Fotheringham Plum. This 
Fruit is fomewhat long, deeply fur- 
row'd in the Middle; the Flelh is 
firm, and parts from the Stone ; the 
Juice is very rich. This ripens about 
the Middle of July. 

7. Prunus fruclu nigro, came 
dura. Tourn. The Perdrigon Plum. 
This is a middle-nVd Plum, of an 
oval Shape : the Outfide is of a very 
dark. Colour, cover'd over with a 
violet Bloom : the Flelh is firm, and 
full of an excellent rich Juice: this 
is greatly efteem'd by the Curious. 
Ripe the Latter-end of July. 

8. Prunus fruclu mngno e^uiolaceo 
rubente fua^viffimn faccharato, Tourn. 
The violet Perdrigon Plum. This 
is a large Fruit, rather round than 
long, of a bluifh red Colour on the 
Outfide : the Flefh is of a yellowifh 
Colour, pretty firm, and clofely ad- 
heres to the Stone: the Juice is of 
an exquifite rich Flavour. This 
ripens the End of July. 

9. Prunus fruclu ouato ex a/bo 
fauefcente. The white Perdrigon 
Plum. This is a middling Plum, of 
an oblong Figure : the Outfide is 
yellow, covered with a white Bloom : 
the Flefti is firm, and well-tailed : it 
is a very goo. 1 . Fruit to eat raw, or 
for Sweet-meats, having an agree- 
able Sweetnefs mixed with an Aci- 
dity. 

10. Prunus fruclu o<vato mag w 
rubente. Tourn. The red Imperial 
Plum, fome times call'd the Red Bo 
num Magnum. This is a large ovaf- 
fliap'd Fruit, of a deep-red Colour, 
cover'd with a fine Bloom : the Flefh 
is very dry, and very indifferent to 
be eaten raw; but is excellent for 
making Sweet-meats : this is a great 
Bearer. Ripe the End of July. 



p R 

11. Prunus fruclu ovato magno 
fiwvefcente. Tourn. White Imperial 
Bonum Magnum ; white Holland or 
Mogul Plum. This is a large oval- 
fhap'd Fruit, of a yellowifh Colour, 
powdered over with a white Bloom : 
theFleih is firm, and adheres clofely 
to the Stone : the Juice is of an acid 
Tafte, which renders it unpleafant 
to be eaten raw ; but it is very good 
for Baking, or Sweet meats : it is a 
great Bearer, and is ripe towards 
the End of Auguft. 

12. Prunus fruclu onjato cceruleo. 
The Chelton Plum. This is a mid- 
dle-fiVd Fruit, of an oval Figure; 
the Outfide is of a dark Blue, pow- 
der'd over with a violet Bloom ; the 
Juice is rich, and it is a great Bear- 
er. Ripe the End of July. 

13. Prunus fruclu maxima rotun- 
da fla<vo £ff dulci. Tourn. Prune d'A- 
bricot, i. e. The Apricot - plum. 
This is a large round Fruit of a yel- 
low Colour on theOutiide, powder'd 
over with a white Bloom ; the Flefh 
is firm and dry, of a fweet Tafte, 
and comes clean from the Stone. 
This ripens the End of July. 

14. Prunus fruclu fubrot undo > ex 
rubra iff flauo mixta. The Maitre 
Claud. Although this Name is ap- 
plied to this Fruit, yet it is not what 
the French fo call. This is a mid- 
dle-hVd Fruit, rather round than 
long, of a line mix'd Colour, be- 
tween Red and Yeilow ; the Flelh is 
firm, and parrs from the Stone, and 
has a delicate Flavour. Pope the 
End o* JWj?, 

15. Pkunus fruclu rubcntQ dulcif- 
fmo. Town. La Rochecourbon, or 

Diaprce rouge, i. e. the red Diaper 
Plum. Tnis is a large round Fruit, 
of a reel i fh Colour, powdei'd over 
with a violet Bloom ; the Fiefti ad- 
heres clofely to the Stone, and is of 
a very high Flavour. J&pe in the 
Be ginning cf Augufl, 



P R 

\6. Vrvuvs frufiu rotunda fave- 
fcente. La petite Reine Claude, i. e. 
Queen Claudia. This is a final 1 
round Fruit, of a whitim -yellow 
Coiour, powder VI over with a pearl- 
colour'd Bloom ; the Flefti is firm 
and thick, quits the Stone, and its 
Juice is richly fu^ar'd. Ripe the 
Middle of Augufi. 

17. P&vnxjs fruSZu rot undo nigra- 
purpur:o major i da lei. Tourn. Myro- 
baian Plum. Tiiis is a middle fiz'd 
Fruit, of a round ^hape ; the Out- 
fide is a dark Purple, pcwder'd over 
with a violet Bloom ; the Juice is 
veryiweet. It is ripe the Middle of 
Jugufi. 

i3. Prunus fruclu rotundo e <vi- 
ridi farvefcmte, came dura y fua e vijji- 
mo. La groffe Reine Claude, i. e. 
the large Qyieen Claudia, by fome 
the Dauphiny. At Tours it is cali'd 
the Abncot verd, i, e. Green Apri- 
cot : at Rouen, Le verte bonne, i. e. 
the good Green : and in other Pla- 
ces, Damas verd, i. e. Green Da- 
mafk, or Trcrap-valet, the Servants 
Cheat. This is one of the belt Plums 
in England ; it is of a middle Size, 
round, and of a yellowilh - green 
Colour on the Outfide ; the Flefn is 
firm, of a deep - green Colour, and 
parts from the Stone ; the Juice has 
an exceeding rich Flavour, and it is 
a great Bearer. Ripe the Middle of 
Augnft. This Plum is confounded by 
moil People in England, by the Name 
of Green Gage ; but this is the Sort 
which mould be chofen, although 
there are three or four different Sorts 
of Plums generally fold for it, one of 
which is (mall, round, and dry : this 
quits the Stone, and is later ripe, fo 
not worth prefcrving. 

19. Prunus fruStu atnygdalino. 
Tcum. RognondeCoq, i. e. Cock's 
Tefticles. This is an oblong Fruit, 
deeply furrovv'd in the Middle, fo as 
to rcfemhls the TeiticUs; "it is of a 



P Pv 

whitifh Colour on the Outride, 
ItreakM with Red ; the Flefti of it 
adheres firmly to the Stone, and it 
is late ripe. 

20. Prunus fruQu rotundo jla<wt> 
dulcijfimo. Drap d'Or, i, e. the Cloth 
of Gold Plum. This is a middle- 
fiz'd Fruit, of a bright-yellow Co- 
lour, fpotted or ftreak'd with red on 
the Outfide ; the Fkfh is yellow, and 
full of an excellent Juice. It is a 
plentiful Bearer, and ripens about 
the Middle of Augujl. 

21. Prunus fittclu ccrei color is. 
Tourn. Prune de Sainte Catharine, 
i.e. St. Catharine Plum. This is a large 
oval - lhap'd Fruit, fomewhat flat; 
the Outfide is of an Amber Colour, 
powder'd over with a whitifh Bloom; 
but the Flefli is of a bright-yellow 
Colour, is dry and firm, adheres 
clcfely to the Stone, and has a very 
agreeable fweet Talte. This ripens 
at the End of Augujl, and is very 
fubjecl to dry upon the Tree, when 
the Autumn proves warm and tfry. 
This makes fine Sweetmeats, and is 
a plentiful Bearer. 

22. Prunus fruclu o<vato rubente 
dulci. The Royal Plum'. This is 
a large Fruit of an oval Shape, draw- 
ing to a Point next the Stalk ; the 
Outfide is of a light - red Colour, 
pcwder'd over with a whitifh Bloom ; 
the Flefh adheres to the Stone, and 
has a fine fugary Juice. This ripens 
the End of Auguji. 

2 3. Prunus fruclu par<vo cx <vi- 
ridi jla<vpfctnte. Tourn. La iVlira- 
belle. This is a final 1 round Fruit, 
of a greenilh-yeilow on the Outfide : 
the Flefli parts from the Stone, is of 
a bright-yellow Colour, and has a 
fine fugary Juice. This is a great 
Bearer, ripens the Beginning o'i Au- 
gujl, and is excellent for Sweetmeats. 

24 . Pr 12 N U s BrigcKichfis, fru5iu 
fuwij/imo. Toum. Prune de Bri- 
gnole; i. e. The Brignole Plum. 

This 



P R 

This is a large oval-fhap'd Fruit, 
of a yellowifh Colour, mix'd with 
Red on the Outficte ; the Flefh is 
of a bright-yellow Colour, is dry, 
and of an excellent rich Flavour. 
This ripens the Middle of Auguft, 
and is efteem'd the be& Plum for 
Sweetmeats yet kno-wi. 

25. Prunus fruclu magna e <viola- 
ceo rubente ferotino. Ho urn. Impera- 
trice, /. e. The Emprefs. This is a 
large round Fruit, of a vio!et-red 
Colour, very much powder'd with a 
whitifh Bloom; the Flefli is yellow, 
cleaves to the Stone, and ia of an 
agreeable Flavoar. This ripens 
about the Middle of September. 

26. Prunus fruclu o-vato maximo 
fa<vo. Tourn. Prune de Monlieur, 
He. The Monfieur Plum. This is 
fometimes call'd the JVentivorib 
Plum. It is a large oval (hap'd 
Fruit, of a yellow Colour both with- 
in and without, very much refem- 
bling the Bonum Magnum ; but the 
Flefh of this parts from the Stone, 
which the other doth not. This ri- 
pens toward the Latter-end of Au- 
guf, and is very good to preferve ; 
but the Juice is too (harp to be eaten 
raw : it is a great Bearer. 

27. Prunus fruclu major: rot un- 
do rubro. 'Town. Prune Ceiizette, 
i. e. The Cherry Plum. This Fruit 
is commonly about the Size of the 
Ox-heart Cherry, is round, and of a 
red Colour ; the Stalk is long, like 
that of a Cherry, which this Fruit fo 
much refembles, as not to be di- 
ftmguim'd therefrom at fome Di- 
ftance. The Bloftbms of this Tree 
come out very early in the Spring, 
and, being tender, are very ofren 
deftroy'd by Cold ; but it affords a 
very agreeable PrefpecT: in the 
Spring ; for thefe Trees are gene- 
rally cover'd with Flowers, which 
open about the fame time as the Al- 
monds ; fo that when they are iiuer- 



P R 

mix'd therewith, they make a beau- 
tiful Appearance before many other 
Sorts put out : but by this bloflbm- 
ing fo early, there are few Years that 
they have much Fruit. 

28. Prunus fruclu albo oblon^iaf- 
culo acido. Tour n. The white Pear- 
plum. This is a good Fruit for V: - 
ferving ; but is very unpleafan: 
eaten raw ; it is very late ripe, 
feldom planted in Gardens, unk 
Stocks to bud fome tender Sorts of 
Peaches upon; for which Purpofe it 
is efteem'd the belt amongft all the 
Sorts of Plums. 

29. Prunus Mytellinum. P.;rk. 
The Mukle-plum. This is an ob- 
long flat Plum, of a dark- red Co- 
lour ; the Stone is large, and the 
Flefli but very thin, and not well- 
tafted, fo that its chief Ufe is for 
Stocks, as the former. 

30. Prunus fruclu par<vo<violaceo. 
The St. Julian Plum. This is a fmall 
Fruit, of a dark-violet Colour, pow- 
der'd over with a mealy Bloom ; the 
Flefh adheres clofely to the Stone, 
and in a fine Autumn will dry upon 
the Tree. The chief Ufe of this 
Plum is for Stocks, to bud the more 
generousKinds of Plums and Peaches 
upon ; as alio for the Bruxelles Apri- 
cot, which will not thrive fo well- 
upon any other Scock. 

3 ( . Pku n us fjlvejlris mr.jor. J. 
B. The black "Bullace-tree. Th» 
grows wild in the Fledges in divers 
Parts or England, and is rarely cul- 
tivated in Gardens. 

32. P R V n u s fatieftris, fruclu ma- 
jore alio. Han Syn. The white Bul- 
lace tree. This grows wi:d, as the 
former, and is feldom cultivates in 
Gardens. 

33 Prunus jfrlvejh is. G:r. Emt . 
The Black-thorn, or Sloe- tree. This 
is very common in the Hedges almo-1: 
every- where : the chief Ufe of this 
Tree is to plant for Hedges, a$ 

4 B 4 White-. 



P R 



White -thorn, &e. and, being of 
quick Growth, is very proper for 
that Purpofe. 

All the Sorts of Plums are propa- 
gated by budding or grafting them 
upon Stocks of the Muicle, Wnite 
Pear, St. Julian, Bonum Magnum, 
or any other Sorts of free- (hooting 
Plums.' 1 The manner of raifmg thete 
Stocks hath been already exhibited 
under the Article of Nurferies ; there- 
fore need not be repeated again in 
this Place : but I would obferve, 
that Budding is much preferable to 
Grafting for thefe Sorts of Fruit- 
trees, which are very apt to gum, 
where-ever there are large Wounds 
imde on them. 

The Trees fhould not be more 
than a Year's Growth from the Bud, 
when they are tranfplanted ; for if 
they are older, they feldom fucceed 
fo well, being very fubjecY to can- 
ker ; or, if they take well to the 
Ground, commonly produce only 
two or three luxuriant Branches; 
therefore it is much more advifeable 
to choofe young Plants. 

The manner of preparing the 
Ground (if for Walls) is the fame as 
for Peaches; as is alfo the pruning 
the Roots, and planting ; and there- 
fore I mall forbear repeating it 
again. The Diftance which thefe 
Trees mould be planted at, muft 
not be lefs than twenty, or twenty- 
four Feet ; and if the Wall is low, 
they mould be placed thirty Feet 
afunder. 

Plums fhouid have a middling 
Soil, neither too wet and heavy, nor 
over * light and dry ; in either of 
which Extremes they feldom do fo 
well : and thofe Sorts which are 
planted againiY Walls, mould be 
placed to an Eaft or South-eaft Af- 
pedt ; which is more kindly to thefe 
Fruits than a full South Afpeft, on 
which they are fubjeel to (hrivel, and 



be very dry ; and "many Sorts will 
be extreme mealy, if expos'd too 
much to the Heat of the Sun ; but 
molt Sorts will ripen extremely well 
on Efpaliers, if rightly manag'd. 

There are fome Perfons who plant 
Plums for Standards, in which Me- 
thod fome of the ordinary Sorts will 
bear very well; but then the Fruit 
will not be near fo fair as thofe pro- 
duct on Efpaliers, and will be more 
in Danger of being bruifed, or blown 
down, by ftrong Winds. The Di- 
ftance of placing them for Efpaliers 
muft be the fame as againfl Walls ; 
-as mult alfo their Pruning and Ma- 
nagement ; fo that whatever may be 
hereafter mention a for one, mould 
be likewile underltood for both. 

Plums do not only produce their 
Fruit upon the Jail Year's Wood, but 
alfo upon Curfons or Spurs, which 
come out of Wood that is many 
Yeai s old ; fo that there is not a Ne- 
ceffity of friortening the Branches, 
in order to obtain new Shoots annu* 
ally in every Part of the Tree (as in 
Peachcs„Nec~tarines, &c. hath been 
directed), fmce the more thefe Trees 
are pruned, the more luxuriant they 
grow, until the Strength of them is 
exhaufted, and then they gum and 
fpoil : therefore the fafeft Method to 
manage thefe Trees is, to lay in 
their Shoots horizontally, as they 
are produced, at equal Diftances, in 
proportion to the Length of their 
Leaves ; and where there is not a 
fufficient Quantity of Branches to 
fill up the Vacancies of the Tree, 
there the Shoots may be pinchfd the 
Beginning of May (in the manner as 
hath been directed for Peaches,cjrV.^; 
which will caufe them to produce 
fome lateral f ranches to fupply thofe 
Places ; and during the growing Sea- 
fon, all fore-right Shoots lhouid be 
dtfpiaced ; and Inch as are to remain 
muft be regularly cram'd in to the 

Wall 



P R 

Wall or Efpalier ; which will not 
only render them beautiful, but alfo 
give to each an equal Advantage of 
Sun and Air : and hereby the Fruit 
will be always kept in a ductile, 
growing State ; which they feldom 
are, when overfhaded with Shoots 
fome Part of the Seafon, and then 
fuddenly expofed to the Air, by the 
taking orT or training thofe Branches 
in their proper Pofition. 

With thus carefully going over 
thefe Trees in the growing Seafon, 
there will be but little Occafion for 
cutting them in Winter; which (as I 
before have faid) is of ill Confe- 
quence to all Sorts of Stone-fruit ; 
for when the Branches are fhorten'd, 
the Fruit is cut away, and the Num- 
ber of Shoots increas'd : fo where- 
ever a Branch is Ihorten'd, there are 
commonly two or more Shoots pro- 
duct from the Eyes immediately be- 
low the Cut ; and by thus unfkilfully 
Pruning, many Perfons croud their 
Trees wilh Branches, and thereby 
render what little Fruit the Trees 
produce, very fmall and ill-tafted ; 
which is very commonly found in 
too many Gardens, where the Ma- 
nager, perhaps, thinks himfelf a 
complete Mailer of his Bufmefs. For 
nothing is more common, than to 
fee every Branch of a Fruit- tree pafs 
the Difcipline of the Knife, however 
agreeable it be to the feveral Sorts 
of Fruits. And it is common to fee 
thefe Trees planted at the Diftance 
cf fourteen or fixteen Feet, fo that 
the Walls are in a few Years coverd 
with Branches; and then all the 
Shoots are cut and mangled with the 
Knife, fo as to appear like a Hump- 
ed Hedge, and produce little Fruit: 
therefore the only way to have 
Plum-trees in good Order, is to give 
them room, and extend theirBranches 
fit full Length. 



p s 

Thofe few Rules, before laid 
down, will be fumcient, if due Ob- 
fervation be join'd therewith, to in- 
ftrudt any Perfon in the right Ma- 
nagement of thefe Sort of Fruit-trees ; 
therefore I fhall not fay any more on 
that Subject, left, by multiplying 
Inftructions, it may render it more 
obfcure to a Learner. 

PSEUDOACACIA. Vide Robi- 
nia. 

PSYLLIUM, Fleawort. 
The Characters are ; 

This Plant agrees ivitb Plantaix 
and Buck/born - plantain in every re- 
fp>. Si, excepting that this rifes up <uitb 
lofty Stalks, and divides into many 
Branches ; nvhereas both the others 
produce their Flctwcrs upon naked Pe- 
dicles. 

The Species are ; 

1. Psyllium tnajus ere Slum. C. 
B. P. Greater upright Fleawort. 

2. Psyllium majus fupinum. C. 
B. P. Greater Fleawort, whofe 
Branches fpread to the Ground. 

3. Psyllium Indie um y foliis cre- 
natis. J. B. Indian Fleawort, with 
notched Leaves. 

There are feveral other Varieties 
of thefe Plants, diftinguilh'd by Wri- 
ters in Botany : but fince they are 
of little Ufe or Beauty, I fliall pafs 
them by without naming. 

Thefe Plants may be propagated 
by lowing their Seeds in the Spring, 
on a Bed of light Earth ; and when 
they are come up, they mould be 
clear'd from Weeds ; pulling out at 
the fame time fome of the Plants, 
where they (land too clofe, leaving 
the remaining ones about eight or 
nine Inches afunder : after which 
they will require no farther Care, 
but to clear them from Weeds ; and 
in July they will flower, and their 
Seeds will ripen in Autumn. 

The fecond Sort will abide two or 
three 



P T 



P T 



three Years, provided the Plants are 
on a poor dry Soil ; but the other 
two Sorts perifh every Year. 

The firft Sort, which is the moft 
common, is ufed in Medicine ; but 
the other two are never ufed in Eng- 
land. 

PTARMICA, Sneezwort. 
The Characters are ; 
It hath radiated Flowers, whofe 
J)':jk ccuffs of many fiords ; but the 
Borders are compofed of Half florets : 
the Emhryoes are lodged in the Flower - 
tup, which is jcaly, each of which 
becomes one flendsr Seed. 
The Species are ; 

1. Ptarmica 'vulgaris, folio longo 
fcrrato, fore alba. J. B. Common 
Sneezwort, with a long ferrated 
Leaf, and white Flower. 

2. Ptarmica vulgaris, fore pie- 
no. CUtf. Hift . Common Sneezwort, 
with a double Flower, by fome call- 
ed Double Pcliitory. 

3. Ptarmica fliis profundi's fer- 
ratis, late viridibus, elatior. H. L. 
Taller Sneezwort, with broad green 
Leaves deeply ferrated. 

4. Ptarmica Alpina, incanis ftr- 
ratis foliis. H. L. Alpine Sneezwort, 
with hoary ferrated Leaves. 

5. Ptarmica incana, pinnulis cri- 
Jlatis. T. Cor. Hoary Sneezwort, 
with crefted Leaves. 

6. Ptarmica incana humilis, fo- 
liis laciniatis, abfnthii a?mulis. H. L. 
Dwarf hoary Sneezwort, with jagged 
Leaves, refembling Wormwood. 

7. Ptarmica Alpina, foliis an- 
guflis, partim ferratis, partim intc- 
gris. Bocc. Muf. Alpine Sneezwort, 
with narrow Leaves, Part of which 
are fawed on their Edges, and the 
other Part are whole. 

8. Ptarmica Cntica frutefcens, 
fantolina' facie. Lift. R. H. Shrubby 
Sneezwort of Gete, with the Ap- 
pearance of Lavender-cotton. 

c>. Ptarmica Orientalis, flits 



criflatis. To urn. Cor. Eaftern Sneee- 
wort, with crefted Leaves. 

10. Pt ARM ICa Orientalis, foliit 
crijlatis longi:ribus, iff capitulis m <- 
joribus. Tourn. Cor. Eaftern Sneez- 
wort, with longer crefted Leaves, 
and larger Heads. 

11. Ptarmica Orientalis, fanto- 
lirae folio, fiore tnajore. Toum. Cor. 
Eaftern Sneezwort, with a Laven- 
der-cotton- leaf, and a larger Flow- 
er. 

12. Ptarmica Orientalis, fanto- 
lina folio, fore minor e. Tourn. Cor. 
Eaftern Sneezwort, with a-Lavender- 
co:ton-leaf, and a fmaller Flower. 

13. Ptarmica Orientalis, foliis 
tanaceti incanis, fore aureo. Tourn. 
Cor. Eaftern Sneezwort, with hoary 
Tanfey -leaves, and a golden Flow- 
er. 

14. Ptarmica Orientalis, foliis 
tanaceti incanis, femifiofculis forum 
pallide luteis. Tourn. Cor. Eaftern 
Sneezwort, with hoary Tanfey- 
leaves, whole Half florets are of a 
pale-yellow Colour. 

15. Ptarmica Orientalis, foliis 
tanaceti incanis, femiflofculis forum 
brevioribus. Tcurn. Cor. Eaftern 
Sneezwort, with hoary- Tanfey- 
leaves, whofe Half florets are very 
fhort. 

16. Ptarmica Orientalis, fanto- 
lints folio, radice npentc. Eaftern 
Sneezwort, with a Lavender-cotton- 
leaf, and a creeping Root. 

17. Ptarmica Orientalis, tana- 
ceti folio & facie, fore minima. Tourn. 
Cor. Eaftern Sneezwort. with the 
Leaf and Face of Tanley, and the 
leaft Flower. 

18. Pt a R Id 1 C A Orientalis incana, 
foliis pennati s , fcrni f.fculis forum mr 
confpicuis. Tourn. Cor. Hoary Eaftern 
Sneezwort, with winged Leaves, and 
the Half-florets fcarceiv difcernible. 

19. Ptarmica Orient a lis, fir is 
argent f'u eonjugatis, Town. Cor. Eaft- 
ern, 



P T 

ern Sneezwort, with filver conju- 
gated Leaves. 

All thefe Sorts of Ptarmica are 
hardy enough to endure the Cold 
of our ordinary Winters in the open 
Air, provided they are planted in a 
dry lean Soil; for when they are 
in a moift rich Soil, they grow very 
luxuriant in the Summer, and are 
filled with Juice ; which renders them 
lefs capable to refill the Cold, than 
when they are more Hinted and 
woody ; and they make a much bet- 
ter Appearance, when they grow 
ilowly, than if they were greatly en- 
couraged in their Growth ; becaufe 
they appear more hoary, and produce 
a greater Number of Flowers. 

The firft of thefe Plants is very 
common upon Heaths, and in fhady 
Places, in divers Parts of England ; 
but is rarely cultivated in Gardens. 
This is the Sort dire&ed for medici- 
nal Uie in the College Difpenfa- 
torv. 

The fecond Sort is a Variety of 
the firit, which was accidentally ob- 
tain'd : the Flowers of this Kind are 
very double, and generally produced 
in large Bunches ; which, together 
with its long Continuance in Flow- 
er, renders it worthy of a Place in 
every good Garden. This Sort pro- 
pagates itfelf very fall by its Root.-, 
which fpread very far under-ground; 
fo that it mould not be planted too 
near other Plants, left it over-run 
and deftroy them. 

The belt time to tranfplant thefe 
Roots is in Autumn, that they may 
take Root before Winter : fo that 
they will be in no Danger of loitering 
from Drought the Spring following; 
and will be capable of producing 
flrcnger Stalks, and a greater Quan- 
tity of Flowers. 

This Plant always makes the beft 
Appearance when its Roots are con- 
fined , becaufe, when thzy are fuf- 



p T 

fer'd to fpread, the Stalks come up 
thin and itraggling ; and the greatelt 
Beauty of it is, to fee it grow clofe 
in large Tufts: for which R.eafon 
many Perfons choofe to plant it in 
Pots fill'd with light fandy Earth ; 
in which, if they are duly watered in 
dry Weather, they will thrive ex- 
ceedingly, and make a very hand- 
fome Appearance. It is alfo very- 
proper to plant on fuch Borders as 
are gravelly and poor (on which few 
ether things will thrive^,' where the 
Roots of this Plant will be confin'd, 
more than if planted in a better Soil, 
and they will flower very well. 

The third and fourth Sorts are 
feldom preferv'd in Flower-gardens, 
being Plants of little Beauty : thefe 
may be propagated by parting their 
Roots, either in Spring or Autumn, 
and will grow upon almoll any Soil, 
or in any Situation. 

The fifth Sort was brought from 
the Levant byMonf. Tourne/ort ; but 
was known long before. Many of 
the old Botanifts were of Opinion, 
that the Seeds of tnis Plant were the 
Semen Santonicum of the Shops ; but 
it is now generally believ'd to be the 
Seeds of ibme other Plant of this 
Kind : but however, this Plant de- 
ferves a Place in every good Garden, 
for the Variety of its iilver-colour'd 
Leaves, together with its long Con- 
tinuance in Flower. 

It may be propagated bf planting 
Cuttings during any of the Summer- 
months, upon a Bed of light Earth, 
obierving to water and lhade them 
until they have taken Root : after 
which they will require no farther 
Care, but only to clear them from 
Weeds, until September following, 
when they mould be carefully taken 
up, preferving a Ball of Earth to 
the Roots of each Plant, ana 1 planted 
in a warm dry Situation : and if it 
be on a poor gravelly or rubbifhing 

SoiI> 



P T 

6oil,theywill endure the Cold better, 
and make much more beautiful 
Plants : this Sort feldom perfects 
Seeds in England, 

The other Sorts are all (except the 
fixteenth) propagated by Cuttings 
in the Summer - months ; which 
ihould be planted in a fhady Border 
of frefti Earth, and mutt be conftant- 
!y watered, until they have taken 
Root ; aftef which time they will re- 
quire no farther Care but to keep 
them clear from Weeds, until Mi- 
chaelmas, when they fhould be care- 
fully taken up, and tranlplanted 
where they are defign'd to remain ; 
which mull be done fo early in the 
Autumn, that they may have time 
to get good Roots before the Froft 
comes on, othervvife they will be in 
Danger of fuffering. The fixteenth 
Sort propagates greatly by its creep- 
ing Roots, therefore requires to be 
confin'd ; otherwife it will fpread, 
and intermix with whatever Plants 
grow near it. This is alfo a very 
hardy Plant ; but being of humble 
Growth, makes no very good Figure 
in a Garden ; fo is feldom preferv'd, 
but by thofe Perfons who are curi- 
ous in Botany, for the fake of Va- 
riety. 

Although thefe Plants do not pro- 
duce very beautiful Flowers, yet 
they may be difpofed in large Gar- 
dens, fo as to make a very agreeable 
Diverfity; for their hoary Leaves 
of different Shapes, when intermixed 
with other hardy Plants of the fame 
Growth, on fmall Hillocks, will 
have a pretty Effect ; and as they 
retain their Leaves all the Winter, 
at that Seaion they add to the Varie- 
ty : and in Summer, when their 
Flowers are produced, they alter the 
Profpeft fo as to be very agreeable. 

They are all of them low Plants ; 
the talleftand moft fnrubby of them 
(cldoLU vifes above two Feet high, 



P T 

and the others not half fo high ; f« 
that they fhould not be mixed with 
larger Plants, becaufe thofe would 
overbear and deftroy them. When 
thefe Plants are well rooted, they re- 
quire no other Culture, but to keep 
them clear from Weeds ; for their 
Roots will abide many Years, pro- 
vided they are not deftroyed by very 
fevere Frofts, which feldom happen 
in England. 

PTELEA, Carolina Shrub-tre- 
foil. 

The Characters are ; 

The Empalement of the Flower is 
one Leaf cut into four acute Segments : 
the Flower is compofed of four Petals, 
which fpread open : in the Cen- 
tre is placed the Point W, which is flat 
and round, and is attended by four 
Stamina, each crown d with roundijb 
Summits : the Point al afterward 
changes to a roundijh membranaceous 
Fruit, like that of the Elm, in which 
is contained one taper Seed. 

We have but one Species of this 
Genus; *vm. 

Ptelea. Hort. Cliff. Carolina 
Shrub- trefoil. 

This Shrub was firfl: taken notice 
of by Mr. Banijler, who found it 
growing in Virginia, and mentions it 
in his Catalogue of Plants, by the 
Name of FrutexVirginianus trifolius, 
ulmi famarris. It hath fince been 
found in plenty on the upper Part of 
the Savannah River, in Carolina, 
where the Shrubs grow to theHeight 
of twelve or fourteen Feet. Jn 
England there are many of thefe 
Shrubs, which are upward of ten 
Feet high, and produce plenty of 
Flowers every Year. The Flowers 
are white, and grow in large Bunches 
at the Ends of the Shoots ; thefe are 
fucceeded by the membranaceous 
Seeds, which fall away, and never 
ripen here. There were fome pret- 
ty large Shrubs of this Kind in fome 

curious 



P T 

curious Gardens, which weredertroy- 
ed in the fevere Winter in 1 749-50.; 
but they are fo hardy, as to refill the 
Cold of our ordinary Winters very 
well in the open Air. 

Thefe Shrubs may be propagated 
by Cuttings, which mould be planted 
in Pots of frefh rich Earth, and 
plung'd into a moderate Hot-bed. 
The bell time for planting them is 
in the Beginning of March ; but they 
muft be carefully manag'd, fo as not 
to have too much Heat, and lhadcd 
from the Sun in the Middle of the 
Day,otherwife they will not fucceed. 
They may alfo be propagated by 
Layers ; but thefe mould be duly 
water'd, otherwife they will not take 
Root : but if good Seeds can be pro- 
cur'd from abroad, the Plants raifed 
from thofe will be much ftronger, 
than thofe which are propagated by 
either of the former Methods. 

Thefe Seeds may be (own the Be- 
ginning of April, on a Bed of light 
Earth, in a warm flickered Situation; 
where, if the Ground is moiften'd in 
dry Weather, the Plants wul come up 
in five or fixWeeks : but if the Seeds 
arefown inPot^and placed on a very 
moderate Hot-bed, the Plants will 
come up fooner, and make greater 
Progrefs the furl Year : but they 
muft not before d or drawn, for that 
will make them very tender ; there- 
fore in June the Plants Ihould be ex- 
pos'd to the open Air, in a fhelter'd 
Situation, where they may remain 
till the Froft comes on ; when thofe 
in the Pots mould be either placed 
under a common Frame, to fhelter 
them from fevere Froft ; or the Pots 
plung'd into the Ground, near an 
Hedge, that the Froft may be pre- 
vented from penetrating through the 
Sides of the Pots to the Roots of the 
Plants. The following Spring the 
PJante.rjiay be planted into a Nur- 



p u 

fery-bed, at about one Foot Di- 
itance, where they may grow two 
Years ; by which time they will be 
fit to tranfplant where they are de- 
signed to remain. 

PULEG1UM, Penyroyal, or Pud- 
den -grais. 

The Characters are ; 

. It hath a labiated Flower t conjiff- 
ing of one Leaf, whofe upper Lip {or 
Creji) is intire ; but the lower Lip 
( or Beard) is divided into three 
Parts : out of the Flower-cup rifes 
the Feint al, attended by four Ent- 
bryoes, wbicb afterward become fa 
many Seeds : to ~xkicb mny be added, 
That the Flowers grow in Jhart thick 
H horles. 

The Species are ; 

1. Pulegium kmtifolium. C B. 
P. Common, or Broac-ltav'd Pe- 
nyroyal. 

2. PulegiumH fpanicum ereJlum, 
fiaminibus forum t stantibus. 
r\g\rtSpanffj Pinyroya], whofe Sta- 
mina (land out from the Flowers. 

3. Pulegium angufi folium. C. 
B. P. Narrow - leav'd Penyroy- 
al. 

4. Pulegium anguftifolium, flare 
albo. H. R. Pin. Narrow-leav'd 
Penyroyal, with a white Flower. 

The firft of thefe Plants is very 
common on moill Heaths in divers 
Parts of England: this is the Sort re- 
commended by the Phyficians for 
medicinal Ule. But thefecond Sort, 
although not a Native of England, 
hath fo much obtain'd in the Gar- 
dens where medicinal Plants are cul- 
tivated, as to have quite fuperfeded 
the other in the Markets, for its up- 
right Growth, early Flowering, and 
more beautiful Appearance : but 
whether it is equally good for Ufe, I 
(hall leave to thofe to whofeProvince 
it more immediately belongs to ex- 
amine. 

The 



P u 



The third Sort is alfo recom- 
mended to beufed in Medicine : this 
is not of Englijh Growth ; but is ve- 
ry hardy, and will thrive very well, 
if planted on a moift Soil ; as will 
alfo the fourth Sort, which is only 
a Variety of the third, from which 
it differs in nothing but the Colour 
of its Flowers. 

All thefe Plants propagate thern- 
felves very fall by their Branches 
trailing upon the Ground, which 
emit Roots at every Joint, and fallen 
themfelves into the Earth, and fend 
forth newBranches ; fo that no more 
isrequired in theirCulture,thanto cut 
oft any of thefe rooted Branches and 
plant them out in frefh Beds ; allow- 
ing them at leaft a Foot from Plant 
to Plant every Way, that they may 
have room to grow. 

The bell time for this Work is in 
September, that the Plants- may be 
rooted before Winter ; for if the old 
Roots are permitted to remain fo 
clofe together, as they generally grow 
in theCornpafs of a Year, they are 
ful je^t to rot in Winter : befides, the 
young Plants will be much ftronger, 
and produce a larger Crop the fuc- 
ceeding Summer, than if they were 
removed in the Spring : thefe Plants 
all love a moift ftrong Soil, in which 
they will flourifh exceedingly. 

PULMONARIA, Lurgwort. 
The Characters are ; 

^he Flower confjis of one Leaf, 
which is jhcf .d like a Funnel, whofe 
vpper Fart is cut into feveral Seg- 
ments : from the f ft ulcus Flower- cup, 
which is, for the mo ft part, pent agonal, 
rifes the Peintal, cncc?npafed by four 
Embryoes, which afterward become fo 
many Seeds inclojed in the Flower- 
cup. 

The Species are ; 
I. Pulmonaria vulgaris, macu- 
le jo folio. Ctuf. Eift. Common fpot- 
ted Lungwort, by fome caia'd Sage, 



of Jeru/alem, and Jerufalem Cowf- 
lip. 

. 2. Pulmonaria major, non ma- 
culofa. J. B. Greater Lungwort, 
without Spots. 

3. Pulmonaria foliis echii . Loh. 
1c. Lungwort with Leaves like Vi- 
pers Buglofs. 

4. Pulmonaria max : ma, foliis 
quofi faccharo mcruftatis. Pink, Fhyt. 
Greatell Lungwort, with Leaves ve- 
ry much fpoued. 

5. Pulmonaria vulgaris latifo- 
lia, fore alio. Inf. R. H. Com- 
mon broad-Ieav'd Lungwort, with a 
white Flower. 

6. Pulmonaria Alpina, foliis 
mollibus fulrrjnndis. five ccerulco. Infl. 
R. H. Alpim Lungwort, with fofc 
roundifh Leaves. and a blue Flower. 

7. Pulmonaria angufifolm, cac- 
ruleo fore. J. B Narrow lea v'd 
Lungwort, with a blue Flower. 

8. Pulmonaria dlpina, angufto 
folio, It alien. Bocc. Muf. Narrow - 
leav'd Alpine Lungwort. 

9 . Pulmonaria m if is , fr agaric 
odore. Bocc. Muf. Mild Lungwort 
fmelling-l:ke Strawberries. 

10. Fulmo N aria O ct ica annua ; 
calyce veficario. Inf. R. H. An- 
nual Lungwort of Candy, with a 
bladdered Flower-cup. 

11. P V 1 , m o n aria viridi, fubro- 
tundo, non maculato folio. Bocc. Muf. 
Green Lungwort, with a roundifh 
unfpolted Leaf. 

12. Pulmo n a r i a Ch ia, ecbii fo - 
lit) verruccfa, calyce vefcaric, jio^e 
albo. Town. Cor. Lurgworc of the 
lfland of Scio, with a war ted Vipers- 
buglofs-Ieaf, a b'addered Flower- 
cup, and a white Flower. 

13. Put m o N A R 1 a Lrfiia, cchii fo- 
lio njerrucOjh, caly e vejicario, fijre 
cajrvleo. % cum . Cor. Lungwort of 
Lejboi, with a waned Viper buglofs- 
leaf, a bladdered Fiowei-cup, and a 
blue Flower* 

14 PUL- 



P u 



14. Pulmonaria Orienfalis, ca- 
lyce 'veficarioyfoliis ecbli y fore purpu- 
rea infundibuliformi. Toum. Cor. 
Eaftern Lungwort, with a bladdered 
Flower-cup, a Vipers-buglofs-leaf, 
and a purple funnel (hap'd Flower. 

15. Pulmonaria Orient a/is, ca- 
lyce <veficario, foil is echii, jlore alb a 
infundibuliforn.i. Tcum. Cor. Eaft- 
ern Lungwort, with a bhddered 
Flower-cup, a Vipers-buglofs-leaf, 
and a white funnel-fhap'd Flow- 
er. 

16. Pulmonaria calyce tubo co- 
rollee brevioreyperiantbiis quihcurpar- 
titis. Flor. Virg. American Lung- 
wort, with a lhort Flower- cjp, 
which is qut into fiveSegments, call- 
ed in America, Mountain Cow Hip. 

The firft Sort is ufed in Medicine 
as a vulnerary Herb, but is by many 
People preferv'd in Gardens ; as are 
alfo the three other Sorts for the Va- 
riety of their fpotted Leaves, and 
pretty Bunches of blue Flowers. 

The firlt, fecond, third, fourth, 
fifth, fixth, feventh, eighth, and 
ninth Sorts are abiding Plants, which 
may be propagated by parting of 
their Roots. Tne bell time for doing 
of this is in Autumn, that they may 
be rooted before the Frolt comes on. 
They mould have a fhady Situation, 
and a frem undung'd Soil ; in which 
they will thrive better than on a 
rich Soil. 

Thefe Plants may be cultivated 
by parting of their Roots ; which 
may be done either in the Spring or 
Autumn ; but if the Ground be 
moilt, into which they are planted, 
it is better to be done in the Spring ; 
othervvife the Autumn is the molt 
preferable Seafon, that the Plants 
may be well rooted before the dry 
Weather comes on in the Spring, 
which will caufe them to flower 
much ftrono;er. 



The Soil in which they are plant- 
ed mould not be rich ; but rather a 
frefh light fandy Ground, in which 
they will thrive much better zhzn 
in a richer Soil, in which thty 
are very fubj^dt to rot in Winter. 

The fourth Sort makes the belt Ap- 
pearance of all the Kinds, and is very- 
hardy i will grow either in Sun or 
Shade ; and, taking up little room, 
is worthy of a Place in every good 
Garden for the fake of Variety. 

The fixtcenth Sort is a Native of - 
America, and is found in molt Parts 
of North America. The Seeds of 
this Fiant were formerly fent over 
from Virginia, by Mr. Bttttijher : 
thefe were fown in the Garden of 
the Bilhop of London, at FuJbam, and 
in thofe of fome other curiou? Per- 
fons, where the Plants were feveral 
Years preferv'd ; but when the Pof- 
fefTors of fchofe Gardens died, the 
Plants being neglected v/erelolt; fo 
that for feveral Years this Sort was 
not in England. 

The Leaves of this Plant are 
fmooth and mtire; the Flowers arc 
produced in a loofe hanging Panicle, 
on the Top of the Stalks : thefe have 
long Tubes, ftretched out beyond 
theEmpalement; and, being of a fine 
blue Colour, they make a pretty Ap- 
pearance. The time of this Plant's 
flowering in England is in May j and 
if the Plants are in a fhady Situa- 
tion, the Flowers will continue a 
Month in Beauty. 

The Roots of this Plant are peren- 
nial, b,:ing compofed of many thick 
flelhy Tubers, fomewhat refembling 
thofe of Comfrey. The Leaves de- 
cay every Autumn, and new ones 
come out early in the Spring. The 
Flower - ftems ufually grew about 
one Foot and an half high ; and the 
Flowers hang down muchfafter the 
fame manner as thofe of our com- 



P u 



inon fpotted Lungwort ; but thefe 
are very rarely fucceeded by Seeds 
in this Country, which occafions the 
prefent Scarcity of the Plants in 
England ; for they do not propagate 
fall by the Root. 

This Plant mould be planted in a 
Jhady Situation, but not under the 
Dropping of Trees ; and in dry Wea- 
ther it will require to be frequently 
watered, otherwife it cannot be pre- 
ferved in this Country. In the 
Winter, if the Froft fhould prove fe- 
vere, it will be proper to lay fome 
light Covering over the Roots, to 
prevent the Froft from penetrating 
deep into the Ground, which will be 
a lure Method to preferve them. 

The other Sorts are annual, and 
propagated by Seeds only. The bell 
time to low thefe is in Autumn, foon 
after they are ripe ; for tne Plants 
will relift the Cold of our Winters 
very well ; fo will flower early the 
following Summer, and good Seeds 
may be obtained ; whereas thofe 
which are fown in the Spring, fome- 
times mifcarry. Thefe Seeds fhould 
be fown where they arc defignM to 
remain ; for the Plants do not fuc- 
ceed very well, when they aretranf- 
planted. When the Plants come up, 
they require no other Culture, but 
to keep them clear from Weeds ; and 
where they are too clofe, to thin 
them. If thefe Plants are permitted 
to fcatter their Seeds, the Plains will 
come up, and be better than when 
they are fown. All thefe Plants are 
preferv'd by the Curious in Botany ; 
but they have no great Beauty ; fo 
are not often kept in other Gar- 
dens. 

PULSATILLA, Pafque- flower. 

The Characters are ; 
The Flower cwfiftl of fiver cl 
Leaves, which are placed in a circu- 
lar Order, and expand in form of a 
Jbfe ; out of which rifes a Point cl, 
6 



befet,for the moji part, with Chives i 
which afterward becomes a Fruit, in 
which the Seeds are gather d, as it 
were, into a little Head, each ending 
in a f mall Hair : to which muft he add- 
ed, Some little Leaves encompnffng 
the Pedicle below the Flower, as in 
the Anemone ; from which thePafque- 
Jlower differs, in the Seed ending in 
a Tail. 

The Species art ; 

1. Pulsatilla folio cr off ore, 13 
majore flare. C. B. P. Pafque- 
flower with thicker Leaves, and a 
larger Flower. 

2. Pulsa i / lla fore <violaceo du- 
plici funbriato. H R. Par. Pafque- 
flower with a double fringed vi- 
olet-colour'd Flower. 

3. Pulsatilla flore minor e ni- 
gricante. C. B. P. Pafque-flower 
with a fmaller darker Flower. 

4. Pulsatilla fore rubro obtu* 
fo. C. B. P. Red Pafque-flower. 

5. Pulsatilla flore albo. C. B. 
P . Wnite Pafque flower. 

6. Pulsatilla lutea, apii horten- 
fu folio. C. B P. Yellow Pafque- 
flower, with a Leaf of Garden-par- 
fley. 

7. Pulsatilla lutea Alpina hi* 
fpidior. C. B. P. Yellow hairy 
Pafque flower of the Alps. 

8 . Pulsatilla folio te?iuius inci* 
fo,& flore minore, fi ve paluflris. C. 
B. P. Marfh Pafque-flower, with 
fine-cut Leaves, and a fmaller Flow- 
er. 

9 . Pulsatilta folic tenia' us inci- 
fo, feu paluftriSfflore dilutiore. //. R. 
Par. Marfh Pafque-flower, with a 
fine-cut Leaf, and a paler f low- 
er. 

10. Pu l s at 1 ll a apii folio, <vrr~ 
nalis, fore majore. C.B. P. Spring 
Pafque flower, with a Smailagt- 
Icaf, and a larger Flower. 

11. Pulsatilla cpi : folio, wer- 
rtalis, flore mimre. C. B. P. Spring 

Pafque- 



P V 

Falqac-flower, with a Smallage-leaf, 
and a fmaller Flower. 

i 2. Pulsatilla apii folio, au- 
iumnalis. C. B. P. Smallage- 
leav'd Pafque - flower of the Au- 
tumn. 

13. Pulsatilla folio anemones 
fecunda, five fubrotundo. C. B. P. 
Pafque flower with a roundilh Flow- 
er. 

14. Pulsatilla Pyrenaica,fore 
alio duplici. H. R. Par. Pafque- 
flower of the Pyrenees, with a doable 
white Flower, 

15. Pulsatilla lute a , paflir.ac-z 
fyhteftrh folio. C. B. P. Yellow 
Pafque- flower, with a wild Parfnep- 
leaf. 

16. Pulsatilla Oriental is, tenu- 
ijfjime di-vifa & uillofa, fore rubro. 
Town. Cor. Eaftern Pafque- flower, 
with an hairy finely divided Leaf, 
•and a red Flower. 

17. Pulsatilla Jf-icana, mul- 
iifido fiore, apii folio rigido. Rail 
Supp. African Pafque- flower, with 
a mukifid Flower, and a ftifF Smal- 
lage-leaf. 

The firft of thefe Plants is common 
in divers Parts of England ; it grows 
in great Plenty on Gogmagog Hills 
on the Left-hand of the Highway 
leading from Cambridge to Haveril, 
juft on the Top of the Hill j alfo 
aboutHilderJbamfix Miles fromCa;»- 
bridge\ and on Bernack Heath not 
far from Stamford ; and on Southrop 
Common adjoining thereto ; alio on 
mountainous and dry Panares j ait 
by Leadjione Hall near Ponttfad in 
Yorkjhire. It flowers about the End 
of March, or the Beginning of 

April. 

The other Sorts are lefs common 
in England, being all of them Na- 
tives of other Countries, and are on- 
ly to be met wich in fome curious 
Gardens in EmgUnd, where they are 

Vol: III. 



P u 

cultivated for the Beauty of their 
Flowers. 

Thefe Plants may be propagated 
by Seed, which fliould be fown in 
Boxes or Pots fill'd with very light 
fandy Earth ; obferving not to cover 
the Seeds too deep with Mould, 
which will prevent their riling ; for 
they require no more than juii to be 
cover'd. Thefe Boxes mould be 
placed where they may have the 
morning Sun until Ten of the Clock; 
but mult be fcreen'd from it in the 
Heat of the Day : and if the Seafon 
proves dry, the Earth fliould be 
often refreflied with Water. The 
belt time for fowing of thefe Seeds is 
in Julji foon after they are ripe; 
for if they are kept till Spring, they 
feldom grow. 

Thefe Boxes or Pot?, in which the 
Seeds are fown, fnould remain in 
this (hady Situation until the Begin- 
ning of Oclob:r, when they mould 
be remov'd where they may enjoy 
the full Sun during the Winter-fea- 
fon : about the Beginning of March 
the Plants will begin to appear, at 
which time theBoxes fliould be again 
remov'd where they may have only 
the forenoon Sun ; for if they are 
too much expofed to the Heat, the 
young Plants will die away. They 
fhou'd alfo be refrelhed with Water 
in dry Weather, which will greatly 
promote their Growth ; and th.y 
mutt be carefully p<eferved from 
Weeds, which, if faffer'd to grow 
amonglt them, will in a Ihort time 
deitroy them. 

When the Leaves of this Plant are 
intircly decay M (which is commonly 
in July), you fliould then take up all 
the Roots, which, being nearly of 
the Colour of the Ground, will be 
d fficult to find while fmall ; there- 
fore you mould pafs tne Earth 
throagn a fnc »Vjre-ueve, which is 
4 C the 



P u 



the bell Method to feparate the 
Roots from the Earth (but notwith- 
standing all poflible Care taken, yet 
there will be many fmall Roots left ; 
fo that the Earth fhould eicher be 
put into the Boxes aga n, or fpread 
upon a Bed of light Earth to fee 
what Plants will arife out of it the 
fucceejing Year) : the Roots, being 
taken up, lhould be immediately 
planted again on Beds of frefli light 
fandy Earrh, about three or four 
Inches afunder, covering them about 
three Inches thick with the fame 
light Earth. The Spring following, 
mod of thefe Plants will produce 
Flowers ; but they will not be fo 
large and fair as in the fucceeding 
Years, when the Roots are larger. 

The Roots of thefe Plants gene- 
rally run down deep in the Ground, 
and are of-a flefliy Subftance, fome- 
what like Carrots : fo will not bear 
to be kept long out of the Ground ; 
therefore when they are removed, 
it mould be done in Autumn, that 
they may take frelh Root before the 
Frotf comes on ; for if they are 
trani'planted in the Spring, they will 
not produce ftrong Flowers : thefe 
Plants thrive beft in a loamy Soil ; 
for in very light dry Ground, they 
are very apt to decay in Summer. 

The laft Sort is tender ; therefore 
will not live thro' the Winter in 
England, umefs it is flieltered from 
the Cold : wherefore thefe Plants 
mull be planted in Pot?, and in the 
Winter placed under a Frame,where 
they may be covered in bad Wea- 
ther ; but they fliould have as much 
free Air as polfible in mild Weather : 
they will do better under one of 
thefe Frames, than when they are 
placed in the Green houie, becaufe 
there the Plants draw up weak ; fo 
do not produce their Flowers fo 
ftrcng, nor in fo great Plenty, as 



when they have a greater Share of 
Air. 

This Sort is propagated by Seeds, 
which fliould be lown in Pots of 
frefli Earth, foon after they are ripe, 
and placed in a fliady Situaiion till 
Autumn ; when they fliould be re- 
moved where they may enjoy the 
Sun : and when the Nights begin in 
be frofty, the Pots muft be placed 
under a Frame with the old Plants ; 
in the Spring the Plants will appear ; 
and after theyhave obtained Strength, 
they may be tranfplai.ted each into 
a feparate Pot, and treated in the 
-fame manner as the old Plants. 

PUMPION. VideVtyo. 

PUNICA, The Pomgranate - 
tree. 

The Characters are; 
The Flower confifs of many Leaves, 
placed in a circular Order, which ex- 
pand in form of a Ro/e, whofe bell- 
J> hoped mult if i Fl oncer -cup afterward 
becomes a glolular Fruit, having a 
thick, ftnooth, brittle Rind; and is di- 
vided into fevcral Ceils, which contain 
oblong hard Seeds, fur rounded with a 
foft Pulp. 

The Species are ; 

1. Punic a, qua malum granatum 
fert. Cafalp. The common Pom- 
granate. 

2. Punic a fruQu dulci. Tourn. 
The fweet Pomgranate. 

3. PvxiCA flvrfris. Cord.HiJl. 
The wild Pomgranate 

4. Pl'MCA fare plena majore. 
Tourn. The double-flow er'd Pom- 
granate. 

5. Punica Americana nana, fu 
humillima. Tourn. The American 
dwarf Pomgranate. 

The firir, of thefe Trees is now 
pretty common in the Er.glijh Gar- 
dens, where formerly it was nurfed 
up in Cafes, and preferved in Green- 
houfes with great Care (as was alio 

the 



P u 



the double floweringKind); but they 
are both hardy enough to refill the 
fevereft Cold of our Climate in 
the open Air ; and if planted againft 
warm Walls, in a good Situation, 
the firft Sore will often produceFruit, 
which, in warm Seafons, will ripen 
tolerably well : but as thefe Fruits 
do not ripen till tate in the Autumn, 
they are lcldom well tafted in Eng- 
land ; for which Reafon the Sort 
with double Flowers is commonly 
preferr'd to it. The Sort with fweet 
Fruit, as alfo the wilJ Sort, are lefs 
common in thcEnglijb Gardens than 
the former two. 

Thefe Plants may be eafily propa- 
gated by laying down their Branches 
in the Spring, which in one Year's 
time will take good Root, and may 
then be tranfpianted where they are 
defign'd to remain. The bell Sea- 
fon tor tranfplantmg of thefe Trees 
is in Spring, juft before they begin 
to (hoot : they ihould have a ftrong 
rich Soil, in which they flower mucn 
better, and produce more Fruir, 
than if planted on a dry poor Earth: 
but in order to obtain thefe in plen- 
ty, there mould be care taken in the 
Pruning of the Trees ; for want of 
which, we often fee thefe Trees ve- 
ry full ol fmall Shoots ; but do not 
find many Flowers produced upon 
them : therefore I fhall fet down 
Directions for pruning of thefeTrees, 
fo as to obtain a great Quantity of 
Flowers and Fruit. 

The Flowers of this Tree always 
proceed from the Extremity of the 
Branches which were produced the 
fame Year: this therefore caredb, 
That all weak Branches of the former 
Year fhou'd be cut cut; and that the 
ifronger mould be mortened in pro- 
portion to their Strength, in order 
to obtain new Shoots in every Part 
of the Tree : thefe Branches may be 



laid in againitthe Wall, aboat four 
or five Inches afuncer ; for, as their 
Leaves are fmall, there is not a Ne- 
ceffity of allowing them a greater 
Dillance. The beft t me for this 
Work is about Michaelmas, or a lit- 
tle later, acco"d:ng to the Mildnefs 
of the Seafon : but if they are left 
until Spring before they are prun'd, 
they fcldom put out their Shoots fo 
early ; and the earlier they come cut, 
the fooncr the Flowers will appear, 
which is of great Conftquence where 
Fruit is defired. In Summer they 
will require no other Dreffmg, but 
to cut off very vigorous Shoo:s which 
grow from the Wall, and never pro- 
duce Flowers (for they are the mid- 
dling Shoots only which are fruit- 
ful) ; and when the Fruit isform'd, 
the Branches on which they grow, 
mould be fattened to the Wall to 
fupport them otherwiie the Weight 
of the Fruit, when grown large, will 
be apt to break them down. 

Tho\ as I faid before, the Fruit of 
this Tree feldom arrives to any Per- 
fection in this Country, fo as to ren- 
der it valuable; yet, for the Bea.ty 
of its fcarlet-coloured Fiowers, toge- 
ther with the Variety of its Fruit, 
there mould be one Tree planted in 
every good Garden, fince the Cul- 
ture is not great which they requ ; re: 
the chief Care is, to plant ihem upon 
a rich ftrong Soil, and in a warm 
Situation. Upon fome Trees wi.ich 
had thefe Advantages, I liave ob- 
tained a great Quantity of Fruit 
which have arrived to their full 
Magnitude ; but I cannot fay they 
were well flavour'd ; novve.er, they 
made a very handfom'e Appearance 
upon the Trees. 

The double - flowering Kind is 
much more eileemed tr an the other 
in this Country, for the fake of it* 
large fine double Flowers, " w hich 
• 4 C 2 are 



P u 

are of a mod beautiful fcarlet Co- 
lour; and, if the Trees are fupplied 
with Nourimment, will continue to 
produce Flowers for near three 
Months fucceflively, which renders 
it one of the moft valuable flowering 
Trees yet known. This mult be 
prun'd and managed in the lame 
manner as hath been already direct- 
ed for the fruit bearing Kind : but 
this Sort may be rendered more 
productive of its beautiful Flowers, 
by grafting it upon Stocks of the 
fingle Kind, which will check the 
Luxuriancy of the Trees, and caufe 
them to produce Flowers upon al- 
moft every Shoot : by which Me- 
thod I have had a low Tree, which 
was planted in the open Air, ex- 
tremely full of Flowers, which made 
a very fine Appearance. 

The dwarf Sort was brought into 
Europe from the warmer! Parts of 
Jmerica, where the Inhabitants cul- 
tivate it in their Gardens for the 
Beauty of its Flowers, together with 
its continuing to produce Flowers 
and Fruit moft Part of the Year : 
this Sort feldom grows above three 
Feet high. The Fruit of this Kind 
is rarely much larger than a Walnut, 
and not very pleafant to the Tafle ; 
fo that 'tis rather cultivated for 
Shew, than for the fake of its 
' Fruit. 

This Plant may be propagated by 
Layers in the fame manner as the 
former Sorts; but muft be planted 
in Pots filled with rich Earth, and 
preferved in a Green-houfe ; other- 
wife it is too tender to endure the 
Cold of our Winters ; and in the 
Summer, when the Flowers begin to 
appear, if the Plants are expofed to 
the open Air, the Buds will fall off, 
and never open : fo that it mould 
not be expofed to the open Air, but 
placed in an airy Glafs-cafe, giving 
them a large Share of Air every 
6 



P Y 

Day : but as they will be covered 
at Top, fo the Flowers will expand, 
and the Fruit will grow to the full 
Size. 

I have heard of a Sort of Pomgra- 
nate with double-ltriped Flowers, 
and have found it mentioned in fome 
foreign Catalogues ; but have not 
feen thePlant growing; tho' I believe 
it may be eafily procured from Ita- 

PURSLAI N. Vide Portulaca. 
PYRACANTHA. Vide Mefpi- 
lus. 

PYROLA, Winter-green. 

The CharaRers are ; 
It hath a rofe-fraped Flower, con- 
Jifling of fevzral Leaves, which are 
placed circularly ; out of whofe Cup 
rifes the Pcintal, ending in a Probo- 
fcis ; which afterward turns to a 
roundi/h Fruit, which is chaneW ge- 
nerally umhellated, and conjtjiing of 
five Cells, which are commonly full of 
fmall Seeds. 

The Species are ; 

1. ? y ro la rotundi folia major. 
C. B* P. Great round- leav'd Win- 
ter-green. 

2. Pyrola rotundifolia minor. C . 

B. P. Small round-leav'd Winter- 
green. 

3. Pyrola folio mucronato ferra- 
to. C. B. P. Winter-green, with 
a pointed Leaf, fawed on the Edg- 
es. 

4. Pyrola frute.fcens,arhuti folio. 

C. B. P. ShrubbyWinter-green,with 
an Arbutus-leaf. 

The firft Sort grows wild in many 
Places in the North of England, on 
mofly Moors. Hills, and Heaths, as 
alfo in fhady Woods ; fo that it is 
very difficult to prelerve in Gar- 
dens, in the Southern Parts. 

The other three Sorts are Natives 
of the Hills in Germany, Italy, and 
Hungary. Thefe are all of them ve- 
ry difficult to cultivate in Gardens : 

for 



P Y 

for as they grow on very cold 
Hills, and in a moffy moorifh Soil, 
fo when they are removed to a bet- 
ter Soil, and in a warmer Situation, 
they feldom continue long. The 
bell time to tranfplant thefe Plants 
into Gardens, is about Michaelmas, 
provided the Roots can then be 
found ; when they fnould be taken 
up with Balls of Earth to their 
Roots, and planted in a fhady Situa- 
tion, and on a moilt undunged Soil, 
where they fnould be frequently wa- 
tered in dry Weather, otherwile they 
will not thrive. Some of thefe Plants 
may be planted in Pots, which 
ihould be Ailed with Earth as nearly 
refembling that in which they natu- 
rally grow as poiiible; and place 
them in a fhady Situation, where if 
they are conftantlv watered in dry 
Weather, they will thrive very 
well. 

The Leaves of the ftrft Sort are 
fhaped like thofe of the Pear-tree, 
from whence the Name was given 
to it : thefe Leaves are cf a deep- 
green Colour, and continue moft 
Part of the Year ; but there is no 
great Beauty in their Flowers ; tho' 
for Variety they are admitted into 
many curious Gardens. 

The flrit Sort is ordered by the 
College of Phyficians to be ufed in 
Medicine, and is generally brought 
over from Switzerland, amor.glt 
other vulnerary Plants ; amongft 
which Clafs this Plant is ranged ; 
and by fome hath been greatly com- 
mended. 

PYRUS, The Pear tree. 
The Characlcrs are ; 

The FLwer corffls of federal 
Leaves, which arc placed in a circu- 
lar Order, and expand in form of a 
Rofe ; whofe Floiver cup afterward 
becomes a fiefyy Fruit, which is more 
produced toward the Fooijlalhs than 
the Apblt ; but is hollow" 'd like a Xa- 



P Y 

*vel at the extreme Part : the Cells in 
which the Seeds are lodgd, are fepa- 
rated by foft Membranes, and the 
Seeds are oblong. 

a 

The Speciss are ; 

1. Pyrus fativa, fruclu ecf.tvo 
far<vo rpcenwfo o.ioro.tijfmo. Tourn. 
Petit Mufcat, ;'. e. Litt'e Mufk Pear, 
commonly calhd the Supreme. This 
Fruit is generally produced in large 
Ciufters : it is rather round than 
long ; the Stalk fliort ; and, when 
ripe, the Skin is of a yellow Colour : 
the Juice is fomevvhat mufky, and, 
if gathered before it is too ripe, is 
an excellent Pear. This ripens at 
the Beginning of July, and will con- 
tinue good but for a few Days. 

2. Pyrus fativa, fruclu afli-vo 
minimo odorati/Jimo. Tourn. Poire de 
Cnio, i. e. The Chio Pear, com- 
monly called the Little Ballard Mufe 
Pear. This is fmaller than the for- 
mer, but is inShapc pretty much like 
that: the Skin, when ripe, has a 
few Streaks of Red on the Side next 
the Sun ; and the Fruit feldom hangs 
in Cluflers, as the former ; but in 
other refpecls is nearly like it. 

3. Pyrus ftiva, fruSfu *fli<vo < 
fc:r--vc, e wridi albido. Tourn. Poire 
Hativeau, i. e. The Hailing Pear : 
Poire Madeleine, ou Citron des Car- 
mes : commonly called the Green 
Chifiel. This is a larger Pear than 
either of the former, and is produe'd 
more toward the Pedicle : the Skin 
is thin, and of a whitilh-green Co- 
lour when ripe; the Flelh is melt- 
ing, and, if not too ripe, of a fu- 
gary Flavour ; but is apt to be mea- 
ly : this ripens the Middle of July. 

4. Pyrus fativa, fruclu <rfii<vo 
p irtim fat urate ruhente, partim jiave- 
jcenie. Toum. Mujcadeiles Rouges, 

e. The Red Mufcadelle. It is al- 
fo called La BelliiTime, /. e. The 
Faireft or Supreme. This is a large 
early Pear, of great Beauty : the Skin 

4 C 3 *s 



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15 of a fine yellow Colour, when ripe, 
beautifully ftriped with red ; the 
Flefh is half melting, and has a rich 
Flavour, if gathered before it be 
too ripe ; but it is apt to be mealy. 
This generally produces two Crops 
of Fruit in a Year : the firft is com- 
monly ripe about the Middle of July, 
and the iecond ripens in September ; 
but this late Crop is feldom well- 
tafted. 

5 Pyrus fativa, fruBu ffii'vo 
pa/vo fia^efcerJe mojehato. Tourn. 
Petit Mufcat, i. e. The Little Muf- 
cat. This is a fmall Pear, rather 
round than long : the Skin is very 
thin, and when ripe, ofayellowifn 
Colour : the Flefli is melting, and 
of a rich mufky Flavour ; but will 
not keep long when ripe. This 
comes the Middle of July. 

6. Pyrus fativa, fruSiu sejlivo 
oblongo ferrugineo, came tenera mi- 
fchata.Tourn. Cuifle Madame, Lady's 
Thigh, in England commonly called 
Jargonelle. This is a very long Pear, 
of a pyramidal Shape, having a long 
Footftalk : the Skin is pretty thick, 
of a ruflet- green Colour from the 
Sun; but toward the Sun it is in- 
clined to an iron Colour ; the Flcfn 
is breaking, and has a rich mufky 
Flavour: ripe the Middle of July. 
This is one of the beft early Sum- 
mer Pears yet known, and is cer- 
tainly what all the French Gardeners 
call the Cuiffe Madame, as may be 
eafily oblerved by their Defcript.on 
of this Pear : but I fuppofe, tnat the 
Titles of this and the Jargonelle 
were changed in coming tc England ; 
and have been continued by the 
fame Names. 

7. Pyrus fativa, frutlu oblongo, 
t 'vlridi fiawefcenU. The Wind for 
Pear. This is an oblong Fruit, 
which is . produced toward the 
Crown ; but near the Stalk is drawn 
toward a Point : the Skin is fmooth, 



p y 

and, when ripe, of a yellowifh-green 
Colour ; the Flefh is very foft ; and, 
if permitted to hang but two or three 
Days after it is ripe, it grows mea- 
ly, and is good for nothing. 

8. Pyrus Jrtiva, fruttu <tjlin}0 
ohlongo, e <viridi albo. The Jargo- 
nelle, now commonly called Cuifle 
Madame. This is certainly what 
the French Gardeners call the Jar- 
gonelle ; which, a^ I before obferv- 
ed, is now, in England, given to an- 
other Fruit, much preferable to 
this ; fo that the two Names are 
changed; for the Jargonelle is al- 
ways p aced among-l thofe which 
the French call bad Fruit ; and the 
Cuifle Madame is fet down amongft 
their beft Fruit ; which is certainly 
the Reverfe with us, as they are now 
named. This Pear is fomewhat like 
the Wi'idfor ; but is produced more 
toward the Crown, and is fmaller 
toward the Stalk : the Skin is fmooth, 
of a pale-green Colour : the Flefh is 
apt to be mealy, if it ftands to be 
ripe ; but being a plentiful Bearer, 
is much propagated for the London 
Markets. 

9. Pyrus fatiua, fru&u <cJli^vo 
globofo frjjili mofcha/o, maculis nigris 
conjperfo. Town. Orange Mufquee, 
i. e. The Orange Mufe. This is a 
middle-fia'd Pear, of a fhort globu- 
lar Form : the Skin is of a yellowi fn 
Colour, fpotted with black ; the 
Flefh is mufky ; but is very apt to 
be a little dry and choaky. It ripens 
the End of July. 

j o. Pyrus fati>ua, fruclu tefl'tvo 
a lb; do majori. Toum. Gros Blan- 
quet, /. c. Great Blanket. This is 
alio called La Muffetie d'Anjou, i. e. 
The Bagpipe of Anjou' This is a 
large Pear, approaching to a round 
Form : the Skin is fmooth, and of a 
pale-green Colour ; the Flefh is foft, 
and full of Juice, which hath a rich 
Flavour ; the Stalk is fhort, thick, 

.. and 



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and fpotted ; the Wood is flender ; 
and the Leaf is very much like that 
of the Tree called the Jargonelle. 
This ripens the End of July. 

I I. Pyrus fativa, frutlu eejlivo 
aibido faccharato odoratiJSmo. Tour?!. 
The Blanquette,or Muik Blanquette ; 
the Little Bianquet Pear. This Pear is 
muchlefs than the former, and more 
pinch'd in near the Stalk, which 
is alfo fliort, but flenderer than that 
of the former ; the Skin is foft, and 
of a pale-green Colour ; the Flefli is 
tender, and full of a rich mufky 
juice : the Wood of this Tree is 
much ftronger than is that of the 
former, and the Shoots are com- 
monly fliorter. This ripens the End 
of July. 

12. Pyrus fativa, fruclu albido, 
pediculo Iongo donato. Tourn. Blan- 
querte a longue queue, i. e. Long- 
flalk'd Bianquet Pear. This Pear is 
in Shape fomewhat like the former; 
but the Eye is larger, and more hol- 
low'd at the Crown ; toward the 
Stalk it is fomewhat plumper, and a 
little crooked : the Skin is very 
fmooth, white, and fometimes to- 
ward the Sun is a little coloured : the 
Fleth is between melting and break- 
ing, and is full of a rich fugary Juice. 
This ripens the Beginning of Augufl. 

13. Pyrus fativa, fruclu <rJiivo 
oblovgo rufefcente Jaccbarato. Tourn. 
Poire fans Peau, i. e. The Skinlefs 
Pear. It is alio called Fleur de 
Guigne, i. e. Flower of" Guigne ; and 
by fome, Rouftelet hatif , i. e. The 
Early Ruflelet. This is a middle- 
fized Fruit, of a long Shape, and a 
redifli Colour, fomewhat like the 
Ruflelet : the Skin is extremely 
thin ; tne Flefh is melting, and full 
of a rich fugary Juice ; the Shoots 
are long and ftrait. This ripens the 
End of July. 

14. Pyrus fativa, f> u^Iu <eflivo 
turbinato, came itnera faccbarata. 



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Tourn. Mufcat Robine, u e. The 
Muflc Robine Pear. This is alfo 
called Poire a la Reine, i. e. Th« 
Queen's Pear ; Poire d'Ambre, i. e. 
The Amber Pear ; and Pucelle de 
Xaintonge, i. e. The Virgin of 
Xaintonge. This is a fmall round 
Pear, of a yellowifli Colour when 
ripe ; the Flefli is between melting 
and breaking ; it has a rich mufky 
Flavour, and is a great Bearer : it 
ripens the End of July. 

15. Pyrus fativa, f rutin ecftivo 
turbinato mcfebato. Le Bourdon 
Mofque, i. e. The Mufk Drone 
Pear. This is a middle-fized round 
Fruit, whofe Skin is of a yellowifli 
Colour when ripe ; the Flefli is melt- 
ing, and full of an high mufky 
Juice : but it muft not hang too long 
on the Tree, for it is fubject to 
grow mealy in a fliort time. This 
ripens the End of July. 

1 6 . P Y r u s fativa, ccftivo f, rutin glo- 
be fofeffili , eviridi purpura] cent e fac- 
charato odcrato. TWvz.OrangeRouge, 
i. e. The Red Orange Pear. This 
Pear hath been the moft common of 
all the Sorts in Trance, which was 
occafioned by the general Elteem it 
was in fomeYears fince.This is a mid- 
dle-fized round Fruit, of a greenifli 
Colour; but the Side next the Sun 
changes to a purple Colour when 
ripe ; the Flefli is melting, and the 
Juice is fugar'd, with a little Per- 
fume ; the Eye is very hollow, and 
the Stalk is fliort This ripens the 
Beginning of Augvfl. 

17. Pyrus fativa, fruclu <rftivo 
obLngo minor i cinerco cdorato. Tourn. 
Caitbleite Fr o let, Mufcat verd 
Lechefrion. This is fo called from 
its being ihaped like a Perfuming- 
pot. It is a long Fruit, in Shape 
like the Jargonelle, of an Afli-co- 
lour ; its Flefli is melting, and full 
of a perfumed Juice ; but is very 
apt to rot in the Middle as foon as 

4 C 4 ripe j 



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ripe ; otherwife it would be efteemed 
an excellent Pear. It is ripe the 
Beginning of Auguft. 

I 8. Pyrus Jati<va, fruftu aftinjo 
turbinate , e <viridi albido. Orange 
Mufquee, L e. The Mulk Orange 
Pear. This is a large Tound Pear, 
in Shape like a Bergamot : the Skin 
is green, and the Flefh is melting ; 
but it is very fubjedt to rot upon the 
Tree, which renders it not near fo 
valuable as feme others. It ripens 
the End otjuly. 

19. Pyrus fatlva, fruftu aftivo 
globofo e viridi purpurafcente. Tourn. 
Gros Oignonnet, i. e. The Great 
Onion Pear. It is alfo called Amire- 
roux, i. e. Brown Admired; and 
Roy d'Ete, i. e. King of Summer ; 
Archiduc d'Ete, i. e. The Summer 
Archduke. This is a middle-fiz'd 
round Pear, of a b/ownifh Co'our 
next the Sun ; the Flefli is melting, 
and the Juice is pafTably good. This 
ripens the End of July. 

20. Pyrus fati<va y fruftu <efti<vo 
globofo fejjili ex albido fiavefcente fac- 
charato odorato. Tourn. Robine. It is 
alfo called Mu feat d'Aouft, L e. The 
Auguft Mufcat ; Poire d' Averat, ;. e. 
The Averat Pear ; and Poire Royale, 
i. e. The Royal Pear. This is a 
roundifh flat Pear, in Shape very 
like a Bergamot : the Stalk is long, 
flrait, and a little fpotted, and the 
Eye is a little hollowed : the Skin is 
fmooth, and of a whitifh - yellow 
Colour ; the Flefh is breaking, but 
not hard; and its Juice is richly 
fugar'd and perfum'd : it is a great 
Bearer, and is efteemed one of the 
belt Summer Pears yet known. It 
ripens in Auguft. 

2 1 . P y ru s fatlv a, fruftu aJHvoglo- 
hofo frjjili odorato. Tcurn. Poirerole ; r. 
£. TheR.ofe-pear;and L'Epine-Rofe, 
i. f. The Thorny-Rofe. This isa fhort 
round Fruit, fhaped like the Great 
Onion Pear, but much larger ; of s 



p y 

yellowifh green Colour ; but a little 
inclining to Red on the Side next the 
Sun : the Stalk is very long and 
flender ; the Flefh is breaking, and 
the Juice is mufky. This ripens in 
Auguft. The Shoots and the Leaves 
of this Tree are large. 

22. Pyrus fativa, fruftu <rfti<vo 
globofo albido faccharato. T ourn. Poire 
du Pouchet. This is a large round 
whitifh Pear, fhap'd fomewhat like 
the Befideri : the Flefh is foft and 
tender, and the Juice is fugary. Tim 
ripens the Middle of Auguft. 

23. Pyrus fatiua, fruftu <efti<vo. 
turbinato fffili faturatius rubente fun- 
ftato. Tourn. Poire de Parfum, i. e. 
The Perfum'd Pear.. This is a mid- 
dle-fixed round Fruit, whofe Skin is 
(omewhat thick and rough, and of a 
deep - red Colour, fpotted with 
brown : the Flefh is melting, but 
dry, and has a perfum'd Flavour. 
This ripens the Beginning of Au- 

24. Pyrus fat i<va y fruftu sefti'vo 
cblongo magna, partim rubro, partim 
(libido, odorato. Tourn. Bon-cretien 
d'Ete, t. e. The Summer Bon-cretien, 
or Good Chriftian. This is a large 
oblong Fruit, whofe Skin is fmooth 
and thin : the Side next the Sun is 
of a beautiful red Colour; but the 
other Side is of a whitifh green : the 
Flefh is between breaking and ten- 
der, and is very full of Juice, which 
is of a rich perfum'd Flavour. Jt 
ripens the End of Auguft. 

25. Pyrus fati r va % fruftu <rftit'o 
globofo, ex rubra albidoque fiavejeente 
faccharato odorato. Tourn. Salviati. 
This Pear is pretty large, round, 
and flat, very much like the Befideri 
in Shape, but not in Colour : the 
Stalk is very long and flender, and 
the Fruit is a little hollow'd both at 
the Eye and Stalk ; the Colour is red 
and yellow next the Sun ; but on the 
other Side is whiiifli : the Skin is 

rough - 9 . 



P Y 

rough ; the Flefh is tender ; but a 
little {"oft, and has no Core ; the 
Juice is fugary, and perfum'd, fome- 
what like the Kobine ; but is not 
near fo moiit. This ripens the End 
of Auguft. 

26. Pyrus fativa, f rutin <rfti-vo 
globofo ftfftli rufefcente odorato. lourn. 
Caillot-rofat, i. e, Rofe- water Pear. 
This is a large round Pear, fome- 
what like the Meffire - Jean, but 
rounder : the Stalk is very Ihort, 
and the Fruit is hollow'd like an 
-Apple, where the Sralk is produc'd: 
the Skin is rough, and of a brown 
Colour : the Flefh is breaking, and 
the Juice is very fweet. This ripens 
the End of Auguft. 

27. Pyrus fativa, fruciu <efti-vo 
longOy acerbitate ftrangulationem mi~ 
vitante. Tow. Poire d'Etrangillon, 
i. e. The Choaky Pear : the Flefh is 
red. This is leidom preferved in 
Gardens ; fo there needs no Defcrip- 
tion of it. 

28. Pyrus fativa, fruciu <sfti<vo 
oblongo e ferrugineo rubente, nonnun- 
quam maculato. Poire de RoufTelet, 
1. e. The RufTelet Pear. This is a 
large oblong Pear : the Skin is 
brown, and of a dark -red Colour 
next the Sun ; the Flefh is tender and 
foft, without much Core : the Juice 
is agreeably perfum'd, if gather'd 
before it be too ripe : this produces 
larger Fruit on an Efpalier than on 
Standard-trees. It ripens the End of 
Auguft. 

29. Pyrus fati-ja, fruBu tefthvo 
fubrctundoy partim rubro, pariim fla~ 
vefcente, ederato. Poire de Prince, 
u e. The Prince's Pear. This is a 
(mall roundifh Pear, of a bright-red 
Colour next the Sun, but of a yel- 
lowifh Colour on the oppofite Side : 
the Flefh is between breaking and 
melting ; the Juice is very high-fla- 
vour'd ; and i t is a great Bearer. This 
ripens the End of Auguft ; but will 



p y 

keep a Fortnight good, which is 
what few Summer-fruits will do. 

30. Pyrus fativa, fruciu <efti<v9 
globofo niridiy in ore liquefcente. Gros 
Mouille - bouche, 1. e . The great 
Mouthrwater Pear. This is a large 
round Pear, with a fmooth-green 
Skin : the Stalk is fhort and thick ; 
the Flefh is melting, and full of 
Juice, if gathered before it be too 
ripe j otherwife it is apt to grow 
mealy. This ripens the Middle of 
Auguft. 

31. Pyrus fativa, fruciu aftl'vo - 
rotundo feffili faccbarato, e uiridi 
ftavefcente ; Bergamo tte d'Ete, /. /. 
Summer - Bergamot. This is by 
fome called the Hamdenh Bergamot. 
It is a pretty large round flat Pear, 
of a greenim - yellow Colour, and 
hollow'd a little at both Ends like an 
Apple : the Flefh is melting, and the 
Juice is highly perfum'd. This ri- 
pens the Middle of Auguft. 

32. Pyrus fiti e va i fruciu aurum- 
nali feffili face bar at a odorato eviridi 
fia<vefcente t in ore liquefcente. Tourn. 
Bergamotte d'Automne, /. e. The 
Autumn Bergamot. This is a fmaller 
Pear than the former, but is nearly 
of the fame Shape : the Skin is of a 
yellowifh Green, but changes to a 
faint Red on the Side next the Sun ; 
the Flelh is melting, and its Juice is 
richly perfumed: it is a great Bear- 
er, and ripens the Middle of Sep- 
tember ; and is one of the belt. Pears 
of the Seafon. 

33. Pyrus fatiua, fruciu autum- 
nali turbinate n)iridi 1 ftriis fanguineis 
diftincla. Tourn. Bergamot de Suiffe, 
i. e. The S*wifi Bergamot. This 
Pear is fomewhat rounder than 
either of the former: the Skin is 
tough, of a greenilh Colour, flriped 
with red ; the Flefh is melting, and 
full of Juice ; but it is not fo richly 
perfumed as either of the former. 
This ripens the End of September. 

34 Pyrus 



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34. Pyrus fativa, fruSuautum- 
nali fwwijjimoy in ore liquefcente. 
'Tourn. Beurre rouge, i. e. The Red 
Butter-pear. It is called I'Amboife ; 
and in Normandy, Ifambert ; as alfo 
Beurre gris, i f.The GreyButter ; and 
Beurre vert, i. e. The Green Butter- 
pear. All thefe different Names of 
Beurres have been occafioned by the 
Difference of the Colours of the 
fame Sort of Pear ; which is either 
owing to the different Expofure 
where they grew, or from the Stock; 
thofe upon Free-frocks being com- 
monly of a browner Colour than 
thofe which are upon Quince-Hocks; 
whence fome Perfons have fuppofed 
them to be different Fruits, tho 1 in 
Reality they are the fame. This is 
a large long Fruit, for the molt part 
of a brown Colour ; the Flelh is 
very melting, and full of a rich fu- 
gary Juice. It ripens the End of 
September ; and, when gathered from 
the Tree, is one of the very belt 
Sort of Pears we have. 

35. Pyrus fati<va, fruclu autum- 
nali turbinato fejjili flaw ?f cent e, & in 
ore liquefcente. Tourn. Le Doyenne, 
i. e. The Dean's Pear. It is alfo 
called by all the following Names; 
Saint Michel, i. e. Saint Michael ; 
Beurre blanc d'Automne, i. e. The 
White Autumn Butter - pear ; Poire 
de Neige, i. e. The Snow - pear ; 
Bonne Ente, i. e. A good Graft ; 
the Carlifle and Valentia. This is a 
large fair Fruit, in Shape fomewhat 
like the Grey Beurre ; but is fhorter 
and rounder: the Skin is fmoorh, 
and, when ripe, changes to a yei- 
lovvim Colour : the Fiefh is melt- 
ing, and full of Juice, which is very 
cold ; but it will not keep good a 
Week after it is gathered, bein^ 
very fubjeel to grow mealy : it is a 
very indifferent Fruit. This is a great 
Bearer, and ripens the End of Sep- 
tember. * 



36. Pyrus fati'va, fruftu autum. 
itaii longo <viridique orforato, in ore 
HqueJceiUe. Tourn. La Verte-longue, 
i. e. The Long-green Pear. It is 
alfo called Moiiille - bouche d'Au- 
tomne, i. e. The Autumn Mouth- 
water Pear. This is a long Fruit, 
which is very green when ripe : the 
Flelh is melting, and very full of 
Juice ; which, if it grows upon a 
dry warm Soil, and upon a Free- 
flock, is very fugary ; otherwife it is 
but a very indifferent Pear. It ri- 
pens the Beginning of Oclobcr ; but 

fome Years they will keep till De- 
cember. 

37. Pyrus fati<va, fruclu autum- 
nali tuberofo fejjili faccbarato, came 
dura. Tourn. Meffire Jean blanc & 
gris, /. e The white and grey 
Monfieur John. Thefe, altho' made 
two Sorts of Fruit by many Perfons, 
are indubitably the fame ; the Dif- 
ference of their Colour proceeding 
from the different Soils and Situa- 
tions where they grow, or the Stocks 
on which they are grafted. This 
Pear, when grafted on a Free-dock, 
and planted on a middling Soil, nei- 
ther too wet, nor over-dry, is one of 
the beft Autumn Pears yet known; 
but when it is grafted on a Quince- 
ftock, it is very apt to be llony ; 
or, if planted on a very dry 
Soil, is very apt to be fmail, and 
good for little, unlefsthe Trees are 
watered in dry Seafons : which has 
rendered it lefs efteerr.ed by fome 
Perfons, who have not confiderd 
the Caufe of their Hardnefs ; for 
when it is rightly manag'd, there is 
not any Pear in the fame Seafon to 
be compared with it : this is a large 
roundim Fruit ; the Skin is rough, 
and commonly of a brown Colour ; 
the Flefh is breaking, and very full 
of a rich fugar'd Juice. It ripens the 
Beginning of Oclobcr, and wi-il conti- 
nue good m'oft Part of the Month. 

38. Pyrus 



P Y 



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38. Pyrus- fativa, fruclu autum- 
nali globofoferrugineo, came tenera fa* 
fidilfima. Tourn. Mufcat fieuri, i.e. 
The flovver'dMufcat. It is alfo called 
Mufcat a longue qu>. iie a" Automne, 
i.e. The Long-ftalk'd Mufcat of the 
Autumn. This is an excellent Pear, 
of a middling Size, and round ; the 
Skin is of a dark-red Colour ; the 
Flem is very tender, and of a delicate 
Flavour. It ripens in the Middle of 
Oaobcr. 

39. Pyrus fativ.7, fruclu autum- 
nali globofo ferrugineo, came <vifcida. 
Tourn. Po re de Vigne, 1. e. The 
Vine-pear. This is a round Fruit, 
of a middling Size ; the Skin of a 
dark-red Colour ; the Flem is very 
melting, and full of a clammyjuice . 
the Stalk is very long and (lender. 
This Fruit mould be gathered before 
it be full ripe ; otherwife it grows 
mealy, and foon rots. It ripens the 
Middle of-Oelober. 

40. Pyrus fativa, fruclu autum- 
nali oblongOy dilute rufefcente, fac- 
charato, odaratifjimo. Tourn. Poire 
Rouffeline, /*. e. The Roufieline 
Pear. It is alio called in Tourain?, 
Le Mufcat a lcnguc queue de la fin 
d'Automne, 1. e. The long-ftalk'd 
Mufcat of the End of Autumn. This 
is by fome Englijh Gardeners called 
the Brute-bonne : but tha: is a very 
different Fruit from this. It is fha- 
ped fomewhat like theRoulTelet; but 
the Skin of this is fmooth, and of a 
Greenilh-yellow from the Sun ; but 
the Side next the Sun is of a deep- 
red Colour, with fome Spots of 
Grey ; the Flefn is very tender and 
delicate ; the Juice is very fweet, 
with an agreeable Perfume. It ri- 
pens the Beginning of ' Oclober ; but 
mull not be long kept, lelt it rot in 
the Middle. 

41. Pyrus fatlva, fruclu autum- 
nali obhngo majori cinereo. Tourn. 
Poire Pendar, /. c. The Knave's 



Pear. This is very like the CafTo- 
lette Pear ; but is fomewhat larger ; 
the Flefh is fine and tender : thejuice 
is very much fugar'd. It ripens the 
End of October. 

4.2. Pyrus fativa y fruclu autum- 
nali turbinato tuberofo <viridi faccha* 
rato, in ore liquefcente. Tourn. Sucre 
vert, /. e. The Green Sugar-pear. 
This Pear is fhaped like the Winter- 
thorn, but is fmaller ; the Skin is 
very fmooth and green ; the Flefh, 
is very buttery ; the Juice is fugar'd, 
and of an agreeable Flavour ; but it 
is fometimes fubjedt to be ftony in 
the Middle, efpecially if grafted on 
a Quince-flock. 

43. Pyrus fativa, fruclu autum- 
nali tuberofo jcfjili^ e <viridi flavefceii- 
te, maatlis nigris confperfo, came tene- 
ra faccharata. Tourn. La Marquife, 
1. e. The Marquis's Pear. This 
is often of two different Shapes, ac- 
cording to the Nature of the Soil 
where they are planted ; for when 
the Soil is dry, the Fruit very much 
refembles a fine Blanquet ; but when 
the Soil is very rich and moift, ic 
grows much larger : it is a well-fha- 
ped Pear, flat at theTop ; the 'Eye is 
finall, and hollow'd ; the Skin is of 
a green i 111 Yellow, a little inclining 
to Red on the Side next the Sun : if 
this Pear does not change yellow in 
ripening, it is feldom good ; but if 
it does, the Flefh will be tender and 
delicate, very full of Juice, which is 
fugar'd. It ripens the End of Otlo* 
ber. 

44. Pyrus fati-va, fruclu autum- 
nali oblongo, par tint albido, partem ru- 
fefcente. The Chat-brule, i. e. The 

Burnt Cat. It is alfo called Pucelle 
de Xaintonge, i. e. The Virgin of 
Xaintonge. This is a fmall oblong 
Pear, fhap'd much like the Martin 
Sec ; but differs from it in Colour : 
this being of a pale Colour on one 
Side, but of a dark -brown on the 

other 1 



P Y 

other ; the Sicin is fmooth ; the 
Flem is tender, but dry ; and, if 
kept a fhort time, is apt to grow 
mealy. It is in eating the Latter- 
end of Ottcber. 

45. Pyrus fativa, fruclu autum- 
nali globofo fejjtli,ex albido flavefemte. 
Le Befideri. It is fo called from 
Heri, which is a Foreft in Bretagne, 
between Rennes and Nantes, where 
this Pear was found. This is a 
middle-nVd round Pear, of a pale 
Green, inclining to a yellowilh Co- 
lour ; the Stalk is very long and 
fiender ; the Fleih is dry, and but 
very indifferent for eating ; but it 
bakes well. It ripens the End of 
October. 

46. Pyrus fativa,fruclu brum a- 
li fejjtlij e viridi Jlavefcente, macu- 
la to, utrinque umbilical 0, in ore lique- 
fcente. Tourn. The Crafane, or 
Bergamot Crafane. It is alfo called 
Beurre Plat, h e. The Flat Butter- 
pear. This is a middle- hVd Pear, 
hollowed at the Crown like an Ap- 
ple : the Stalk is very long and 
crooked; the Skin L rough, of a 
greenifh-yellow Colour when ripe, 
covered over with a vulTet Coat; 
the Flelh is extremely tender, and 
buttery, and is full of a rich fugar'd 
Juice ; and is the very beft Pear of 
theSeafon. This is in eating the 
Beginning of November. 

47. Pyrus fativa,f t uclu bruma- 
li turbinato fejfili Jlavefcente faccha- 
raio odorato, in ore liquefcentc. Tourn. 
Lanfac ou la Dauphine, i. e. The 
Lanfac or Dauphine Pear. This 
Pear is commonly about the Size of 
a Bergamot, of a roundilh Figure, 
flat toward the Head ; but a little 
produe'd toward the Stalk ; the Skin 
is fmooth, and of a yellowifh-green 
Colour i the Flefti is yellow, tender, 
and melting ; the Juice is fugar'd, 
and a little perfumM ; the Eye is 
very large, as is alfo theFlower ; and 



p Y 

the Stalk is long and ftrait. When 
this Pear is upon a Free nock, and 
planted on a good Soil, it is one of 
the beft Fruits of the Seafon; but 
when it is on a Quince ftock, or 
upon a very dry Soil, the Fruit will 
be fmall, ftony, and worth little. It 
ripens the Beginning of November. 

48. Pyrus fativa,fruclu bruma- 
li ob/ongo, partim intenfe, partim di- 
lute ferrugineo, faccharato, odorato. 
Tourn. Martin Sec, i.e. The Dry 
Martin. This is fometimcs called 
the Dry Martin of Champagne, to 
diftinguilh it from another DryMar- 
tin of Burgundy. This Pear is almoft 
like the RoulTelet in Shape and Co- 
lour, which has occafioned fome 
Perfons to give it the Name of Win- 
ter Ruffelet. It is an oblong Pear, 
whofe Skin is of a deep-ruflet Co- 
lour on one Side ; but the otherSide 
is inclining to a l(ed ; the Flelh is 
breaking and fine ; the Juice is fu- 
gar'd, with a little Perfume ; and if 
grafted on a Free-ftock, is an excel- 
lent Pear ; but if it be on a Quince- 
ftock,it is very apt to be ftony. It is in 
eating the Middle of November ; but 
if they were permitted to hang their 
full time on the Tree, will keep 
good two Months. 

49. Pyrus fativa,frutlu bruma- 
li magno fejjili, e ctnereo Jlavefcente. 
Tourn. La Villaine d'Anjou, i. e. 
The Villain of Anjou. It is alfo 
called Poire Tulipee, i. e. The Tu- 
lip-pear ; and Bigarrade, i. e. The 
Great Orange. This is a large round 
Pear, with a very long fiender Stalk ; 
the Skin is of a pale-yellow Colour j 
the Flefli is breaking, but not very 
full of Juice. This is in eating the 
Middle of November. 

50. Pyrus fativa,Jruclu bruma- 
li Jlavcfcente odoralijjimo, pedicuh 
crajfiori. Tourn. Poire de gros queue, 

e. TheLarge-ftalkM Pear. This 
is a large roundifti Pear, with a yel- 



P Y 

low Skin ; the Stalk is very thick, 
from whence it had the Name ; the 
Flefh is breaking and dry, and has 
a very inufky Flavour ; but it is apt 
to be ftony, efpecially if it be plant- 
ed in a dry Soil, or grafted on a 
Quince ftock, as are moft of the per* 
fum'd Pears. 

5 l . Pyrus fativa, fruftu brumali 
turbinato rufefcente od'jrato. L'Ama- 
dote, i. e. The Amadot Pear. 
This is a middle-fiz'd Pear, fome- 
what long, but flat at the Top ; the 
Skin is generally rough, and of a 
ruffet Colour ; the Flefli is dry, and 
high-flavour'd, if grafted on a Free- 
ftock. The Wood of this Tree is 
generally thorny, and is efteemed the 
belt Sort of Pears for Stocks to 
graft the meltingPears upon,becaufe 
it gives them fome of its fine muiky 
Flavour. It is in eating the End 
of November ; but will keep good 
fix Weeks. 

52. Pyrus fativa, fruftu bruma- 
li, globofo, dilute virente, tuberojo, 
pun ft ate, in ore liquefcente. Town. 
Petit Oin, i. e. Little Lard Pear. 
It is alfo called Bouvar and Roufettc 
d'Anjou, i. e. The Ruflet of An- 
jou ; ar.d Amadont, and Marveille 
d'Hyver, i. e. The Wonder of the 
Winter. This Pear is of the Size 
and Shape of theAmbret or Lefchaf- 
ferie ; but the Skin is of a clear 
green Colour, and a little fpotted ; 
the Stalk is pretty long and ilender; 
the Eye is large, and deeply hol- 
low 'd ; the Helh is extremely fine, 
and melting ; the Juice is much fu- 
gar'd, and has an agreeable mufky 
Flavour. It is in eating the End of 
November, and moft Part of Decem- 
ber ; and is efteemed one of the belt 
Fruits in that Seafcn. Th:s is bet- 
ter on a Free-Hock than upon the 
Quince. 

53. Pyrus fixtiva, fruftu bruma- 
li longo e viK'idi albicctnte, in crc li- 



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quefcente. Toum. Louifebonne, i.e. 
The Good Lewis Pear. This Pear 
is (haped fomewhat like the St. Ger- 
main, or the Autumn Vcrte-lo?igue ; 
but is not quite fo much pointed * 
the Stalk rs very ftiort, flcfliy, and 
fomewhat bent ; the Eye, and the 
Flower, arefmall ; the Skin is very 
fmooth; the Colour is green, incline- 
ing to a white when ripe ; the Flefft 
is extremely tender,and full of Juice, 
which is very fweer, efpecially when 
it grows upou a dry Soil ; otherwife 
it is apt to be very large and ill- 
tafted. It is in eating the Latter-end 
cf November, and the Beginning of 
December. 

54. Pyrvs fa tiva, fruftu brunuz- 
li, tuberofo, e viridi favefcente, pun- 
ftato, faccharato. Toutn. Poire de 
Colmar, i. e. The Colmar Pear. Jt 
is alfo called Poire M.ume, The 
Manna Pear ; and Bergamotte tar- 
dive, The late Burgamot. This Fear 
is fomewhat like a Bon cretien in 
Shape ; but the Head is fiat ; the 
Eye is large, and deeply hollow'd ; 
the Middie is larger than the Head, 
and is flop'd toward the Stalk,whick 
is ihort, large, ana a little bent ; the 
Skin is green, with a few yellowifh 
Spots; but is fometimes a little co- 
loured on the Side next the Sun ; 
the Flelh is very tender, and the 
Jaice is greatly fugar'd. It is in 
eating the Latter end of November ; 
but will often keep good till Janu- 
ary ; and is efteemed one of the beft 
Fruits of that Seafon. 

55. Pyrus fativa, fruftu bruma- 
li, globofo, citriformi, favefcente, 
pmftato, in ore liquefcente , facchara- 
to, oderatifjimc. Q'curn. L ? Efcha£Te- 
rie. It ia alfo called Verte longue 
d' Hyver, i. c. The Winter long- 
green Pear ; and Bef:deri Landri, 
/*. e. The Landry Wilding, This 
Pear is (haped like a Citron ; the 
Skin is fmooth, and of a green Co- 
lour, 



P Y 

'our, with fome Spots while it hangs 
on the Tree ; but, as it ripens, it 
becomes of a yellovvim Colour ; the 
Stalk is ftrait and long ; the Eye is 
fmall, and not hollowM ; the Flefti 
is melting, and buttery; the Juice 
is fugar'd, with a little Perfume. It 
is in eating the Latter-end of Novem- 
ber, and continues good till Cbrijl- 
mas. 

56. Pyrus fativa, fruclu brutna- 
li longo, e viridi flavefcente, in ore 
liquefcente, faccharato, Touni. Le 
Virgoule, or La Virgouleufe. It is 
alfo called Bujaleuf, and Chambret- 
te ; and Poire de Glaffe, i. e. The 
Ice Pear, in Gafcoigne ; but it is call- 
ed Virgoule, from a Village of that 
Name in the Neighbourhood of St. 
Leonard in Limoufin, where it was 
raifed, and fent toParis, by theMar- 
quis of Chambret. This Pear is 
large, long, and of a green Colour, 
inclining to yellow, as it ripens : the 
Stalk is fhort, fleihy, and a little 
bent ; the Eye is of a middling Size, 
and a little hollow'd ; the Skin is 
very fmooth, and fometimes a 
little colour'd towards the Sun ; the 
Flefh is melting, and full of a rich 
juice. It is in eating the Latter- 
end of November, and will continue 
good till January ; and is efteemed 
one of the belt Fruits of the Seafon ; 
but the Tree is very apt to produce 
vigorous Shoots ; and the BiolToms 
being generally product at the ex- 
treme Part of the Shoot, where they 
are fhorten'd, theFruit will be intirely 
cut away, which is the Reafon it is 
condemn'd as a bad Bearer; but 
when it is grafted on a Free-flock, it 
ought to be allowed at lead forty 
Feet to fpread : and, if upon a 
Quince-flock, it mould be allowed 
upward of thirty Feet, and the 
Branches trained in againft the Efpa- 
lier or Wall, at full Length, in an 
horizontal Pofition, as they are pro- 



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duced. Where this Tree is thus 
treated, it will bear very plentiful- 
ly- 

57. Pyrus Jhtiva fpinofa,fru£Iu 
globofo,feJftli, feruginio, in ore lique- 
fcente,fnccbi!i ate, odoratijjimo. Tourn. 
Poire d'Ambrette. This is fo call- 
ed from its mulky Flavour, which 
refembles the Smell of the Sweet 
Sultan Flower, which is called Am- 
brette i.: France. This Pear is like 
the Lefchafierie in Shape, but is of a 
ruflet Colour; the Eye is larger, 
and more hollow'd ; the Flefti is 
melting, and the Juice is richly fu- 
gar'd and perfum'd ; the Seeds are 
large and black, and the Cells in 
which they are lodg'd are very 
large ; the Wood is very thorny, 
efpecially when grafted on Free- 
ftocks. The Fruit is in eating the 
Latter-end of November, and conti- 
nues good till the Latter-end of Ja- 
nuary ; and is efteemed a very good 
Fruit by moll People. 

58. Pyrus fativa, fruclu bruma- 
/i, mag?ic, pyramiduto, albido, in ore 
liquefcente, faccharato, edit ato. Toi rn, 
Epine d'Hyver, i. e. Winter-thorn 
Pear. This is a large line Pear, 
nearly of a pyramidal Figure ; the 
Skin is fmooth, and of a pale-green 
Colour, inclining to yellow as it ri- 
pens ; the Stalk is fhort and ilender; 
the Flefh is melting and buttery; the 
Juice is very fweet ; and, in a dry 
Seafon, is highly perfumed ; but 
when it is planted on a moift Soil, 
or the Seafon proves wet, it is very 
infipid ; fo that it mould never be 
planted on a ilrong Soil. Jt ripens 
the End of November, and will con- 
tinue good two Months. 

59. Pyrus fativa, fru5lu bruma- 
li longo, e vhidi flavefcente, in ore 
liquefcente. Tcum. La Saint Ger- 
main, ;*. e. The St. Germain Pear. 
It is alfo called L'lnconniie de la 
Fare, i. e. Ths Unknown oiLaTore : 



P Y 

it being firft difcovered upon the 
Banks of a River which'is called by 
that Name, in the Parifh of St. Ger- 
main. This is a large long Pear, of 
a yellowifh-green Colour when ripe; 
the Flelh is melting, and very full or 
Juke ; which in a dry Sealon, or if 
planted on a warm dry Soil, is very 
fweet ; but when it is planted on a 
nioift Soil, the Juice is very apt to be 
harm and aullere ; which renders it 
lefs efteemed by fome Perfons ; tho' 
in general it is greatly valued. This 
is in eating the End of November ; 
but will many times continue good 
till Chroma s. 

60. Pyrus fat iva, fruclu bruma- 
li tuberofo fubacido fiavcfcente puncla- 
to. Toum. Saint Aultin. This is 
about the Size of a middling Virgou- 
U Pear ; but is fome what fhorter, 
and flenderer near the Stalk; the Skin 
is of a fine citron Colour, fpotted 
with red on the Side next the Sun ; 
the Flelh 'is tender, but not buttery; 
and is pretty full of Juice, which is 
often a liitle fliarp ; which to fome 
Perfons is difagreeable, but others 
value it on that Account. Tnis is 
in eating in December ; and will 
continue good two Months. 

61. Pyrus fativa, fruclu bruma- 
li pyratnidato, parti?n purpureoypundis 
nigris confperfo, fiauefcente. Tourn. 
Bon-cretien d'Efpagne, /. e. The 
Spanijb Bon-cretien. This is a large 
Pear, of a pyramidal Form, ol a fine 
red or purpie Colour on the Side 
next the Sun, and full of fmall black 
Spots ; the other Side is of a pale-yel- 
low Colour ; the Flelh is breaking ; 
and, when it is ona light richSoil, 
and grafted on a Free-ftock, it^ Juice 
is very fweet. It ripens in the Be- 
ginning of Dece?nbcr, and will con- 
tinue good a Month, or fix Weeks. 
If this be grafted on a Quince-ilock, 
it is very apt to be dry and ftony : 



p y 

this is a very good Fruit for bake- 
ing. 

62. Pyrus fativa, fruclu bruma- 
li magno oblongo turbinato ferrugi- 
neo y utrinque umbilicuto. 'Joum. Poire 
de Livre, u e. The Pound Pear. It 
is alfo called Grofs Ratteau Gris» 
i. e. The Gre) -rak'd Pear ; and Poire 
d'Amour, /. e. T he lovely Pear. In 
England this is called Par kin fans 
Warden, or the Black Pear of Wor- 
cejler. This is a very large Pear, 
each of which commonly weighs a 
Pound or more ; the Skin is rough, 
and of an cbfcure red Colour on the 
Side next the Sun; but fomewhat 
paler on the other Side ; theSralk is 
very fhort, and the Eye is greatly 
hollow'd. This is not fit for eating, 
but bakes or Hews exceeding well; 
and is in Seafon from November to 
Cbrijlmas. 

63. P i rus fati'va, fruclu bruma- 
li parvo Jiavejcente, maculis rubris 
confperfo. Toum. Beli de Cafioy, 
;'. e. The Wilding of CaJ/oy, a Forelt 
iuBretagns, where it was difcovered, 
and pafies under the Name of Rouf- 
fet d'Anjou. It is alfo called Petit 
Beurre d'Hyver, i. e. Small Winter 
Butter-pear. This is a fmall ob'ong 
Pear, of a yellowifh Colour, fpotted 
with red: the Flefti is meiting, and 
the Juice is very rich. It is m eat- 
ing in D( amber and January. This 
is a prodigious Bearer, and common- 
ly produces its Fru:t in large Clui- 
ters, provided it be not too much 
pruned ; for it generally produces 
its BlolTom buds at the Extremityof 
its Shoots; which if fhortened, the 
Fruit would be cut away. There 
was a Tree of this Kind in the Gar- 
dens of Camden-Houfe, near Kenfng- 
ton ; which generally produced a 
great Quantity of Fruit, 

64. Pyrus fativa^fudu bruma- 
li turbinato inxquali, v.ntre iumida, 

par am 



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par tint purpureo, partim fiawfcente. 
Tourn. Ronville. It is alfo called 
Hocrenaille and Martin -fire, i. *.The 
Lord Martin Pear. This Pear is 
about the Size and Shape of a large 
Rouffelet ; the Eye is of a middling 
Size, and hollow'd a little; the Mid- 
dle of the Pear is generally fwell'd 
more on one Side than on the other; 
but is equally extended toward the 
Stalk ; the Skin is very fmooth and 
fofc, and is of a lively-red Colour 
next the Sun ; but on the other Side 
it changes yellow as it ripens : the 
Flefli is breaking, and full of Juice, 
which is very fweet, and a little per- 
fum'd ; but if grafted on a Quince- 
Hock, is very apt to be fmall and 
ftony. 

65. Pyrus fati<va f fru<fiu bruma- 
li citriformi fia<vefcente duro mofcba- 
t§ odoratijjimo. Tourn. Citron d'Hy- 
ver, i. e. The Winter Citron 
Pear. It is alfo called the Mufk 
Orange Pear, in fome Places. This 
is a pretty large Pear, in Shape and 
Colour very like an Orange or Ci- 
tron, from whence it had its Name : 
the Flem is hard and dry, and very 
fubjecT: to be ftony j for which Rea- 
fons it is not valued as an eating 
Pear ; but will bake very well. It 
is in Seafon (romDecember toMarcb. 

66. Pyrus fativa, fruclu bruma- 
li oblongo s e <viridt fla<vefcente , faccba- 
rato, faporis aujleri. Tourn. Rouf- 
felet d' Hyver, i. e. The Winter 
Ruflelet.This is by fome fuppofed to 
be the fame Pear as is called the 
Dry Martin ; but it is very different 
from that in feveral Particulars: the 
Colour of this is a greenim Yellow, 
inclining to brown ; the Stalk is long 
and {lender, and the Flem is buttery 
and melting, and generally full of 
Juice, which is very fweet ; but the 
Skin is apt to contain an auftere 
Juice; fo- that if it be not pared, it 
is apt to be difagreeable to many 



P Y 

Perfohs Palates. It is in eating «n 

January and February. 

67. Pyrus fativa Pifta<vienjis 9 
fruclu brumali globofo fefpJi faccha 
rata odorato. Town. Poire Portail, 
i. e. The Gate Pear. This Pear was 
difcovered in the Province afPoiclou; 
where it was fo much efteemed, that 
they preferr'd it to moft other Fruit } 
tho', in the Opinion of moll curious 
Judges, it does not deferve the great 
Character which is given to it ; for 
it rarely happens, that it proves 
good for eating, being generally dry, 
ftony, and hard, unlefs in extraordi- 
nary Seafons, and upon a rsry good 
Soil. This mull always be grafted 
on a Free - ltock, and mould be 
planted on a light rich Soil ; and in 
very dry Seafons the Trees mould be 
watered, otherwife the Fruit will be 
ftony. It is in Seafon from Janua- 
ry to March, and bakes well. 

68. Pyrus fati<v a, fruclu bruma- 
li magno globofo fiavefcente, punclis 
rufi: confperfo. Tourn. Franc-real. 
It is alfo called Fin-or d'Hyver, 
i. e. The Golden - end of Winter. 
This is a very large Pear, almoft of 
a globular Figure ; the Skin is yel- 
low, fpotted with red ; the Stalk is 
more, and the Wood of the Tree 
pith : the Flelh of this Pear is dry, 
and very apt to be ftony ; but it 
bakes exceeding well, and continues 
good from January till March. 

69 . Pyrus fativa, fruclu bruma - 
// turbinato fejfili fubaado fla<vefcente t 
punclis afperiotibus confperfo. Tourn. 
Bergamotte Bugi. It is alfo called 
Bergamotte de Pafque, i. e. The 
Eafter Bergamot. It is a large Pear, 
almoft round ; but is a little produ- 
ced inLength towards theStalk; the 
Eye is flat, and the Skin is green, 
having many rough Protuberances 
like Spots difperfed all over ; but, 
as it ripens, becomes yellowim ; the 
Flelh ii> breaking, and in a good 

Seatbn 



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Seafori flic Juice is fweet ; but it 
mutt have a Free-ftock, and South- 
ealt Wail, and have a good Soil ; 
otherwife it is apt to be ftony and 
auftere. It is in eating from Febru- 
ary till April . 

70. Le Muscat d' Alleman, 
i. e. The German Mufcat. This is 
an excellent Pear, more long than 
round, of the Shape of the Winter- 
royal ; but is lets toward the Eye, 
and is more rufiet, and of a red Co- 
lour next the Sun ; it is buttery, 
4nelting, and a little mufey. This 
is in eating in March, April, and 
fometimes in May, when it keeps fo 
long. 

71. Le Bergamotte d* Hol- 
land e, /. *.The Holland Bergamot: 
it is large and round, of the Shape 
of the ordinary Bergamot, but a lit- 
tle more produced toward the Stalk. 
The Colour is greenifh ; the Flefh 
is half-buttery and tender ; thejuice 
is highly flavoured. This is a very 
good Pear, and will keep t\\\A t >i!. 

72. Le Poire de Naples, /. e. 
The Pear of Naples. This is a pret- 
ty large, long, greenifh Pear ; the 
Flem is half-breaking ; the Juice is 
fweet, and a little vinous. It is in 
eating in March. I am in doubt 
whether this Pear is not in fome 
Places taken for a Saint Germain ; 
for there is a Pear in fome Gar^ 
dens very like the Saint Germain, 
which will keep till April ; and this 
Pear agrees with the Characters of 
that. It is called in England The 
E after St. Germain. 

73. Pyrus fativa,fru8u bruma- 
li magna pyramidato y e fia<vo nonnibil 
rubente. Tcum. Boa-cretien d 1 Hy- 
ver, i. e. The Wint«. Bon-cretien 
Pear. This Pear is i v large and 
long, of a pyramidal Figure ; the 
Skin is of a yeliowim Colour ; but 
the Side next the Sun inclines to a 
foft Red ; the Flefh is tender and 

Vol. III. 



P Y 

breaking, and is very full of rich 
fugar'd J uice. This is efteemed in 
France one of the beft Winter Pears ; 
but in England it is feldom fo good ; 
tho' I am fully fatisfied, if it were 
grafted on a Free-ftock, and planted 
in a good Soil, againfta Wall expo- 
fed to the South-eaft, and the Bran- 
ches train'd at full Length, it might 
be render'd more acceptable than it 
is at prefent in England. 

74. Pyrus fatxnja, fruBu bruma- 
li magno, eydonite facie, partim fia*vo, 
partim purpurea. Tcum. Catillac or 
Cadillac. This is a large Pear, ftia- 
ped fomewhat like a Quince ; the 
Skin is, for the moft part, of a yellow 
Colour, but changes to a deep Red 
on the Side next the Sun ; the Flefli 
is hard, and the Juice auftere ; bat 
it is a very good Fruit for baking ; 
and being a plcn'iful Bearer, de~ 
ferves a Place in every good Col- 
lection of Fruit. It will be good 
from Ch rift mas to April, or longer. 

75. Pyrus fativa, frv.clu bruma* 
li oblongo ftairfcente, punclis rubris 
canfperfo. La Pailorelle. This Pear 
is of the Size and Shape of a fine 
Roufielet; the Stalk is fhort and 
crooked ; the Skin is fomewhat 
rough, of ayellowifh Colour, fpot- 
ted with Red ; the Flefh is tender 
and buttery ; and when it grows on 
a dry Soil, the Juice is very fweet ; 
but on a wet Soil, or in moifl Years, 
it is fubjeel: to have an aufiereTafle. 
This Pear is in eating in February 
and March. 

76. Pyrus fat in) a, fruflu bruma- 
U fejjili, partim fa-vefcente, partim 
pwpurafcente. To urn. La Double 
Fleur, i. e. The double-flowering 
Pear. This is fo called, becauie the 
Flowers have a double Range cf Pe- 
tals or Leaves. It is a large fliort 
Pear ; the Stalk is long and flrait ; 
the Skin is very fmootii, and of a 
vellowifli Colour; but the Side next 

4D the 



P Y 

the Sun is commonly of a fine red 
or purple Colour. This is by fome 
efteemed for eating; but it is gene- 
rally too auftere in this Country for 
that Purpofe. It is the bell Pear in 
the World for Bakipg or Compofts. 
It is good from February to May. 

7 7. Pyr US fativa, frufiu bruma- 
li oblongo, partim fia<v;fccnte, partim 
purpurajcente. Saint Martial. It is 
alfo called in fome Places Poire An- 
gelique, i. e. The Angelic Pear. 
This Pear is oblong, in Shape like 
the Bon-cretien ; but not fo large, 
and a little flatter at the Crown; it 
has a very long Stalk ; the Skin is 
fmooth and yellowifli ; but on the 
Side next the Sun it turns to a pur- 
plifh Colour ; the Flefh is tender 
and buttery, and the Juice is very 
fweet. This is in eating in Februa- 
ry and March, and will keep very 
long. 

78 Pyrus fati'va y fru8u bruma- 
li ob/ongoy p.irtim albido, partim pur- 
pureo ohrato , faccharato . La Poire 
de Chaumor.telle, or Befi de Chau- 
montelle, I. e.The Wilding of Chau- 
montelle. This Pear is in Shape 
fomewhat like the Autumn Beurre, 
but is flatter at the Crown : the Skin 
is a little rough, of a pale-green Co- 
lour ; but turns to a purplifh Colour 
next the Sun ; the Flefh is melting ; 
the Juice is very rich, and a little 
perfum'd. It is in eating from No- 
vember to January ; and is efteemed 
by fome as the beft late Pear yet 
known. 

79. Pyrus fativa> frufiu bruma- 
li globojo fejfili cinereo, maculis amplis 
obfeurioribus confperfo. Tourn. Car- 
melite. This is a middle-fiz'd Pear, 
of a roundifli Form ; the Skin is of 
a grey Colour on one Side ; but is 
inclining to a red on the other, hav- 
ing fome broad Spots of a dark Co- 
lour all over ; the Flefh is common- 
ly hard and dry, fo that it is »ot ve- 



p Y 

ry much efteemed : it is in Seafon 

in March. 

80. Yykvs fativa, fruftu bruma- 
li maximo pyramidato, dilute *virentt. 
The Union Pear ; otherwife called 
Dr. VvedaWs St. Germain. This 
is a very large long Pear, of a deep- 
green Colour ; but the Side next the 
Sun cloth fometimes change to a red 
as it ripens. This is not fit for eat- 
ing, but bakes very well ; and being 
a great Bearer, and a very large 
.Fruit, deferves a Place in every 
good Collection. It is in Seafon 
from Chrlfimas to April. 

There are many ether Sorts of 
Pears, which are itill continued in 
fome old Gardens ; but as thofe here 
mentioned are the bell Sorts know~n 
at prefent, it would be needlefs to 
enumerate a great Quantity of ordi- 
nary Fruit ; fince every one who 
intends to plant Fruits, will rather 
choofe thofe which are the mod va- 
lu'd, the. Expence and Trouble be- 
ing the fame for a bad Sort of Fruit 
as a good one. Indeed I have in- 
ferted many more than are really 
worth planting, in order to pleafe 
fuch who are fond of a great Varie- 
ty : but whoever hath a mind to 
make choice of fuch only as are 
good, may eafily diftinguifh them, by 
attending to the Account given of 
each Sort ; and hereby every Perfon 
is at Liberty to pleafe himfelf; for 
it is not every one who prefers a 
Beurre Pear, tho' that is generally 
efteemed the very beft in its proper 
Seafon : there are fome who admire 
the Mefiire Jean for the Firmnefs 
of its Flefh, which to others is a 
great Objection againft it; fo that 
as fome efteem the breaking, and 
others the melting Pean, I have dif- 
tinguifhed them by theirDefcriptions 
in fuch a manner, that every one 
may make choice of the Kinds of 
Fruit which are agreeable to their 
Palates i 



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Palates ; and the different Seafons 
in which each Kind is in eating, be- 
ing exhibited (allowing a little for 
the Difference of Seafons, which are 
earlier fome Years than others ), it 
is not very difficult for a Perfon to 
make a Collection of good Pears to 
fucceed each other throughout the 
Sealbn of thefe Fruits, boih for eat- 
ing and baking. 

The Time of each Fruit ripening, 
as her? let down, is taken at a Me- 
Ham for fsven Years, and in the 
Neighbourhood of London, whtreail 
Soi ts of Fruit generally ripen a Fort- 
night or three We< !« earlier than in 
almoft any Part of England ; and it 
is very obvious to every Perfon, who 
wid attend to the Culture of Fruit- 
trees, that their Time of ripening is 
accelerated by long Cultivation ; 
for man y of the Sorts of Pears,which 
fome Years pa,ft rarely became ripe 
in England, unlefs they grew againft 
the belt afpecled Walls, are now 
found to ripen extremely well on 
Efpaiiers and Dwarfs ; and thofe 
Pears which feldom were in eating 
till fanttary, are ripe two Months 
earlier : there is alfo a very great 
.Oifferer.ce in their time of ripening 
in different Seafons ; for I have 
known the Fruit of a Pear tree in 
one Year all /ipe and gone by the 
Middle of Qftober ; and the very 
next Year the Fruit of the fameTree 
has not been fit to eat till the End 
of December ; fo that Allowance 
fnould be made for thefe Accidents. 
The Befi de Chaumontelle Pear, 
about thirty Years paft, was feldom 
fit to eat before February ; and has 
continued good till the Middle of 
April : but now this Pear is com- 
monly ripe in November', and when 
it is planted on a warm Soil, and 
againft a good-afpefted Wall, it is 
in eating the Middle of Odtobcr. 
This { or warding cf the feveral kinds 



P Y 

of Pears may be in fome meafure 
owing to the Stocks upon which 
they are grafted ; for if they are 
grafted upon early Summer Pear- 
itocks, they will ripen much earlier 
than when they are upon hard Win- 
ter Pear flocks : andif fortie of the 
very loft melting Pears wrc grafted 
upon fuch Stocks as are railed from 
tr.e moll aufiere Fruit, fueh as are 
never fit to eat, and of wh eh the belt 
Perry is made, it would improve 
thofe Fruits, and continue them 
much longer good ; or if the com- 
mon Free- Hoc ks were firft g r afted 
witu any of thefe hardWinter Pears, 
and when they have grown a Year, 
then to graft or bud thefe foft melt- 
ing Pears upon them, it would have 
the fame Effect ; but the Pears fo 
raifed will require a Year's more 
Growth in the Nurfery; and conse- 
quently cannot be fold at the fame 
Price as thofe which are raifed in the 
common Method, thefe requiting to 
be twice budded or grafted ; fo that 
there is double Labour, befi de Hand- 
ing a full Year longer : but this 
Difference in the firft Expence of the 
Trees is not worth regarding by any 
Perfon who is defirous to have good 
Fruit : for the fetting out in a right 
way is that which every one fhould 
be the moil careful of ; fince by 
millaking at firft, much time is loft \ 
and an After-expence of new Trees 
often attends it. 

Another Caufe of Fruits ripening 
earlier now, than they formerly did, 
may be from the Length of time 
they have been cultivated ; for it is 
very certain, that moft Sorts of 
Plants have been greatly forwarded 
and improved by Culture, within 
the Space of thirty or forty Year% as 
may be known from the feveral Sorts 
of efculent Plants, which are culti- 
vated in the Kitchen-gardens ; and of 
which Sorts there are many which 

4 D i are 



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are annually improving : and if we 
look back to the bell French Au- 
thors, who have written on the Sub- 
ject of Fruit-trees, we fhali find, that 
the times of ripening of many Sorts 
of Pears are put down a Month or 
fix Weeks later about fifty Years 
ago, than they are now found to 
ripen about Paris : and here about 
London it is much the fame ; for I 
cannot find they are the leatl for- 
warder in the times of their ripening 
at Paris , than at London. 

The ripening of thefe Fruits may 
alfo be accelerated by the Method of 
pruning and managing thefe Trees, 
which are greatly improved within 
the Space of a few Years paft ; for 
if we look into the Directions which 
are given by the belt Writers on this 
Subject, we fhall foon difcover how 
little they knew forty Years ago, of 
the trui Method of pruning and 
managing all Sorts of Fruit-trees, 
fcarce one of them making any Dif- 
ference in the Management of the 
different Kinds of Fruit. 

Pears are propagated by budding 
or grafting them upon Stocks of 
their own Kind, which are com- 
monly called Free-Hocks, or upon 
Quince-flocks, or White- thorn ; up- 
on all which thefe Fruits will take ; 
but the latter Sort of Stock is now 
feidom ufed, beca ife they never keep 
Pace in their Growth with the Fruit 
budded or grafted upon them ; as 
alfo becaufe the Fruit upon fuch 
Stocks are commonly drier, and more 
apt to be ftony, than when they are 
upon Pear-frocks. Quince - flocks 
are greatly ufed in the Nurferies for 
all Sorts of Pears which are defigned 
for Dwarfs or W T alls, in order to 
check the Luxuriancy of their 
Growth j fo that they may be kept 
within Compafs better than upon 
Free-flocks. But againfl the gene- 
ral Ufe ai thefe Stock?, for all Sorts 



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of Tears indifferently, there are very 
great Objections : ift, Becaufe fome 
Sorts of Pears will not thrive upon 
thefe Stocks, but in two or threeYears 
will decay, or at moll will but juit 
keep alive. 2dly, Moft of the Sorts 
of hard breaking Pears are rendered 
ftony, and good for little ; fo that 
whenever any of thefe Sorts are thus 
injudicioufly raifed, the Fruit, altho' 
the Kind be ever io good, is con- 
demn^ as good for nothing, by fuch 
as are not well acquainted with it, 
when the Fault is intirely owing to 
the Stock on Wiiicn it was grafted. 
On the contrary, moil melting but- 
tery Pears are greatly improved by 
being upon Quince-Hocks, provided 
they are planted on a flrong Soil : 
but if the Ground be very dry and 
gravelly, no Sort of Pear will do 
well upon Quince - flocks in fuch 
Places. 

Thefe generalDire&ions being gi- 
ven, there is no Occasion to repeat any 
Part of the Method in which thefe 
Stocks are raifed, and the Fruits 
budded or grafted thereon ; which 
has been already mentioned under 
the Article of Nurferies. 

The Diflance which thefe Trees 
fhold be planted either againfl Walls 
or Efpaliers, mull not be lefs than 
thirty Feet : but if they are planted 
forty Feet, it will be better ; for if 
they have not room to fpread on 
each Side, it v.i'l be impoffible to 
prefer ve them in good Order, efpe- 
cially thofe on Free-flocks ; for the 
more thefe Trees are pruned, the 
more they will moot ; and, as I be- 
fore faid, many Sorts of Pears pro- 
duce their Bloflbm-buds firfl at the 
Extremity of the former Year r s 
Shoots, fo that when they are fhort- 
en'd, the Fruit will be cut away j 
and this cannot be avoided, where 
the Trees have not room aliow'd in 
their firll planting. 

This 



P Y 

This Diftance, I doubt not, will 
be obje&ed to, by many who have 
not fully attended to the Growth of 
thefe Trees ; efpecially as it hath 
been the general Practice of moil 
Gardeners, to plant thefe Trees at 
lefs than half the Diftance which is 
here mention'd : but whoever will 
b» at the Trouble to view any of 
thefe Trees which have been fome 
Years {landing, will always find, 
where by Accident one of thefe 
Trees has been planted againft a 
Building, where the Branches have 
had room to fpread, that this Tree 
has produc'd more Fruit than twelve 
Trees which have been crouded 
clofe, and have not had room for 
their Branches to extend. There 
are fbtte Pear-trees now growing 
which fpread more than fifty Feet 
in Length, and are upward of twenty 
Feet high, which produce a much 
grea cr Quantity of Fruit than, if 
there ha'J been three Trees they wolud 
have dtme, in the fame room, as 
tucre aft Examples enough to prove, 
where Tree'; are planted againft 
Houles, and the Ends of Buildings, 
at about twelve Feet, or much lefs 
Diftance ; becaufe there is Height 
of Waging for them to grow : which 
is the Reaibn commonly given by 
thole who plant thefe Trees fo clofe 
together. But one Tree will bear 
more Fruit, when the Branches are 
train'd horizontally, than three or 
four Trees, whofe Branches are led 
upright : and there never can be any 
Danger of the upper Part of the Wall 
being left naked or unfurninYd; for 
I have feen a Pear-tree which has 
fpread more than fifty Feet in Width, 
and cover 'd the Wall upward of 
thirty fix Feet in Height. This was 
a Summer Bon-cretien Pear, and was 
extremely fruitful, which rarely hap- 
pens to this Sort when they are not 
aliow'd a large Share of room. The 



p Y 

fineft Tree of this Sort of Pear which 
I ever have feen, was a large Stan- 
dard-tree, in my own PofTeffion, 
whofe Stem was not more than ten 
Feet high, where the Branches 
came out regularly on every Side, 
and extended near thirty Feet 
from the Trunk, many of which 
were by the Weight of the Fruit in 
Summer brought down to the 
Ground ; fo were obliged to be fup- 
ported with Poles all around the 
Tree toward the Extremity of the 
Branches, to prevent their lying up- 
on the Ground ; and this Tree had 
its Branches fo difpos'd as to form a 
natural Parabola of forty Feet in 
Height, bearing from the loweft to 
the higheft Branches : fo that in a 
kindly Seafon, when the BlofToms 
efcaped the Froft, it hath produe'd 
upward of two thoufand Pears; 
which were much better flavour'd 
than any of the fame Sort, which I 
have yet tafted. This Inftanee I 
mention, only to mew how much 
one of thefe Trees will fpread, if 
proper room is allowed it ; and alfo 
to obferve, that as the Branches of 
this Tree had never been fhorten'd, 
fo they were fruitful to their Extre- 
mities. This (hews the Abfurdity of 
the French Gardeners, who do not 
allow more than ten or twelve Feet 
Diftance to thefe Trees ; and fome 
of their molt approved Writers on 
this Subject have advifed the plant- 
ing an Apple-tree between rhe Pear- 
trees, where they are allowed twelve 
Feet; and yet thefe Authors after- 
ward fay, that a good Pear-tree will 
lhoot three Feet each Way in one 
Year : therefore, according to their 
own Account, the Trees fo planted 
muft have their Branches meet to- 
gether in two or three Years at moil ; 
and what muft be the Cafe with fuch 
Trees, in five or fix Years, is not 
difficult to know. But this Method 
4D 3 of 



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of Planting has not been peculiar to 
the French ; for moft of cue Gardens 
in EngLnd have been little better 
planted. Indeed* thofe Perfons who. 
were intruded with the making and 
planting moft of the Englijh Gar- 
dens, had little Skill of their own ; 
fo were obliged to follow the Dire- 
ctions of the Trench Gardeners ; of 
whom they had fo great an Opinion, 
as to get their Books tranflat#d ; and 
to thefe have added fome trifling 
Notes, which rather betrays their 
Weakneis : for where they have ob- 
jected to the little rcom which their 
Authors had allowed to thefe Trees, 
they have, at the moft, allow'd them 
hut three Feet more : hern which it 
is plain, they had not confidcr'd the 
natural Growth of the Trees ; and 
whoever departs from Nature, may 
be juftly prqnouncd an unfkilful 
Gardener. 

As moft of the Englijb Gardens 
have been made and planted by 
Perfons of little Judgment, it is very 
rare to find any of them which pro- 
duce much Fruit; for although many 
of thefe Gardens have been totally 
altered, and new-planted, yet they 
have feldom been much alter'd for 
the better ; and the PoiTeiTors have 
been put to theExpence of removing 
the old Trees, alfo the Earth of their 
Borders, and to purchafe new Trees, 
which have been planted perhaps a 
Foot or two farther afunder, than 
the old Trees, which were remov'd: 
fo that when the young Trees have 
grown a few Years, they were in the 
feme Condition as the old, and it 
has been the Lofs of fo many Years 
to the Owner. But this will cou- 
ilantly be the Cafe, when it is the 
Intereft of the Perfons employ Vl, 
who can fell fo many young Trees; 
and the planting of three times the 
Number of T rees in a Garden, 
fpojre than is proper, may in fome 



P Y 

meafure be afcruVd to the fame^ 
though, in many Inftances, I mould 
be inclinable to think it has proceed- 
ed from Ignorance, rather than De« 

fign. 

But where Fruit-trees have been 
thus injudicioufly planted, if the 
S ocks are healthy and good, the 
beft way to recover tins Lofs is, to 
dig up two or three, and leave every 
third or fourth Tree, according to 
the Pittance which they were plant- 
ed; and (pread down the Eranches 
of thofe which are left horizontally, 
1 mean, all fuch as are capable of 
being fo brought down ; but thofe 
which are too ftubborn for this, 
mould be cut off near the Stem, 
where there will be new Shoots 
enough produced to furnifh the Wall 
or Elpalier : and if the Sort of Fruit 
is not the fame asdefired, the young 
Branches may be budded the fame 
Summer, or grafted the following 
Spring, with any other Sort of Pear; 
and hereby many Years may be 
faved ; for one of thefe old Trees 
will fpread to a much greater 
Length, and produce more Fruit, 
when thus managed, in three Year.% 
than a new Tree will in ten or 
twelve; efpecially if the Ground is. 
mended. This is a Method which 
I have praclifed with great Succcfs, 
where I have been employed to 
amend the Blunders of thefe great 
Gardeners, as they are ftiled ; and 
hereby the Walls and Efpaliers have 
been well furnihYd in a few Years. 

But the next thing to be done, af- 
ter being furriihYd with proper 
Trees, is the preparing of the 
Ground to receive them; in doing 
which, there mould be great Regard 
had to rhe Natuie of the Soil where 
the Trees are to grow ; for if it is a 
ftrong tfifr Land, and fubjecl to Wet 
in the Winter, the Borders ihould be 
railed as much at eve the Level of 

the 



P Y 

the Ground as you conveniently 
can. And if under the good Soil 
there is a fufficient Quantity of 
Lime, Rubbilh, or Stones, laid, to 
prevent the Roots of the Trees from 
running downward, it will be of 
great Service to the Trees. The 
Borders for thefe mould not be lefs 
than eight Feet broad ; but if they 
are twelve, it will be ftill better. 
And as thefe Borders may be plant- 
ed with fuch Sorts of efculent Plants 
as do not grow large, or whofe 
Roots do not grow deep, or mat to- 
gether on the Surface, thefe will do 
no Harm to the Pear-trees ; for 
thefe are not fo nice in their Culture 
as Peach and Nectarine-trees j fo 
the turning of the Ground, and 
mending of it, for thefe Crops, will 
rather improve, than injure the 
Trees ; provided the Plants do not 
lhade the Trees, or are not fuffer'd 
to ftand too long upon the Borders. 
But all the Cabbage-kind, as alfo 
Beans, mould be excluded from thefe 
Borders ; becaufe they root deep in 
the Ground, and draw much Nou- 
rilhment from the Trees. 

But if the Soil is mallow, and the 
Bottom is either Gravel or Chalk, 
there muft be a fufhcient Depth of 
good Earth laid upon the Borders, 
io as to make them two Feet and an 
half deep ; for if the Ground is not 
of this Depth, the Trees w;ll not 
thrive well. And in doing of this, 
I mult caution every Perfon not to 
dig out the Gravel in a Trench (as 
is by fome practised), and fill this 
Trench with good -Earth ; for by fo 
doing, when the Roots of the Trees 
are extended to the Width of the 
Trench, they will meet with the 
Gravel, which will ftop them; fo 
that they will be connVd, as if they 
were in Tubs of Earth, whereby the 
Trees will be foon fpoiled : therefore 
when the Gravel or Chalk is re- 



P Y 

moved, it mould be intirely taken 
away over the whole Garden : other- 
wife it will be better to raife the 
whole Border above it. 

If the Garden is to be new-made 
from a Field, then all the good 
Earth on the Surface mould be care- 
fully preferved ; and if the good 
Ground is taken out where the 
Walks are defign'd to be made, and 
laid upon the Borders, or in the 
Quarters, it will add to the Depth 
of the Soil, and fave Expence in 
bringing in of new Earth. If the 
Ground can be prepared one Year 
before it is planted, the Trees will 
thrive the better ; for by laying the 
Ground in Ridges, and turning it 
over two or three times, it will loofen 
the Soil, and render it much better 
for planting : but in trenching, or 
plowing of the Ground, there mould 
be great Care taken not to go deep- 
er than the Ground is good ; other- 
wife all the good Soil will be buried 
below the Roots, and the bad Ground 
will be turned on the Top; which h 
what I have known done at a great 
Expence, by Perfons who have been 
at the Top of their Profeffion, and 
have thereby intirely ruin'd the Gar- 
dens. 

Where there is a Necefiity of 
bringing in any frelh Earth for the 
Borders, it will be proper to do it as 
foon as polTible, and to mi* this with 
the Surface earth of the Borders, 
that it may be turned over two or 
three time?, that the Parts may be 
well mixed and incorporated, before 
the Trees are planted ; and if fome 
very rotten Dung is added to this, it 
will greatly improve it. In chooling 
of the Earth which is to be brought 
into the Garden, there mould be 
this Care ; *viz. that if the natural 
Soil of the Garden is light and dry, 
then tlve new Earth flioulu be loamy 
and ftiff: but where the natural Soil 

4^ 4 is 



P Y 

is ftrong or loamy, then the new 
Earth mould be light and fandy, 
■which wilt loofen the Parts of the 
natural Soil, and greatly mend it. 

There are fome Perfons who re- 
commend the laying the whole Depth 
of the Borders with what they call 
Virgin - earth ; that is, fuch as is 
taken from a Pafture where the 
Land has not been plowed. But if 
this is not brought into the Garden 
at leaft one Year before the Trees are 
planted, that by turning it over of- 
ten it may be fvveeten'd, it will not 
be fo good as that which is taken 
from a Kitchen-gardrn, or an arable 
Field, where the Land is good, and 
has been well wrought ; for by often 
turning and breaking of the Soil, it 
will be the better prepar'd to receive 
the Trees. 

Others recommend the mixing a 
great Quantity ot rotten Dung with 
the Earth of the Borders; but this is 
iiot fo proper ; for by maki g of the 
Ground too rich, it will only encou- 
rage the luxuriant Growth of the 
Trees: therefore it is always better 
to mend the Borders from time to 
time, as they may require, and not 
to add fo much Dung in the firit 
making them. 

Another Care is required, in the 
making of the Borders on wet 
Ground ; which is to contrive fome 
cover'd Drains to convey off the Wa- 
ter in Winter ; otherwife, by this 
being detain'd about the Roots of 
the Trees, it will greatly prejudice 
them ; and in the building of the 
Walls round a Kitchen - garden, 
where the Ground is inclinable to be 
wet, there mould be fome Arches 
turn'd in the Foundations of thofe 
Walls which are in the loweft Part 
of the Garden, to let off the Wet. 

The manner of preparing thefe 
Tree; for Planting is the fame as 
hath befeti directed for other Frui:- 



P Y 

trees ; *viz. To cut off all the fm?U 
Fibres from the Roots, and to morten 
fome of the longeft Roots, and cut of? 
all the bruifed ones, or fuch as ihoot 
downright: this being done, you 
mould plant them in the Places in- 
tended, it the before-mention'd Di- 
ftance. The belt time to plant thefe 
Trees (if upon a middling or dry 
Soil) is in Oflober, leaving their 
Heads on tdl Spring; which fhoul4 
be falten'd to the Walls or Stakes, 
to pn vent the Wind from difturbing 
their Roots ; and in the Beginning 
of March their Heads mould be cut 
off, in the manner already directed 
for Peaches, and other Fruit-trees ; 
obferving alfo to Jay fome Mulch 
upon the Surface of the Ground 
about their Roots when they are 
planted ; as hath been feveral times 
already directed for other Trees. 

The hrft Summer after planting, 
the Branches mould be trained to the 
Wall or Efpalier (againft which they 
are planted) in an horizontal Por- 
tion, as they are produced, without 
fhorteningof" them ; and the Michael- 
mas following fome of thefe Shoots 
mould be fhorten'd down to five or 
ft:; Eyes, m order to obtain a fufR- 
cient Quantity of Branches, to fur-- 
niflj the lower Part of the Wall or 
Efpalier. But when this is done, 
the Shoots ought not to be fhorien'd, 
unlefs where there is a want of 
Branches to fill a Vacancy; therefore 
the lefs the Knife is ufed to thefe 
Trees, the better they will fucceed : 
for wnenever the Shoots are ftopp'd, 
it occafions the -Buds immediately 
below the Cut to fend forth two or 
more Shoots, whereby there will be. 
a Confufion of Branches ; and rarely 
any Fruit is produced with this Ma- 
nagement. 

The Diftance which the Branches 
of Pears mould be trained, mutt be 
prop«cion'd to the Size of theirFrait. 

Such 



P Y 

Such Sorts whofe Fruit are fmall, 
may be allow'd five or fix Inches ; 
but the larger Sorts mart: not be lefs 
than feven or eight Inches afunder. 
If this be duly obferv'd, and the 
Branches carefully train'd horizon- 
tally as they are produe'd, there will 
be no Occafion for fo much cutting 
as is commonly practised on thefe 
Trees ; which, initead of checking 
their Growth, docs, on the contrary, 
caufe them to ihoot the Wronger. 

It is very furprifing to read the 
tedious Methods which moll of the 
Writers on Fruit-trees have directed 
for pruning of thefe Trets ; for, by 
their prolix and perplexed Methods, 
one would imagine they had endea- 
vour'd to render themfelves as unin- 
telligible as pofiible : and this, I am 
fure, may be arnrm'd, That it is next 
to impoluble for a Learner ever to 
arrive at any tolerable Skill in prune- 
ing, by the* tedious and perplexed 
Directions which are publihYd by 
Monfjeur Quintiney, and thofe who 
have copied from him ; for a9 thefe 
have all let out wrong in the Be- 
ginning, by allowing their Trees 
lefs than half the Distance which 
they mould be planted, fo they nave 
prefcrihe-1 Rules to keep them with- 
in that Compak ; which are the molt 
abfurd, and contrary to ali Reafon; 
therefore mould not be prachiedby 
thole Pgrfens who are defirous of 
paving plenty of Fruit. 

I (hall therefore only lay down a 
few necelTary Directions for the 
pruning and managing of thefe 
Tree ; winch (hall be done in as few 
Words as poiiible, that a Learner 
may the more eafily underftand it ; 
and which (together with proper 
Oblervations) will be fufficient to in- 
ftruct any Perfon in the right Ma-' 
nagement of them. 

Pear-trees generally produce their 
JMoffom-buds firft at the Extremity 



P Y 

of the laft Year's Shoots ; fo that !f 
thefe are fhortened, the BlolToms are 
cut off. But this is not all the Da- 
mage ; for (as I before faid) this oc- 
cafions the Buds immediately below 
the Cut to put forth two or more 
Shoots, whereby the Number of 
Branches will be increafed, and the 
Tree crouded too much with Wood: 
befides, thofe Buds, which by this 
Management produce Shoots, would 
have only produe'd Curfons and 
Spurs, upon which the Bloifom-buds ' 
are produced, if the leading Branch 
had not been morten'd ; therefore 
thefe fhould never be ftopp'd, unlefs 
to furnifh Wood to fill a Vacancy. 

It is not neceffary to provide a new 
Supply of Wood in Pear - trees, as 
mull be done for Peaches, Nectarines, 
fafr. which only produce their Fruit 
upon young Wood ; for Pears pro- 
duce their Fruit upon Curfons or 
Spurs, which are emitted from 
Branches which are three or four 
Years old ; which Curfons continue 
fruitful many Years : fo that where 
thefe Trees have been fkilfuUy ma- 
nag'd, I have feen Branches which 
have been trained horizontally, 
upward of twenty Feet from 
the Trunk of the Tree, and 
rpve been fruitful their whole 
Length. And if we do but care- 
fully obferve the Branches of an 
healthful Standard- tree, which has 
been permitted to grow without 
pruning, we (hall find many that 
are ten or twelve Years old, or 
more, which are very full of thefe 
Curfons ; upon which a good Num- 
ber of Fruit is annually produe'd. 

During the Summer-feafon thefe 
Trees mould be often look'd over, 
to train in the Shoots, as they are 
produe'd, regularly, to the Wall or 
Efpalier, and to difplace fore-right 
and luxuriant Branches as they Ihoot 
out; whereby the Fruit will be 
equally 



equally cxpofed to the Air and 
Sun, which will render them more 



ways advife the planting themagainft 
Efpaliers; in which Method they 



beautiful, and better tailed, than take up but little room in a Garden, 
when they are ihaded by the and, if they are well manag'd, ap- 
Branches ; and by thus managing pear very beautiful ; and the Fruit is 
the Trees in Summer, they vml al- larger and better-tailed than thofe 
ways appear beautiful ; and in Win- produc'd on Dwarfs, as hath been 
ter they will want but little prune- already obferv'd : but fome of the 
ing. Winter Pears mud be planted againft 
Where Pear-trees are thus regu- Eaft, South - call, or South - weft 
larly trained, without flopping of Walls ; othervvife they will not ripen 
their Shoots, and have full room for well in England, in bad Seafons. 
their Branches to extend on each But altho' this may be the Cafe 
Side, there will never be any Occa- with fome of the late Winter Pears, 
fion for difbarking of the Branches, in very bad Seafons ; yet, in gene- 
or cutting oft" the Roots (as hath ral, moft Sorts of them will ripen 
been directed by feveral Writers on extremely well in all warm Situa- 
Gardening) ; which Methods, how- tions, when they are planted in Ef- 
ever they mny anfwer the Intention palier ; and the Fruit will be better 
for the prefent, yet will certainly flavour'd than that which grows 
greatly injure the Trees; as mull all againft Walls, and will keep much 
violent Amputations, which mould longer good : for as the Heat againft 
ever be avoided, as much as poflible, Walls which are expofed to the Sun, 
on Fruit-trees ; and this, I am fure, will be very great at fome times, 
can never be wanted, where Trees and at others there will be little 
have been rightly planted, and re- Warmth; fo all Fruits which grow 
gularly trained, while young. near them, will be haflen'd unequal- 
The Seafon for pruning of thefe ly ; and therefore is never fo well- 
Trees is any time after the Fruits flavour'd as the fame Sorts are which 
are gathered, until the Beginning of ripen well in the open Air : and all 
March ; but the fooner it is done, the Fruit which is ripen'd thus un- 
after the Fruit is gather'd, the bet- equally, will decay much fooner 
ter, for Reafons already given for than thofe which ripen gradually in 
pruning of Peach-trees ; though in- the open Air : therefore thofe Win- 
deed, the deferring of thefe until ter Pears which grow in Efpalier, 
Spring, where there are large Quan- may be kept fix Weeks longer than 
tides of Trees to prune, is notfo in- thofe which grow againft Walls ; 
jurious to them, as to fome more which is a very defirable thing. For 
tender Fruits : but if the Branches to have plenty of thefe Fruit, at a 
are regularly train'd in the Summer, Seafon when it is very rare to find 
and the luxuriant Shoots rubb'd off, any other Fruit to fupply the Table 
there will be little left to do to them but Apples, is what all Lovers of 
in Winter. Fruit mull be greatly pleas'd to en- 
All the Sorts of Summer Pears joy : which is what may be effecled, 
will ripen very well, either on Stan- by planting many of the late Sorts in 
dards, Dwarf;, or Efpaliers ; as will Efpalier ; where, although the Fruit 
all the Autumn Pears, upon Dwarfs will not be fo well colour'd as thofe 
or Efpaliers; but wnere a Perfon is from the Walls, yet they will be 



very curious in his Fruit, I would al- 




P Y 

Bfjt du Chaumontelle came firft to 
England, the Trees were planted in 
Efpalier ; and fome of them not on 
a very good Soil, or in a warm Si- 
tuation ; and yet from thefe Trees I 
have eaten this Pear in great Per- 
fection in April, and fometimes it 
has kept till May ; whereas all thofe 
which have been fince planted againft 
Walls, ripen their Fruit by the Be- 
ginning of November, and are gene- 
rally gone by the Middle of Decem- 
ber ; nor are thefe latter fo well 
tailed as thofe of the Efpaliers. 

The Virgouhufe and St. Germain, 
3s alfo the Co/mar, are efteem'd the 
moft difficult Sorts to ripen their 
Fruit : yet thefe I have eaten in 
great Perfection from Efpaliers, and 
often from Standard-tree.% • where 
they grew upon a warm Soil ; but 
the Fruit was much fmaller on the 
Standard - trees, than thofe of the 
fame Sorts which grew againft Walls 
orEfpaliers ; b ut they were full as well- 
flavour'd." And fome of thefe Sorts 
I have eaten good in April, which is 
two Months later than thefe Sorts 
ufually keep. But yet I would not 
advife the planting of thefe late Pears 
in Standards, becaufe they fhould 
hang very late on the Trees in the 
Autumn ; at which Scafon, the 
Winds are generally very high, and 
thefe Standard-trees being much ex- 
pos'd, the Fruit is often blown off 
the Trees before they are ripe ; and 
thofe of them which may hang on 
the Tree?, ate frequently bruifed by 
being fore'd againft the Branches by 
the Wind?, fo that they feldom keep 
well. What I mention'd this for, is 
to prove, that thefe Pears will ripen 
yery well without the AfMance of a 
Wall ; fo that if they are planted in 
Efpalier.% where the "Frees are kept 
low, the Fruit will not be fo much 
exposed to the ftrong Winds in the 
Autumn, as thefe on the Standards; 



P Y 

therefore can be in no Danger of the 
Fruit coming to Perfection. And as 
the Trees in Efpalier will be con- 
ftantly pruned, and manag'd in the 
fame manner as thofe againft Walls, 
fo the Fruit will be as large on thofe 
Trees : therefore where a Perfon has 
a warm Situation, and a kindly Soil, 
I would not advife the being at an 
Expence to build Walls on purpofe 
for Pears, but to plant them againft 
Efpaliers ; and where there is any 
one who is very curious in having 
plenty of thefe Fruit, and will be at 
fome Expence to procure them, I 
mould advife the having a fufficient 
Quantity of Reed Mats made, to fix 
up againft the Back of the Efpalier 
in the Spring, when the Trees are in 
Bloffom ; which will fcreen them 
from cold Winds, and preferve the 
tender Fruit until they are paft Dan- 
ger ; when the Reeds may be taken 
down, and put under a Shed to pre- 
ferve them from the Weather. And 
if the Autumn fhould prove bad, 
thefe Reeds may be hVd up again, 
which will forward the ripening of 
the Fruit, and alfo prevent the 
Winds from blowing down, and 
bruifing of it. Thefe Reeds may be 
purchased for one Shilling per Yard, 
running Meafure, at fix Feet and an 
half high ; and if they are carefully 
laid up, and kept from the Wea- 
ther, thefe Reeds will laft feven or 
eight Years; fo that the Expence 
will not be very great : and when 
the Advantages which thefe are of 
to the Fruit are confider'd, I believe 
no Perfon will objed to the Ufe of 
them. 

But after the Fruit is fet, and 
growing, there will be farther Care 
necefiary in order to have the Fruit 
good ; for it is not enough to have 
preferved a goad Crop of Fruit oti 
the Trees, and then to leave them 
in tir ely to Nature, during the Sea« 



P Y 

fan of their Growth ; but there will 
require fome Skill and Attendance 
on the Trees, to help Nature, or 
iupply the Deficiency of the Sea- 
fons: for befide the pruning and 
training the Trees, in the manner 
before directed., there will alfo be 
wanting fome Management of their 
R«ots, according to the Nature of 
the Soil, and the Difference of Sea- 
sons, fn all ftrong Land, where the 
Ground is apt to bind very hard in 
dry Weather, the Surface of the 
Borders fhould be now -and -then 
forked over, to loofen the Earth ; 
which will admit the Showers, and 
large Dews, to penetrate and moiften 
the Ground, and be of great Service 
to the Trees and Fruit, and alfo 
prevent the Growth of Weeds. And 
if the Soil is light and dry, and the 
Seafon mould prove hot and dry, 
there mould be large Hollows made 
round the Stems of the Trees, to 
hold Water ; and into each of thefe 
there mould be poured eight or nine 
Pots of Water ; which mould be re- 
peated once a Week during the 
Months of June and July, if the 
Seafon mould continue dry. There 
ihould alio be fome Mulch laid over 
the Surface of thefe Hollows, to pre- 
vent the Sun and Air from drying 
the Ground. Where thi? is practis'd, 
the Fruit will be kept conftantly 
growing, and prove large and plump; 
whereas, if this is omitted, die Fruit 
will often be fmall, grow crooked, 
crack, and fall off from the Trees. 
For if the Fruit is once itinted in 
their Growth, and Rain mould fall 
plentifully after, it will occafion a 
great Quantity of the Fruit to fall 
off the Trees ; and thofe which re- 
main to ripen, will not keep fo 
long, as thofe which never receive 
any Check in their Growth ; and it 
is from this Caufe, that fome Years 
the Frai: in general decays before 



p Y 

the ufual time. For after it has been 
for fome time Itinted in its Growth, 
and then the Seafon proves favour- 
able, whereby it receives a fadden 
Growth, it becomes fo replete with 
Juice, as to diftend the Veflels, 
whereby a Mortification often en- 
fues : therefore it is always bell to 
keep the Fruit conftantly in a grow- 
ing State, whereby it will acquire a 
proper Size, and be rendered better 
flavoured. 

There will alfo require fomeDrefT- 
ing to the Ground near the Fruit- 
trees ; but this mould be laid on in 
Autumn, after the Trees are pruned. 
This DrelTing fhould be different, ac- 
cording to the Nature of the Soil : 
if the Land is warm and dry, then 
the Dreffing mould be of very rotten 
Dung, mixed with Loam ; and if 
this is mixed fix or eight Months be- 
fore it is laid upon the Borders, and 
three or four times turned over, it 
will be the better : as v. ill alfo the 
Mixture, if it is made with Neats- 
dung, or Hog-dung; both which 
are colder than Horfe-dung, fo more 
proper tor an hot Land. But in cold 
ftiff Land, rotten Horfe-dung, mixed 
with light fandy Earth, or Sea-coal 
Ames, will be the molt proper, as 
this will loofen the Ground, and add 
a Warmth to it. 

Thefe DrefTings mould be repeat- 
ed every other Year, otherwife the 
Trees will not thrive fo well, nor 
will the Fruit be fo good. For, not* 
withstanding what many Perfons 
have advanced to the contrary, yet 
Experience is againft them ; for the 
fineft Fruit in England, both as to 
Size and Flavour, is producd on 
Land which is the molt dunged and 
worked. Therefore I would advife 
the trenching of the Ground about , 
the Fruit-tr'ees very well every Win- 
ter ; for I am fure they will find it 
anfwer their Expectations, who will 
practife 



P Y 

pra&ife this Method. And wliere 
the Ground in the Quarters is well 
dreiled and trenched, the Fruit-trees 
will partake of the Benefit ; for as 
the Trees advance in their Growth, 
fo their Roots are extended to a great 
Dillance from their Stems ; and it is 
chiefly from the diftant Roots that 
the Trees are fupplied with their 
Nourimment ; therefore the dreffing 
of the Borders only, will not be fuf- 
ficient for Fruit-trees which are old. 

In the gathering of the Pears, 
great Regard mould be had to the 
Bud which is form'd at the Bottom 
of the Foot-ftalk, for the next Year's 
BlofToms ; which, by forcing off the 
Pear before it be mature, is, many 
times, fpoil'd ; for while the Fruit 
is growing, there is always a Bud 
form'd by the Side of the Footftalk, 
upon the fame Spur, for the next 
Year's Fruit; fo that when the Pears 
are ripe, if they are gently turn'd 
upward, the Footftalk will readily 
part from the Spur, without injure- 
ing the Bud. 

The Seafon for gathering all 
Summer Pears is juft as they ripen ; 
for none of theie will remain good 
above a Day or two after they are 
taken from the Tree : nor will many 
of the Autumn Pears keep good 
above ten Days, or a Fortnight, af- 
ter they are gathered. But the Win- 
ter-fruits mould hang as long upon 
the Trees <.s the Seafon will permit ; 
for they muft not receive the Froft, 
which will caufe them to rot, and 
render their Juices flat, and ill-taii- 
cd: but if the Weather continues 
mild until the Middle of Oclober, it 
will then be a good Seafon for ga- 
thering them in ; which mult always 
be done in dry Weather, and wnen 
the Trees are perfectly dry. 

In the doing of this, you ought 
carefully to avoid bruifing them ; 
therefore you Ihould have a broad 



p Y 

flat Bafket to lay them in as they arc 
gather'd ; and when they are carried 
into the Store-room, they mould be 
taken out fingly, and each Sort laid 
up in a clofe Heap, on a dry Place, 
in order to fweat, where they may 
remain for ten Days, or a Fortnight ; 
during which time the Windows 
mould be open, to admit the Air, ia 
order to carry off all the Moifture 
which is perfpired from the Fruit: 
after this, the Pears mould be taken . 
fingly, and wiped dry with a woollen 
Cloth, and then pack'd up in dole 
Bafkets ; obferving to put (ome fweet 
Wheat-flraw in the Bottom*, and 
round the Sides of the Baskets, to 
prevent their bruifing againrt the 
Baskets. And if fome thick fofc 
Paper is laid double or treble all 
round the Basket, between the Straw 
and the Pears, this will prevent the 
Pears from imbibing the mufty Tafte 
which is communicated to them bv 
the Straw, when they are contigu- 
ous ; which Ta!te often penetrates 
thro" the Skin fo ftronglv, that when 
the Fruit is pared, the Taite will re- 
main. You -mould alfo obferve to 
put but one Sort of Fruit into a 
Basket, left, by their different Fer- 
mentations, they mould rot each 
other ; but if you have enough of 
one Sort to fill a Basket which holds 
two or three Bufliels, it will be ftilt 
better. After you have fill'd the 
Baskets, you mull cover them over 
with Wheat-ftraw very clofe ; f.rfl: 
laying a Covering of Paper two or 
three times double over the Fruit, 
and fatten them down ; then place 
thefe Baskets in a clofe Room, where 
they may be kept dry, and from 
Froft ; but the lefs Air is let into 
the Room, the better the Fruit will 
keep. It will be very necefiary to 
fix a Label to each Basket, denoting 
the Sort of fruit therein contain'd ; 
which will fave the Trouble of open- 
ing 



ing them, whenever you want to 
know the Sorts of Fruit : beiides, they 
ought not to be opened before their 
Seafon to be eaten ; for the ofcener 
they are open'd, and exposed to the 
Air, the worfe they will keep. I 
don't doubt but this will be objected 
to by many, who imagine Fruit 
can't be laid too thin ; for which 
Reafon, they make Shelves to dif- 
pofe them fingly upon, and are very 
fond of admitting frelh Air, when- 
ever the Weather is mild, fuppofing 
it very neceifary to preferve the 
Fruit : but the contrary of this is 
found true, by thofe Perfons who 
have large Stocks of Fruit laid up in 
their Storehoufes in London, which 
remairi clofely (hut up for feveral 
Months, in the manner before re- 
lated ; and when thefe arc open'd, 
the Fruit is always found plumper 
and founder than any of thofe Fruits 
which were preferv'd fingly upon 
Shelves, whofe Skins are always 
fhrivell'd and dry. For (as Mr. Boyle 
obferves the Air is the Caufe of Pu- 
trefaction ; and, in order to prove 
this, that honourable Perfon put 
Fruits of feveral Kinds into Glalles 
where the Air was exhaufted, in 
which Places they remained found 
for feveral Months ; but, upon be- 
ing expos'd to the Air, rotted in a 
very lhort time ; which plainly fhews 
the Abfurdity of the common Me- 
thod now ufed to preferve Fruit. 




■\UAMOCLIT, Bind- 
3 weed. 

The Characlers are : 
The Flower conjijls of one Leaf, 



Q, u 

fhafed tike a Funnel, and divided a* 
the Top into feveral Segments : from 
the Flower -cup rifes the Pointal* 
which afterward becomes a roundifh 
Fruit, inclofing feveral oblong Seeds. 

We have but one Species of thii 
Plant in England '; which is, 

Qu a M O G L l T foliis tenuiter incifts, 
C5* pennatis. Tourn. Quamoclit with 
\ f ery fine-cut winged Leaves, com- 
monly calPd, in Barbados t Sweet 
William. 

This Plant is very common in 
Jamaica, Barbados, and the Carib- 
bee IJIands, where it climbs upon 
Bullies, Hedges, or whatever grows 
near it, and produces great Quanti- 
ties of beautiful fcarlet Flowers, al- 
moft of the Figure of a fmall Con- 
volvulus-flower ; but the Tube be- 
ing much lenger, and the Seeds be- 
ing of a different Figure from thofe 
of the Convolvulus, Monfieur Tmr* 
nefcrt hath feparated it from that 
Genus. The Seeds of this Plant are 
generally brought into England every 
Spring, from the Weft- Indies : they 
Ihould be -fown on an Hot-bed in 
March ; and when the Plants are 
come up, they mull be pianted each 
into a fmall Pot fill'd with light 
fandy Earth, and plunged into a 
frefh Hot-bed, to bring the Plants 
forward As the Plants advance in 
Height, fo they mould be remov'd 
into larger Pots, and Sticks placed 
down by them, for them to climb 
upon. They muft alio be removed 
to a fre(h Hot bed, when the old 
one has loft its Heat ; and when the 
Plants are too high to be contain'd 
under Frames, they mould be re- 
moved into the Stove, where, if they 
plunged into a moderate Hot-bed of 
Tanners Bark, and not too much 
drawn, they will produce a great 
(Quantity of beautiful fcarlet Flow- 
ers, and ripen their Seeds very welf ; 
but if they are expofed to the open 

Air, 



QU 

Air, they feldom flower in this Coun- 
try. This Plant continues but one 
Year, the Root perifhing foon after 
the Seeds are ripe. 

QUERCUS, The Oak-tree. 
The Characters are ; 

// hath Male Flowers ( or Kat- 
kins ), which confifl of a great Num- 
ber of fmall fender Threads: the 
Bmbryoes, which are produced at re- 
mote Difances from thefe, on the fame 
Tree, do afterward become Acorns, 
which are produced in hardfcaly Cups: 
to which may be added, The Leaves 
are finuated. 

The Species are ; 

1. Quercus latifolia. Park. 
Theat. The common Oak. 

2. Quercus latifolia mas, qu* 
lre<vi pediculo eft. C. B. P. Oak with 
the Acorns on mort Fcotftalks. 

3. Quercus latifolia, folds ex 
albo eleganier <variegatis. The gri- 
ped Oak. 

4. Quercus latifolia perpctuo si- 
rens. C.B.P. The broad -Jeav'd 
ever-green Oak. 

5. Quercus calyce echinato, glan- 
de majore. C B. P. Oak with large 
Acorns, having prickly Cups, 

6. Quercus humilis, gallis binis, 
ternis, aut pluribus fimul jurMis. 
C. B. P. Dwarf Oak, -julgo. 

7. Quercus par<va, five Phagus 
Grsecorum, tjf Efculus Plinii. C. B.P. 
The Sweet Oak. 

8. Quercus calyce hi [pi do, glande 
minore. C. B. P. Oak with fmall 
Acorns, having a prickly Cup. 

9. Quercus Burgundiaca, calyce 
hifpido. C. B. P. The Burgundy Oak, 
whofe Acorns have prickly Cups. 

10. Quercus pedem <vix fuperans. 
C. B. P. Dwarf Oak. 

1 1. Quercus foliis mo Hi lanugine 
pubefcentibus. C. B. P. Oak with 
foft woolly Leaves. 

1 2. Quercus gall am exigua? nucis 
magnitudes ferens* C* B. P. Oak 



Q u 

which J)ears fmall Galls not larger 
than Nuts. 

13. Qu ercus foliis muricatis, m* 
lanuginofs, galla fuperiori fimili. C 
B. P. Oak with prickly Leaves, 
which are not woolly, bearing Galls 
like the former. 

14. Quercus fitiis muricatis, mi- 
nor. C. B P. Smaller Oak, with 
prickly Leaves. 

15. Quercus latifolia, magnv 
fruclu, calyce tuberculis obftto, Toum. 
Cor. Broad -leav'd Oak, with large 
x^corns, whofe Cups are befet with 
Tubercles. 

16. Quercus Oriintalis, glande 
cylindriformi, lorrgo pedicvlo ifffidt nte* 
Tourn. Cor. Eaftcrn Oak, with cy- 
lindrical Acorns growing on long 
Footftalks. 

1 7 . Qu e R CU s Orientally caflane r 
folio, glanderecondita in cupula creffa 
& fauamofn. Tourn. Cor. Eaftera 
Oak, with a Cheftnut- leaf, whofe 
Acorns are clolely fhut up in a thick 
fcaly Cup. 

18. Quercus Orientalis angufii- 
folia, glande minori, cupula crinita. 

Toum. Cor. Eaftern Oak, with a 
narrow Leaf, and a fmaller Acorn, 
whofe Cup is hairy. 

19. Quercus Orientalis latifolia, 
glande maxima, cupula crinita. Tourn, 
Cor. Eaftern Oak, with a broad 
Leaf, and the largeft Acorn, whofe 
Cup is hairy. 

20. Quercus Orientalis latifolia, 
foliis ad coftatn pulchrc incifis, glande 
maxima, cupula crinita. Tourn. Cor. 
Eaftern broad- leav'd Oak, whofe 
Leaves are finely cut to the Stalks, 
and a very large Acorn, whofe Cup 
is hairy. 

21. Quercus Orientalis, folio 
fubrotundo minori, glande magna ftria- 
ta. Tourn. Cor. Eaftern Oak, with 
a fmaller roundifh Leaf, and a large 
ilriated Acorn. 

22. Quercus Orientalis, folio 

fubro- 



at* 

fubrztundo, teviter incifo, frutiu mi~ 
nori cylindrifurtni. Tourn. Cor. Eaft- 
crn Oak, with, a roundifh Leaf, 
lightly cut in, and a fmaller cylin- 
drical Fruit. 

23 Quercus Virginiana, rubris 
*venis muricata. Pink. Phyt. The 
Virginian fcarlet Oak. 

24. Quercus eajlanea? follis y tra- 
cer a arbor Virginiana. Pluk. Phyt. 
Virginian Oak, with Cheftnut-leaves. 

j»r. Quercus alba Virginiana. 
Park. That. The white or iron 
Oak of Virginia. 

26. Quercus Virginiana^ falicis 
longiore folio \ fruclu mini mo. Pluk. 
Amalth. Virginian willow - leav'd 
Oak. 

27. Quercus pwni/is. caftane<e 
folio, Virginienfis. Pluk. Almag. The 
Chinquepin Oak. 

28. Quercus frmpervirens, foliis 
oblongis non finuatis. Baniil. Live 
Oak. 

29. Quercus (forte) Mar Han- 
dle a, folio trifido, ad fafafras acct- 
denti. Raii Hijl. The black Oak of 
Maryland. 

30. Quercus folio ncn ferrato, in 
fummitate triangulo. Catefb. Hijl. 
Nat Carolin. The Water Oak. 

31. Quercus Caroiinienfis, <vircn- 
tibus wenis, muricata. Citcfb. Hijl. 
Nat. Carolin. The white Oak of 
Carolina. 

3 2 Qu E rcu s hvmilior fall cis folio 
hrrviore. Catefb. Nif. Nat. Carolin. 
Dwarf Highland Willow Oak. 

3 3 . Qu E RCU S efculi divifura, fo- 
liis amplicribus aculsatis. Pluk. Phyt. 
Red Oak of Maryland, 

34. Quercus Mariana, clea fo- 
lio, glande parma compreffo, adapicu- 
lam elegant er radiato. Pluk. Man t if. 
Swamp Spanifli Oak. 

35. QuErcus Mariana, muricatis 
ca'\taneee foliis fubtus 'Villojit. Pluk. 
Mant. Champion - cheftnut Oak of 
Maryland. 



Q. U 

The two firft Sorts are common tti 
England ; but the Sort whofe Acorns 
grow on fhort Footftalks, is lefs fre- 
quent than the other. I have feen 
feveral Trees of that Kind near Dul- 
nvich in Surry ; but whether the 
Acorns of this Sort will produce 
Trees of the fame Kind, I cannot 
determine. There are many large 
Trees of this Kind in Snjfrx, where 
the Timber of this Sort is efteem'd 
preferable to the firfl: Sort ; tho', as 
I have already mention'd; I do hot 
know if it is fpecifically different 
from it, having had no Opportunity 
to raife any of thefe Trees from the 
Acorns. But the late Duke of Rich' 
mond had fowed a large Clump with 
thefe Acorns, a Year before his 
Death, at his Seat at Good-wood in 
Suffex ; where his Grace had fowed 
Clumps of all the different Kinds of 
Oaks winch he could procure, not 
only in Europe, but alfo from Ame- 
rica, and die Levant ; but thefe 
Plants are at prefent too final! to be 
diftinguifhed by their Leaves* tho', 
in a few Year?, it will not be difficult 
to determine whether the Acorns will 
always produce the fame Kind as the 
Trees from whence they were taken^ 
The Sort with ftrip'd Leaves was 
obtain'd by Accident ; but may be 
propagated by budding or grafting 
it upon the common Oak. The 
Leaves of this are generally varie- 
gated with White in a moll beauti- 
ful manner ; and the Tree is efteem'd 
a great Curiofity, by fuch as delight 
in variegated Plants. 

The fourth Kind deferves a Place 
in WildernefTes, amongft other Sorts 
of ever-green Trees, where it will 
make a beautiful Appearance ; but 
the Timber is not near fo good as 
that of the common Sort, and it is 
very rare in England. 

The fifth Kind was originally 
brought into England from Spain} 

but 



Q u 

but is alfo found in France and Italy. 
This is hardy enough to endure the 
Cold of our Winters very well, and 
is preferv'd by fuch as are curious 
:n collecting the feveral Kinds of 
Trees. 

The eight Sorts which are next 
menticn'd, are Natives of Europe ; 
fome of them grow in the Middle of 
France ; others in Spain, Portugal, 
Italy, and Germany. The eleventh 
Sort grows plentifully about Aubigny 
in Trance, from whence his Grace 
the late Duke of Richmond brought 
many of the Acorns, which were 
fown at Goodwood in the Year 1 749. 
Thefe Sorts are full as hardy as the 
common Oak, fo may be treated in 
the fame manner. 

The next eight Sorts were difco- 
ver'd by Dr. Tournefort in the Le- 
*vant, and have fince been obferv'd 
by fome curious Travellers who have 
•gone that Way, fome of whom have 
brought their Acorns to England ; 
but as thefe are fubject to perilh 
when they are kept long out of the 
Ground, there have not been more 
lhan three of thefe Sorts raifed in 
England, fo far as I can learn. The 
Plants of thole Sorts which have been 
raifed here, feem to be full as hardy 
as our common Oak ; for I have ex- 
pofed them the firft Year from Seed, 
to all the Inclemency of Weather, 
even in fmall Pots, which flood in the 
coldeft Situation of the Garden ; 
yet were not the leaft injured by the 
Proft. 

The other Sorts are all of them 
Natives of the Northern Parts of 
America, where fome of the Sorts 
grow to a very large Size ; but the 
Timber of them is not valuable. 
Others of them are but fmall of 
Growth, feldomrifmg above twenty 
or thirty Feet high ; and many of 
them naturally grow upon moill 
fwampy Land, fo that in England 

Vol. III. 



QU . 

they make but little Progrefs ; there- 
fore they are not worth the Trouble 
of cultivating, except one or two 
Plants of eacn Sort, for the fake of 
Variety. For whatever may have 
been afTerted in relation to the 
Growth of thefe American Oaks, or 
of the Goodnefs of the Timber; yet I 
hopa noPerfons will be fo weak as to 
cultivate thefe Trees, in Preference 
to the native Oak of this Coantry, 
which is more valuable than any 
other Sort yet known. But as the 
prefent Spirit of introducing all the 
Sorts of foreign Trees and Shrubs 
into England, prevails with molt 
curious Pcrfons, therefore I have 
mention'd molt of the Sorts at pre- 
fent known, more to fatisfy the 
Curiofity of a few, than for ge- 
neral Ufe. 

All the Sorts of Oaks are propa- 
gated from Acorns, which mould be 
fown as foon as poflible after they 
are ripe ; for if they are kept too 
long out of the Ground, they feldoni 
grow. 

The Manner of fovving thefe 
Acorns (ifdefigned for a fmall Plan- 
tation, or to be removed) is, to pre- 
pare fome Beds of frefh Earth, nei- 
ther too ftrong and heavy, nor too 
light and dry ; in thefe Beds you. 
mould place the Acorns in Rows one 
Foot afunder, and about two Inches 
Diilance in the Rows, covering them 
about two Inches thick with the 
fame frefh Earth ; obferving to leave 
none of them uncover'd, to entice 
the Vermin, which may, in a Ihort 
time, deilroy all the Seeds. 

In the Spring, when the Plants be- 
gin to appear, you muft carefully 
clear them from Weeds ; and if the 
Seafon proves dry, you mould re- 
frefh them now-and then with a lit- 
tle Water, which will greatly pro- 
mote their Growth. In thefe Beds 
the Plants mould remain until the 
4 E follow 



Q D 

following Autumn (obferving con- 
ftantly to keep them clear from 
Weeds) ; at which time you fhould 
prepare a Spot of good frefh Earth 
(in Size proportionable to the Quan- 
tity of Plants), which mould be well 
trench'd and levell'd : then, toward 
the Middle or Latter-end of October, 
you mould carefully take up the 
Plants, fo as not to injure their 
Roots, and plant them out in Rows 
three Feet afunder, and eighteen 
Inches Diftance Plant from Plant ; 
obferving never to fuffer the Plants 
to abide long out of the Ground, 
bccaufe their Roots would dry, and 
endanger the Growth of the Plants. 

When they are planted, you 
jhould lay a little Mulch upon the 
Surface of the Ground, near their 
Roots, to prevent the Earth from 
drying too faft ; and if the Seafon 
fhould prove very dry, you fhould 
give them a little Water, to fettle the 
Earth to their Roots. 

When the Plants have taken Root 
.in this Nurfery, they will require 
little more Care than to keep them 
clear from Weeds, and dig the 
Ground between the Rows every 
Spring; in doing of which, you 
mould cut off fuch Roots as extend 
very far from the Trunk of the 
Trees, which will render them bet- 
ter for tranfplanting again : you 
Ihould alfo prune off fuch Side- 
bianches as extend themfelves very 
far, and would retard the upright 
Shoots : but you fhould by no means 
cut off all the fmall lateral Branches, 
fome of which are abfolutely ne- 
ceffary to be left on, to detain the 
Sap for the Augmentation of the 
Trunk ; for I have often cbferv'd, 
where Trees have been thus clofely 
pruned, that their Heads have over- 
grown their Bodies, fo that they 
nave -bent downward, and become 
crooked. 



clu 

When thefe Trees have remain^ 
in the Nurfery three or four Years, 
they will then be large enough to 
tranfplant to the Places where they 
are to remain ; for it is not proper 
to let them grow very large before 
they are planted out ; becaufe thefe 
are very hazardous Trees to remove 
when old, or after they have taken 
deep Root. 

The Seafon for this Work is (as 
I faid before) in the Autumn ; at 
which time, if they are carefully 
taken up, there will be little Dan- 
ger of their fucceeding. When they 
are planted, the Surface of the 
Ground fhould be mulch'd about 
their Roots, to prevent its drying 
too faft : and if the Seafon is very 
dry, they mould be water'd, to fettle 
the Earth to their Roots, which 
may be repeated two or three times 
in very dry Weather : but you muff 
carefully avoid giving {hem too much 
Water, which is very injurious to 
thefe Trees, when newly remov'd. 

You Ihould alfo ftake them, to 
prevent their being fhaken and dif- 
turbed by the Winds, which would 
retard their Rooting. In tranfplant- 
ing of thefeTrees, you Ihould by no 
means cut their Heads, which is too 
much practifed : all that ihould be 
•done, muft be only to cut off any 
bruifed or ill-placed Branches, which 
fhould be taken off clofe to the Place 
where they are produced : but there 
can be no greater Injury done to 
thefe Trees., than to fhorten their 
Shoots; for when the leading Bud 
(which is abfolutely neceffary to draw 
and attract the Nourilhment) is taken 
off, the Branch often decays intirely, 
or at leaft down to the next vigorous 
Bud. 

The Trees, thus rais'd and ma- 
nag'd, will (if planted in a proper 
Soil) grow to a confiderable Magni- 
tude, and are very proper for a Wii- 
dernefs 



eernefs in large Gardens, 6r to plant 
in Clumps in Parks, &c. but if they 
are defign'd for Timber, it is by 
much the better Method to fovv the 
Acorns in the Places where they are 
to remain; in order to which, you 
mould provide yourfelf in Autumn 
with a fufficient Quantity of Acorns, 
which mould be always taken from 
ftrait, upright, vigorous - growing 
Trees ; thefe mould be gather'd 
from under the Trees as fcon as may 
be, after they are fallen, and, if pof- 
fible, in a dry Time, laying them 
thin in fome open Room to dry ; 
after which they may be put in dry 
Sand, and preferv d in a dry Place 
until the Beginning of November, 
when you mould prepare the Ground 
for planting them. 

The Directions here given are 
folely for fmall Plantations in a Gar- 
den or Park, which are only defign d 
for Pleafure : but where thefe Trees 
are cultivated with a View to Profit, 
the Acorns mould be fown where 
the Trees are defignM to grow ; for 
thofe which are tranfplanted will ne- 
ver grow to the Size of thofe which 
itand where they are fown, nor will 
they laft near fo long found. For 
in fome Places, where thefe Trees 
have been tranfplanted with the 
greateft Care, and they have grown 
very faft for feveral Years after, yet 
they are now decaying, when thofe 
which remain in the Place where 
they came up from the Acorns, are 
ftill very thriving, and have not the 
leaft Sign of Decay. Therefore, 
whoever defigns to cultivate thefe 
Trees for Timber, mould never 
think of tranfplanting them, but 
fow the Acorns on the lame Ground 
where they are to grow ; for the 
Timber of all thofe Trees which are 
tranfplanted, is not near fo valuable 
as that of the Trees from Acorns. I 
Hull therefore add feme plain Di- 



Q. U 

reclions for the fowing of Acorns* 
and managing of the young Trees, 
during their Minority, until they 
are out of Danger, and require no 
farther Care. 

The nrll Thing to be done is, that 
of fencing the Ground very well, to 
keep out Cattle, Hares, and Rab- 
bets ; for if either of thefe can get 
into the Ground, they will loon de- 
Uroy all the young Trees. Indeed 
they will in a few Years grow to be 
out of Danger from Hares and Rab- 
bets; but it will be many Years before 
they will be pail Injury from Cattle, 
if they are permitted to get into the 
Plantation ; therefore durable Fences 
mould be put round the Ground : if 
in the Beginning a Pale-fence is made 
about the Land, which may be clofe 
at the Bottom, and open above, and 
within the Pale a Quick-hedge plant- 
ed ; this will become a good Fence, 
by the time the Pale decays, againft 
all Sorts of Cattle ; and then the 
Trees will have got above the Reach 
of Hares and Rabbets, fo that they 
cannot injure them ; for the Bark of 
the Trees will be too hard for them 
to gnaw. 

After the Ground is well fenced, 
it mould be prepared, by plowing of 
it three or four times, and after ^a^h 
Plowing, harrow it well, to break 
the Clods, and cleanfe the Ground 
from Couch, and the Roots of all 
bad Weeds. Indeed, if the Ground 
is Green -fvvard, it will be better to 
have one Crop of Beans, Peas, or 
Turneps, off the Ground, before th« 
Acorns are fown, provided thefe 
Crops are well hoed to ftir the Sur- 
face, and deftroy the Weeds : for, 
if this is obferv'd, the Crop will 
mend and improve the Land for 
fowing ; but in this Cafe the Ground 
mould be plow'd as foon as poffib'e, 
when the Crop Is taken off, to* pre- 
pare it for the Acorns : which flic old 

4 E z be 



QJJ 

tc {own as foon as may be after the 
Acorns are ripe: for although thefe 
may be preferv'd in Sand for fome 
time, yet they will be apt to fprout ; 
and, if fo, the Shoots are in Danger 
of being broken and fpoil'd : there- 
fore I fliould advife thefowing early, 
which is certainly the belt Method^. 

In making choice of the Acorns, 
all thofe mould be preferred, which 
are taken from the Jargeft and molt 
thriving Trees : and thofe of Pollard- 
trees fliould always be rejected, tho' 
the latter are generally the moil pro- 
ductive of Acorns ; but thofe of the 
large Trees will commonly pro- 
duce the flrongeit and moll thriving 
Plant?. 

The Seafon for fowing of the 
Acorns being come, and the Ground 
having been plow'd, and levell'd 
fmooth, the next Work is to fow the 
Acorns, which mull: be done by 
drawing of Drills acrofs the Ground, 
at about four Feet afunder, and two 
Inches p'eep, into which the Acorns 
fhculd be Icatter'd, at two Inches 
Diitance. Thefe Drills may be 
drawn either with a Drill-plough, or 
by Hand with an Hoe ; but the for- 
mer is the moll expeditious Method, 
therefore in large Plantations mould 
be preferr'd: in the drawing of the 
Drills, if the Land has any Slope to 
one Side, thefe mould be made the 
fame Way as the Ground Hopes, that 
there may be no Stoppage of the Wet 
by the Drills or Rows of Plants crofl- 
ing the Hanging of the Land. This 
fhould be particularly obferv'd in all 
wet Ground, or where the Wet is 
fubjecl: to lie in Winter. When the 
Acorns are fown, the Drills mould 
be carefully nlPd in, fo as to cover 
the Acorns fecurely ; for if. any of 
them are expos'd, they will entice 
the Birds and Mice ; and if either of 
thefe once attack them, they will 
wake great Havock with them. 



The Reafon of my directing the 
Drills to be made at this Diftance, is 
for the more convenient ftirring of 
the Ground between the Rows, to 
keep the young Plants clean from 
Weeds : for if this is not carefully 
done, it cannot be expected, that 
the young Plants fliould make much 
Progrefs ; and yet this is generally 
neglected by many who pretend to 
be great Planters, who are often at 
a large Expence to plant, but fel- 
dom regard them after : fo that the 
young Plants have the Difficulty to 
encounter the Weeds, which fre- 
quently are four or five times the 
Height of the Plants, and not only 
fhade and draw them, but alio ex- 
hauft all the Good net's of the Ground, 
and confequently ftarve the Plants, 
Therefore, whoever hope to have 
Succefs in their Plantations, fliould 
determine to be at the Expence of 
keeping them clean for eight or ten 
Years after fowing, by which time 
the Plants" will have obtain d Strength 
enough to keep down the Weeds : 
the neglecting of this has occafion'd 
fo many young Plantations to mif- 
carry, as are frequently to be met 
with in divers Parts of E?ig!and. 

About the End of March, or Be- 
ginning of April, the young Plants 
will appear above-ground ; but, be- 
fore this, if the Ground fliould pro- 
duce many young Weeds, it will be 
good Hufbandry to fcuffle the Sur- 
face over with Dutch Hoes, in a dry 
time, either the Latter- end of March t 
or the Beginning of April, to deflroy 
the Weeds, whereby the Ground 
will be kept clean, until all the Plants 
are come up, fo as to be plainly dif- 
ccrn'd ; by which time it may be 
proper to hoe the Ground over 
again ; for by doing it early, while 
the Weed's are fmall, a Man will 
perform more of this Work in one 
Day than he can in three or four 

when 



Q U 

when the Weeds are grown large : 
befide, there will be great Hazard 
of cutting off or injuring the young 
Plants, when they are hid by the 
Weeds ; and fmall Weeds, being 
cut, are foon dried up by the Sun ; 
but large Weeds often take frefh 
Root, and grow again, efpecially if 
Rain lhould fall foonafcer, and then 
the Weeds will grow the fafter for 
beir^ ilirred ; therefore it is not only 
the . Method, bin alfo the ch ear- 
eft Huibarsdry, to begin cleaning 
early in the Spring, and to repeat it 
as often as the Weeds are produe'd. 

The firft Summer, while the Plants 
are young, it will be the heft Way 
to perform thefe Hoeings by Hand ; 
but afterward it may be done with 
the Hoe- plough ; for as the Rows 
are four Feet afunder, there will be 
room enough for this Plough to 
work; and this will ftir and loofen 
the Ground, which will be of great 
Service to the Plants : but there will 
require a little Hand labour where 
the Plough is fis'd, in order to de- 
ftroy the A'eeds, which w. II come up 
in the Rows between the Plants ; for 
thefe will be out of the Reach of the 
Plough; and if they are not deftroy- 
ed, they will foon overgrow and 
bear down the young Plants. 

After the Plants have grown two 
Years, it will be proper to draw out 
fome of tl.em, where they grow too 
clofe ; but, in the doing of this, 
great Care mould be had not to in- 
jure the Roots of thofe left; for as 
the Plants which are drawn out are 
only fit for Plantations defign'd 
for Pleafure, fo thefe fhould not be 
fo much regarded in their being re- 
moved, as to facrifice any of thofe 
which are defign'd to remain. In 
the Thinning of thefe Plantations, 
the Plants may at the firft time be 
left about one Foot afunder^ which 
will give them room enough to grow 



Q u 

two or three Years longer : by which 
time it may be eafy to judge which 
are likely to make the belt Trees. 
Therefore thefe may be then nV4 
on, as Standards to remain : though 
it will be proper to have a greater 
Number at this time mark'd than 
can be permitted to grow, becaufe 
fome of them may not anfwer the 
Expectation : and as it will be im- 
proper to thin thefe Trees roo much 
at one time, fo the leaving double 
the Number intended at the fecond 
Thinning wi 1 not be amifs. There- 
fore, if they are then left at about 
four Feet Diltance in the Rows, they 
will have room enough to grow three 
or four Years longer : by which 
time, if the Plants have made good 
Progrefs, their Roots will have 
fpread over the Ground ; therefore 
it will be proper to take up every 
other Tree in the Rows. But by 
this I do not mean to be exact in 
the Removing, but to make choice 
of the beil Plants to fta-d, whichever 
Rows they may be in, or if thev 
mould not be exactly at the Diftance 
here alTign'd : what is intended 
here, is, to lay down general Rules, 
which lhould be as nearly comply 'd 
with as the Plants will permit : 
therefore every Perfon fhould be 
guided by the Growth of the Trees 
in the Performance of this Work. 

When the Plants have been re- 
due'd to the Diftance of about eight 
Feet, they will not require any more 
Thinning. But in two or three 
Years time, thofe which are not to 
regain will be fit to cut down, to 
make Stools for Underwood ; and 
thofe which are to remain, will have 
made fuch Progrefs as to become a 
Shelter to each other; for this is 
what mould be principally attended 
to whenever the Trees are thinn'd : 
therefore in all fuch Places as are 
much expos'd to the Wind, the Trees 
4 E 3 fhould 



fhould be thinn'd with great Cau- 
tion, and by flow Degrees : for if 
the Air is let too much at once into 
the Plantation, it will give a fudden 
Check to the Tree's, ai,d greatly re- 
tard their Growth j but in ihelter'd 
Situations, there need not be fo great 
Caution u M as in thofe Places j as 
the Plants will not be in fo much 
Danger of fuffering by the Cold. 

The Diftance which I mould 
choofe to allow to thofe Trees which 
are defign'd to remain for Timber, 
is, from twenty five to about thirty 
Feet, which will not be too near, 
where the Trees thrive well; in 
which Cafe their Heads will fpread, 
fo as to meet in about thirty or thir- 
ty-five Years : nor will this Duuuce 
be too great, fo as to impede the up- 
right Growth of the Trees. This 
Diflance is intended, that the Trees 
mould enjoy the whole Benefit of the 
Soil. Therefore, after one Crop of 
the Underwood, or, at the molt, two 
Crops are cut, I would advife the 
flubbing up the Stools, that the 
Ground may be intirely clear, for 
the Advantage of the growing Tim- 
ber, which is what mould be prin- 
cipally regarded : but in general mcft 
.People have more Regard for the 
immediate Profit of the Underwood 
than the future Good of the Tim- 
ber; and frequently by fo doing fpoil 
both : for, if the Underwood is left 
after the Trees have fpread fo far as 
that their Heads meet, the Under- 
wood will not be of much Worth ; 
and yet, by their Stools being left, 
they will draw away a great Share 
cf Nourifrtnent from the Timber- 
trees, and retard them in their Pro- 
pels, 

The Soil in which the Oak makes 
the greateit Progrefs, is a deep rich 
^joam, in which the Trees grow to 
the largeit Size ; and the Timber of 
thofe 'i nes* which grow upon this 



Land, is generally more pi i able than 
that which grows on a mallow oj 
drier Ground ; but the Wood of the 
latter is much more compact, and 
hard. Indeed there are few Soils in 
England in which the Oak will not 
grow, provided there is proper Care 
taken in their Cultivation ; though 
this Tree will not thrive equally in 
all Soils : but yet it might be culti- 
vated to a national Advantage upon 
many large Waftes in feveral Parts 
of England, as alfo to the great Pro- 
fit of the Eftates where thefe Tratts 
of Land now lie uncultivated, and 
produce nothing to the Owner. And 
mould the prefent Temper of de- 
ftroying the Timber of England 
continue in Practice fome Years 
longer, in the fame Degree which it 
has for lome Years paft, and as lit- 
tle Care taken to raife a Supply, this 
Country, which has been fo long 
efteem'd for its Naval Strength, 
may be oblig'd to feek for Timber 
abroad, or be content with fuch a 
Naval Strength as the poor Remains 
of fome frugal Eftates may have left 
growing : for, as to the large Forefts, 
from whence the Navy has been fo 
long fupplied, a few Years will put 
an End to the Timber there : and 
how can it be otherwife, when the 
Perfons to whofe Care thefe are com- 
mitted, reap an Advantage from the 
Deftru&ion of the Timber ? 

Before I quit this Subject, I mnft 
beg Leave to take notice of another 
great Evil, which is of fo much 
Confequence to the Public, as to de- 
ferve their utmoll Attention ; which 
is that of cutting down the Oaks in 
the Spring of the Year, at the time 
wheia the Sap is flowing. This is 
done for the fake of the Bark, which 
will then eafily peel off: and, for 
the fake of this, 1 think, there is a 
Law, whereby People are oblig'd to 
cut dawn their' Timber at this Sea- 
ion. 



foil. But by fo doing the Timber is 
not half fo durable as that which is 
fallen in the Winter : fo that thofe 
Ships which have been built of this 
Spring - cut Timber, have decay'd 
more in feven or eight Years, than 
others, which were built with Tim- 
ber cut in Winter, have done in 
twenty. And this our Neighbours 
the French have experienced ; and 
therefore have wifely order'd, that 
the Bark mould be taken off the 
Trees, ftanding, at the proper Time; 
but the Trees are left till the next, 
and fometimes until the fecond Win- 
ter, before they are cut down : and 
the Timber of thefe is found to be 
more durable, and better for Ufe, 
than that of any Trees which have 
not been peePd. Therefore I wilh 
we were wife enough to copy after 
them in thofe Things which are for 
public Good, rather than to imitate 
them in their Follies, which has 
been too much the Fafhion of late 
Years. 

QUICK : By the Word Quick 
are generally underftood all live 
Hedges, of whatever Sort of Plants 
^ they are compos'd, to diltinguifh 
them from dead Hedges : but, in 
the mod Uriel: Senfe of this Word, 
it is applied to the Hawthorn, or 
Mcfpilus fylvejirh ; under which 
Name the young Plants, or Sets, are 
commonly foid by theNurfery-Gar- 
deners, who raife them for Sale : for 
a farther Account of planting thefe 
for Hedges, fee Hedges; as alio Mef 
pilus, for the raifing of the Plants. 

QUICK-BEAM. Vide Sorbus 
Sylvellris. 

QUINCE-TREE, Vide Cydonia 

QUINCUNX ORDER is a 
Plantation of Trees, difpofed ori- 
ginally in a Square, confifting of 
live Trees, one at each Corner, and 
a fifth in the Middle ; which Difpo- 
fition, repeated again and again, 



forms a regular Grove, Wood, or 
Wildernefs ; and when view'd by an 
Angle of the Square or Parallelo- 
gram, prefents equal or parallel 

Alleys. 

QUINQUEFOLIUM, Cinque- 
foil. Vide Potentilla. 

R A 

RADISH. Vide Raphanus. - 
RADISH (HORSE). Vide 
Cochlearia 

RAMPIONS. Vide Campanula 
radice efculenta. 
RANDIA. 

The CharaBtrs are ; 
// hath a Flower confifing of one 
Leaf, whofe lower Part is tubulous ; 
hut the upperPartis expanded, and, for 
the mo/I, part divided into fiveSegments : 
the Flower is fucceeded by an oval 
Fruit, having but one Cell, which is 
filled with fiat cartilaginous Seeds, 
fur rounded by a Pulp. 

There is but one Species of this 
Plant at prefent known ; <viz. 

Rand i a frutefcens, fpinis bijugis, 
faliis fubrotundi s , fioribus albis. Hoitfi. 
Shrubby Randia, with Spines grow- 
ing two at a Joint, roundim Leaves, 
and white Flowers. This Plant is 
figured and defcribed by Sir Hans 
Shane in his Hillory of Jamaica, 
under the Title of Lycium forte, foliis 
fubrotundis integris, fpinis iff foliis ex 
adverfo fitis. Vol. I. p. 40. 

This Shrub grows plentifully 
about La Vera Cruz; from whence 
the Seeds were fent by the late Dr. 
William Houjloun, who gave this 
Njme to it, in Honour to Mr. Ifaac 
Rand^St curious Botanift. 

This Shrub rifes to the Height of 
ten or twelve Feet in the Country of 
its Growth, and divides into a great 
Number of Branches, which are al- 
4 E 4 ways 



R A 



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ways produced by Pairs oppefite ; as 
are alfo the Leaves and Spines. The 
Flowers are fmall, and of a white 
Colour, which are fucceeded by hard 
oval-fiiaped Fruit, about the Size of 
a large Spanifj Nut, which is full of 
fiat Seeds, inclofed in a foft blackifh 
Pulp. 

It is propagaud by Seeds, which 
mould be lown early in the Spring, 
in Pots filled with frefh light Earth, 
and plung'd into an Hot-bed of Tan- 
ners Bark-, obfervir.g to water the 
Earth frequently, to promote the Ve- 
getation of the Seeds. When the 
Plants come up, they mull have frefh 
Air admitted to them every Day, 
when the Weather is warm ; and 
they mull be often refrefhed with 
Water. In about a Month's time 
after the Plants come up, they will 
be fit to tranfplant ; when they 
mould be carefully fhaken out of the 
PotSj and each planted into a fepa- 
rate fmall Pet filled with frefh light 
Earth, and then plunged into the 
Piot-bed again j where they mufl: be 
fcreened from the Sun until they 
have taken new Root ; after which 
time they mufl: have Air and Moift- 
ure in proportion to the Warmth 
of the Seafon. The Plants may re- 
main in the Hot -bed till toward 
Michaelmas, when the Nights begin 
to be cold : at which time they fhould 
be removed into the Stove : and if 
they are plunged into the Bark bed, 
it will greatly forward their Growth; 
tho' they will live in the dry Stove, 
if they are kept in a moderate Tem- 
perature of Heat, and are frequent- 
ly watered. During the two firft 
Seafons, while the Plants are young, 
it will be proper to keep them con- 
Hantly in the Stove ; but then their 
Leaves mufl be waihed, whenever 
they contract Filth ; which will bring 
them forward: but after the Plants 
h^ve obtained Strength, they may 



be expofed every Summer to the 
open Air, provided they are placed 
in a warm Situation : but in Winter 
they mult be conflantly placed in a 
Stove, and kept in a moderate 
Warmth ; otherwife they will not 
live in this Country. 

The Leaves of this Plant continue 
green throughout the Year, which 
renders the Plant valuable, becaufe 
it makes an agreeable Variety in the 
Winter - feafon, when mixed with 
other tender Plants. Sir Hans Sloane 
found this Plant in the Ifland of 
Barbados. 

RANUNCULUS, Crowfoot. 
The Char afters are ; 

The Flower conffts of federal 
Leaves, nvhicb arc placed in a cir- 
cular Order, and expand in form of a, 
Rofe ; having, for the mojl part, a 
many-leaved Empatcmcnt or Flower- 
cup : out of the Middle of the Flonuer 
rifes the Pointal, which afterward 
becomes a Fruit , either round, cylin- 
drical, or I piked ; to the Axis of which i 
as a Placenta, adhere many Seeds, for 
the mojl part naked. 
The Species are ; 

1. Ranunculus hortenfis e reft us, 
fore plena. C. B.P. Common yel- 
low Crowfoot, with a double Flow- 
er. 

2. Ranunculus repens, fere pie- 
no. f. B Common creeping Crow- 
foot, with a double Flower. 

Ranunculus montanus, aco- 
niti folio, albu ,flore minore. C. B. P. 
Mountain Crowfoot, with a white 
Flower. 

4 . R a n u n c u l u s folio aconrti,fore 
alho multiplier. C. B. P. Crowfoot 
with a Monk's - hood - leaf, and a 
double white Flower ; commonly 
called the Fair Maid of France. 

5. Ranunculus hulbofus, fort 
fleno. Q. B. P. Common bulbous - 
rooted Crowfoot, with a double 
Flower, 

6. Ra- 



R A 



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6. Ranunculus Corfiantinopoli- 
tanus, fiore fanguineo plena. J. B. 
Common Ranunculus, with a double 
bloody Flower. 

7. R am ncvlvs afphodeli radice, 
froUfer miniatus. C. B. P. Ranun- 
culus, with an Afphodel-root, and 
childing carmine Flowers; common- 
ly called Turk's Turban. 

8. Ranunculus Aftaticus poly clo- 
ws, five grumoCa radice, fecundus. J. 
B. Afiatic Ranunculus, with many 
Heads, and a grumofe Root ; com- 
monly called Spbtericus. 

9 Ranunculus afphodeli radice, 
fiore fanguineo maxima. H R. Par. 
Afphodel-rooted Ranunculus, with a 
very large red Flower ; commonly 
called the Monfter. 

10. Ranunculus afphodeli ra- 
dice, fore fubpbzniceo rubtnte. C. B. 
P. Afphodel - rooted Ranunculus, 
with purpljfh - red Flowers ; com- 
monly called Marvelia. 

11. Ranunculus afphodeli ra- 
dice. fiore luteo <variegato. H. R. Par. 
Afphodel-rooted Ranunculus, with 
a yellow variegated Flower. 

12. Ranunculus Alepus,grumofa 
radice, fiore lineis rubris iff luteis 
ftriato. H. R. Par Grumofe-rooted 
Crowfoot, with a Flower ftriped 
with red and yellow Lines ; com- 
monly called Ranunculus of Aleppo. 

13. Ranunculus afphodeli ra- 
dice, fiore fiavo venis rubris difiinclo ; 
Bofivel diflus. H. R. Par. Crowfoot 
with an Afphodel-root, and yellow 
Flower with red Veins ; commonly 
called Bofvel. 

14. Ranunculus Alepus, grumofa 
radice, fiore mini at 0, per or as luteo. 
H. R. Par. Aleppo Crowfoot, with 
a grumofe Root, and a carmine 
Flower, bordered with yellow. 

15. Ranunculus fiore pi eno fia- 
<vefcente, & rubris lim is elegant iff me 
variegato. H. R. Par. Crowfoot 
With a double vdlow Flower, curi- 



oufly ftriped with red Lines ; com- 
monly called Aurora. 

16. Ranunculus afpbodeli radice* 
fiore pleno albo par<vo, rubris ftriis 
diftinBo. H. R. Monfp. Crowfoot 
with an Afphodel-root, and a fmall 
double white Flower ftriped with 
Red. 

17. Ranunculus afphodeli radice, 
fiore pleno magna laiieo, fuperius li- 
tun's rubris elegant er pi do. Boerh. 
Ltd. Crowfoot with an Afphodel- 
root, and a large double white Flow- 
er, mark'd above with red Spots; 
commonly called the Seraphic. 

18. Ranunculus montanus, folio 
gramineo. C. B. P. Grafs -leav'd 
Mountain Crowfoot. 

19. Ranunculus montanus, folia 
plantaginis. C. B. P. Mountain 
Crowfoot, with a Plantain-leaf. 

20. Ranunculus lanuginofus an- 
guftifolius, grumofa radice, major. 
C. B. P. Larger grumofe - rooted 
Crowfoot, with narrow downy 
Leaves. 

There are a great Number of 
Species of this Genus, which grow 
in England-, fome in Meadows, 
where they over - run the whole 
Ground, and are the moft trouble- 
fome Weeds to Paftures ; for as fome 
of them are very acrid Plants, the 
Cattle never eat them ; for they 
would blifter their Tongues and 
Throats : therefore when thefe Pa- 
ftures are grazed, the Crowfoot is 
left in Patches all over the Fields 
untouched. There are other Species 
of this Genus, which fpread over the 
Surface of Standing - waters, and 
flower early in the Spring ; and fome 
grow in ftiady Woods : but as thefe 
are never cultivated in Gardens, I 
thought it needlefs to enumerate the 
feveral Species here. 

The firft and fecond Sorts here 
mentioned are Varieties of two of 
the wild Kinds : but as thefe produce 

very 



R A 



R A 



very double Flowers, they are plant- 
ed in the Borders of the Flower gar- 
den, where they make a very pretty 
Variety, and continue long in Flow- 
er : the firft Sort produces upright 
Stalks, which grow about a Foot 
high ; but the fecond is a creeping 
Plant, with reclined Stalks : the lat- 
ter propagates itfelf very fall by the 
trailing Shoots, which put out Roots 
3t every Joint, as they lie upon the 
Ground. Thefe have both yellow 
flowers. 

The fifth Sort is alfo a Variety 
of the common bulbous- rooted 
Crowfoot, which is common in the 
Paftures in mod Parts of England: 
this produces upright Stalks, which 
grow eight or ten Inches high ; the 
Flowers are but fmall, of a pale-yel- 
low Colour, and vety double : thefe 
often produce fmall Flowers com- 
ing out of the Middle of another, fo 
as to have fometimes three Flowers 
growing above each other, and 
coming out of the Centre ; and is for 
that by fome called the Childing 
Crowfoot. 

The third and fourth Sorts are 
Natives of the Alps: the third pro- 
duces fmall white fingle Flowers in 
April, growing in large Bunches : but 
this is only preserved in fome curious 
Botanic Gardens, for the fake of 
Variety; the fourth being much 
more efteemed on the account of 
its very double Flowers, which are 
cf a fnow-white Colour, and are pro- 
duced alfo in Clufters. Thefe Plants 
delight in Shade ; and will thrive 
much better when they are planted 
in a loamy Soil, than on a light 
warm Ground; nor mould their 
Roots be too often tranf plan ted : if 
they are taken up every third Year, 
and their Roots parted, and planted 
again immediately, it will be as often 
as they will require : the bell time 
for doing this is in Autumn, about 



the Beginning of Qtloher, that they 
may get Root again before the Froft 
comes on ; and the Roots mould not 
be divided too fmall, especially if 
they are defigned to flower flrong 
the fucceeding Spring. If thefe 
Roots are planted in a Border which 
is expofed to the Eaft, fo as they 
may have only the morning Sun, 
they will thrive much better than in 
a warmer Expofure ; nor mould the 
Border be much dunged, for they 
feldom thrive well in a rich Soil ; 
therefore in the warm rich Grounds 
near London it is very rarely found 
to thrive : but in fome neglected 
Country Gardens it grows luxuri- 
antly, and produces much ftronger, 
and a greater Number of Flowers, 
than in the Gardens near London^ 
where they are cultivated with great 
Care : this Plant is very ornamental 
to the Flower-garden, during the 
Continuance of the Flowers, which 
is in May. 

The eighteenth, nineteenth, and 
twentieth Sorts are alfo preferved in 
the Gardens of curious Perfons, for 
the fake of Variety. The eighteenth 
Sort hath long narrow Leaves, which 
refemble thofe of fome Sort of Grafs; 
the Flowers are fingle, and of a yel- 
low Colour, much like thofe of the 
common Crowfoot, or Butterflower, 
which grows in Palture - grounds : 
this is a Native of the Alps ; fo is a 
very hardy Plant ; and if the Roots 
are treated in the fame way, as be- 
fore directed, and planted to an Eaft 
Afpect, they will thrive very well. 

The nineteenth Sort hath broad 
Leaves, like thofe of Plantain ; the 
Stalks grow about a Foot high, hav- 
ing feveral pretty large fingle white 
Flowers on their Tops, growing in 
Bunches: thefe appear in the Begin- 
ning of April, at which time they 
make a pretty Variety in the Borders 
of the Flower- garden ; this is alfo a 



R A 

Native of the Jlps, and mull be 
treated the fame way as the for- 
mer. 

The twentieth Sort is fuppofed to 
be a Native of Auftria and Hungary ; 
but this is alfo a very hardy Plant : 
the Roots of this Sort are very like 
thofe of the Garden Ranunculus; 
but are very fmall : the Leaves are 
alfo like thofe of fome of theGarden- 
kir.ds j but are pretty woolly : the 
Flowers are fingle, and of a pale-yel- 
Low 'Jo lour, like fome of the Field- 
cro vfoots ; therefore it i< feldom pre- 
ferved in the Flower-garden: but 
thofe who are curious in the Study 
of Plants, preferve it for the fake 
of Variety. The Roots of this Kind 
fhould be planted in a lighter Soil 
than either of the former; and if 
they are more expofed to the Sun, 
they will thrive the better : but thefe 
ihould not be taken out of the 
Ground oftener than every other 
Year : and if they are taken up foon 
after their Leaves decay, the Roots 
may be kept out of the Ground till 
the Beginning of Oftober, and may 
be treated in the fame manner as the 
Garden Ranunculus. 

I have been informed, that in 
fome Gardens in France there aie 
Plants of thefe three Sorts, with very 
double Flowers ; but I have never 
yet feen either of them ; fo would 
not enumerate them here : tho', if 
they can be obtained, they will be 
worthy of our Care, as they muft be 
very ornamental Plants, efpecially 
the nineteenth Sort with double 
Flowers; for that with the fingle 
Flowers is no defpicable Plant in the 
mofl: curious Garden of Flowers, as 
it comes early in the Spring : and 
the Leaves of the Plant, having a 
fine glofly green Colour, fet off the 
fnowy white Flowers to great Ad- 
vantage. 



R A 

The other Sorts were originally 
brought from Turfy, and were for-* 
merly in great Efteem in England; 
but of late Years there have been in- 
troduced many other beautiful Flow-* 
ers of a different Kind, from Perjia ; 
among which are many with femi- 
double Flowers, which produce 
Seeds ; from which there are fuch 
prodigious Varieties of new Flowers 
annually obtained, which are fo large, 
and of fuch Variety of beautiful Co- 
lours, as to exceed all other Flowers 
of that Seafon, and even vie with the 
moft beautiful Carnations : thefe are, 
many of them, finely fcented ; and 
the Roots, when ftrong, generally 
produce twenty or thirty Flowers 
upon each ; which, fucceeding each 
other, continue in Beauty a full 
Month or longer, according to the 
Heat of the Seafon, or the Care 
taken to defend them from the In- 
juries of the Weather : all which ex- 
cellent Qualities have rendered them 
fo valuable, that the old Sorts here 
named are almoft difregarded, ex- 
cept in fome old Gardens : but how- 
ever, as they are ftill preferv'd by 
fome Perfons, I fhall briefly fet down 
their Management, before I proceed 
to that of the new Kinds, which 
muft be treated in a different man- 
ner from thefe. 

All thefe very double Flowers ne-' 
ter produce Seeds ; fo that they are 
only multiplied by OfF-fets from 
their Roots, which they generally 
produce in great Plenty, if planted 
in a good Soil, and duly attended in 
Winter. The Seafon for planting their 
Roots is any time in Ocloher ; for if 
they are planted fooner, they are apt 
to come up in a fhort time, and grow 
pretty rank before Winter, whereby 
they will be in greater Danger of 
fuffering by Froll ; and if they are 
planted much later, they will be in 
Danger 



R A 



Danger of perihYmg under-ground ; 
fo that you fhould not keep them 
out of the Ground any longer than 
the Beginning or Middle of OfloLer. 

As thefe Sorts are pretty hardy, fo 
they are generally planted in the 
common Borders of the Flower-gar- 
den, where, if they are'properly in- 
termixed with other Flowers of tjie 
lame Growth, they will make a 
pretty Variety : indeed, fome Years 
ago, before we had any of the more 
valuable Kinds in England, thefe 
were nurfed up with great Care: 
but fince the others have been intro- 
duced, and of late Years fo much 
improved, by fowing their Seeds, 
whereby new Flowers have been 
continually obtained, the old Sorts 
have been almoft rejected ; fo that 
they are rarely to be found in the 
Gardens of Florilb: however, fome 
of them may be allow'd to have room 
in the common Borders of the Plea- 
fure-garden, as they are feldom in- 
jured by the Froft ; whereas the Per- 
fan Kinds are more tender ; fo muft 
be planted in Beds, that they may 
be covered in Winter. 

The Beds in which the Per pan Ra- 
nunculus Roots are planted, mould 
be made with frefh light fandy Earth, 
at leafl three Feet deep: the befi 
Soil for them may be compofed in 
this manner ; viz. Take a Quantity 
of frelh Earth from a rich upland 
Pafture, about fix Inches deep, to- 
gether with the Green-fward : this 
ihould be laid in an Heap to rot for 
twelve Months before it is mixed, 
obferving to turn it over very often, 
to fweeten it, and break the Clods: 
to this you fhould add a fourth Part 
of very rotten Neats-dung, and a 
proportionable Quantity of Sea or 
Drift-fand, according as the Earth is 
lighter or Uiffer; if it be light, and 
inclining to a Sand, there fnould be 
no Sand added ; but if it be an bazel 



Loam, one Load of Sand will be 
fumcient for eight Loads of Earth : 
but if the Earth is ftrong and heavy, 
the Sand fhould be added in a great- 
er Proportion : this mould be mixed 
fix or eight Months before it is ufed ; 
and you mould often turn it over, in 
order to unite their Parts well toge- 
ther, before it is put into the Beds. 

The Depth which this fhould be 
laid in the Beds, muft be about three 
Feet : this Ihould be below the Sur- 
face, in proportion to the Drinefs 
or Moilture of the Place where they 
are fituated ; which in dry Ground 
fhould be two Feec eight Inches be- 
low the Surface, and the Beds rais'd 
four Inches above ; but in a moift 
Place they fhould be two Feet four 
Inches below, and eight above the 
Ground ; and in this Cafe, it will 
be very proper to lay fome Rubbilh. 
and Scones in the Bottom of each 
Bed, to drain off the Moifture ; and 
if, upon this, at the Bottom of the 
Bed?, fome very rotten Neats dung 
is laid two or three Inches thick, the 
Roots will reach this in the Spring, 
and the Flowers will be the fairer. 
This Earth I would by no means ad- 
vife to be fcreen'd very fine; only, 
in turning it over each time, you 
fhould be careful to break the Clods, 
and throw out all Stones, which will 
be fufficient ; for if it is made very 
fine, when the great Rains in Win- 
ter come en, it will caufe the Earth 
to bind into one folid Lump, where- 
by the Moifture will bederain'd, and 
the Roots, not being able to extend 
their tender Fibres, will rot. Of 
this I have many Examples, but one 
particularly to my Colt: When I had 
procured a fine Parcel of thefe Roots 
from Abroad, and being defirous 
of having them thrive very well, I 
took great Pains to fcreen the Earth 
of my Beds very fine, which I laid 
above two Feet deep, and planted a 

good 



R A 

good Part of my Roots therein ; but 
the Seafon advancing, and having a 
great deal of other Bufinefs upon my 
Hands, I did not fcreen the Earth 
of all my Beds, but planted fome of 
them without doing any thing more 
than raking them; and the Succefs 
was, that the Roots, in thofe Beds 
which were fcreen'd, did, great Part 
of them, intirely rot ; and the re- 
maining Part were fo weak, as not 
to produce any good Flowers : 
whereas thofe which were planted in 
the Beds which were not fcreen'd, 
did thrive and flower very well, and 
fcarce any of the Roots fail'd, tho' 
the Earth of all the Beds was the 
fame, and were in the fame Situa- 
tion, both with regard to Wind and 
Sun ; fo that the Damage which 
thofe Roots fuftain'd, was owing in- 
tirely to the Finenefs of the Earth ; 
and this I have feveral times iince 
obierv'd in other Gardens. 

I am aware, that this Depth of 
three Feet, which I have here di- 
rected to make the Beds for thefe 
Flowers, will be objected to by many 
Perfons, on account of the Expence 
and Trouble of preparing them ; as 
alio fuppofmgit unneceiTary to mtke 
the Beds fo deep, for Flowers whole 
Roots are fmall ; but if they will 
give themfelves theTroubleof make- 
ing the Experiment, by preparing one 
Bed in this manner, and another in 
the common Way, and plant them 
both with the fame Flowers, they will 
foon be convinced of their Error, by 
the Succefs of the Flowers. For in 
the Beds which have been prepared 
of this Depth, I have feen one Root 
produce upward of fifty Flowers, 
each of which grew near a Foot 
high, and were extremely large and 
fair ; whereas, in the common Me- 
thod of Culture, they are thought to 
do very well, when they produce 
eight or ten Flowers on each Root, 



R A 

and thofe grow fix Inches high : but 
if a Perion will trace the Length of 
the fmall Fibres of thefe Roots, he 
will find them to extend three or four 
Feet downward. And as it is ky 
thefe diftant Fibres that the Nourifh- 
ment is taken in, for the Increafe 
and Strength of the Flowers ; fo, if 
thefe meet with a poor barren Soil 
below, they fhrink, and the Flow- 
ers are ftarved for want of proper 
Nourimment in the Spring, when it 
is moil required. 

The Beds, being thus prepared, 
mould lie a Fortnight to fettle, be- 
fore the Roots are planted, that 
the Earth may not fettle unequal- 
ly, after they are planted ; which, 
would prejudice the Roots, by have- 
ing hollow Places in fome Parts of 
the Bed, to which the Water would 
run, and lodge, and fo rot the Roots 
in fuch Places. Then having le- 
vell'd the Earth, laying the Surface 
a little rounding, you mould mark 
out the Rows by a Line, at about 
fix Inches Diftance each Way, fo 
that the Roots may be planted everv 
Way in ftrait Lines ; then you mould 
open the Earth with your Finger?, 
at each Crofs, where the Roots are 
to be planted, about two Inches 
deep ; placing the Roots exactly in 
the Middle, with their Crowns up- 
right ; then with the Head of a Rake 
you fhould draw the Earth upon the 
Surface of the Bed level, whereby 
the Top of the Roots will be about 
. an Inch cover'd with Earth, which 
wil! befufficient at firft. This Work 
mould be done in dry Weather, be- 
caufe the Earth will then work bet- 
ter than if i: were wet; but the 
fooner after Planting there happens 
to be Rain, the better it will be for 
the Roots ; for if it fhould prove dry 
Weather long after, and the Earth 
of the Beds be very dry, the Roots 
will be fubjecl to mould and decay ; 

there- 



R A 

therefore in fuch a Cafe it will be 
proper to give a little Water to the 
Beds, if there ftiould no Rain hap- 
pen in a Fortnight's time, which is 
very rare at that Seafon of the Year ; 
fo that they will feldom be in Dan- 
ger offuffering that way. 

When the Roots are thus planted, 
there will no more be required until 
toward the End of November ; by 
which time they will begin to heave 
the Ground, and their Buds appear ; 
when you mould lay a little of the 
fame frelh Earth, of which the Beds 
were compofed, about half an Inch 
thick all over the Beds, which will 
greatly defend the Crown of the 
Root from Froft : and when you 
perceive the Leaves to break thro' 
this fecond Covering, if it mould 
prove very hard Froft, it will be 
very proper to arch the Beds over 
with Hoops, and cover them with 
Mats, efp»cially in the Spring, when 
the Flower-buds will begin to ap- 
pear j for if they are expofed to too 
much Froft, or blighting Winds, at 
that Seafon, their Flowers feldom 
open fairly, and many times their 
Roots are deftroy'd : but this hap- 
pens more frequently to the Perfian 
Kinds, which are tenderer, than to 
thofe Sorts which are pretty hardy ; 
for which Reafon they are common- 
ly planted in open Borders, inter- 
mixed with other Flowers, as is be- 
fore -mention'd ; though in very hard 
Winters thefe are apt to fuffer, where 
the Froft is not guarded againft. 

In the Beginning of March the 
Flower-ftems will begin to rife at 
which time you ftiould carefully 
clear the Beds from Weeds, and ftir 
the Earth with your Fingers be- 
tween the Roots, being very careful 
not to injure them ; this will not 
only make the Beds appear hand- 
fome, but alfo greatly ftrengthen 
their Flowers. When the Flowers 



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are paft, and the Leaves are wither'd^ 
you ftiould take up the Roots, and 
carefully clear them from the Earth; 
then fpread them upon a Mat to dry, 
in a mady Place ; after which they 
may be put up in Bags or Boxes, in 
a dry Room, until the October fol- 
lowing, which is the Seafon fof 
planting them again. 

The Perfian Sorts are not only 
propagated by Off-fets from the old 
Roots, as the former, but are alfo 
multiplied by Seeds, which the femi- 
double Kinds produce in Plenty 5 
therefore whoever is defirous to have 
thefe in Perfection, mould annually 
fow their Seeds, from which new Va- 
rieties will be every Year produc'd 5 
but in order hereto, you mould be 
careful in faving your Seed, or in 
procuring it from fuch Perfons as 
underftand how to fave it ; that is, 
who will be careful not to leave any 
Flowers for Seeds, but fuch as have 
five or fix Rows of Petals at leaft, 
and are well coloured ; for fince 
thefe Flowers increafe plentifully, it 
is not worth the Trouble to fow any 
indifferent Seeds ; becaufe there can 
be but little Hopes of obtaining any 
good Flowers from fuch Seeds, 

Being prepare! with Seeds, about 
the Middle of Auguji> which is the 
proper Seafon for fowing of them, 
you ftiould get fome large Pots, flat 
Seed-pans, or Boxes (of either as ma- 
ny as you have Seeds to fow). Thefe 
ftiould be fiU'd with light rich 
Earth, levelling the Surface very 
even ; then fow the Seeds thereon 
pretty thick, and cover it about a 
Quarter of an Inch thick with the 
fame light Earth j after which,, you 
ftiould remove thefe Pots into a Iha- 
dy Situation, where they may have 
the morning Sun until Ten of the 
Clock j and. if the Seafon fhouid 
prove dry, you mult often refrelh 
them with Water j being very care- 



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fol in doing of this, fo as not t!b warn 
the Seeds out of the Ground. In 
this Situation the Pots Ihould remain 
until the Beginning of Oclober, by 
which tfme the Plants will begin to 
come up ( though fometimes the 
Seeds will remain in the Earth until 
November, before the Plants appear) ; 
but then you Ihould remove the Pots 
into a more open Expofure, where 
they may have full Sun ; which, at 
that time, is neceffary to exhale the 
Moifture of the Earth ; but toward 
the Middle of November, when you 
are apprehenfive of Froft, the Pots 
mould be remov'd under a common 
Hot-bed-frame ; where they may 
be cover'd with the Glaffes in the 
Night-time, and in bad Weather ; 
but in the Day, when the Weather is 
mild, they Ihould be intirely open'd* 
qtherwife the Plants will draw up 
too weak. • The only Danger they 
are in, is from violent Rains and 
Frofts ; the firit often rotting the 
tender Plants, and the Froft will oft- 
en turn them out of the Ground ; 
therefore they Ihould be carefully 
guarded againft both thefe. 

In the Spring, as the Seafon grows 
warm, thefe Pots mould be expos'd 
to the open Air ; placing them at 
firft near the Shelter of an Hedge, to 
proted them from the cold Winds ; 
but toward the Latter-end of March, 
or the Beginning of April, they 
Ihould be remov'd again into a more 
lhady Situation, according to the 
Warmth of the Seafon; and if it 
Ihould prove dry, they muft be 
refrefrVd with Water; but you mould 
be careful not to give it to tnem in 
great Quantities, which is very apt 
to rot thefe tender Roots and in 
the Middle or Latter-end of April, 
they Ihould be plac'd where they 
may have only the morning Sun ; in 
which Place they may remain till 
their Leaves decay ; when they may 



R A 

be taken out of the Earth, and th« 
Roots dry'd in a fhady Place; after 
which they may be put in Bags, and 
preferv'd in a dry Place until the 
OcJober following ; when they muft 
be planted in the manner before di- 
rected for the old Roots. 

The Spring following, thefeRoots 
will flower ; at which time you 
ihould carefully mark fuch of them 
as are worthy to be preferv'd ; and the 
fingle or bad-colour'd Flowers may 
be pull'd up, and thrown away, 
which is the fu reft Method of remove- 
ing them from the good Sorts ; for 
if they are permitted to remain to- 
gether until their Leaves decay^ 
there may be fome Off-fets of the 
bad Sorts mix'd with the good Flow- 
ers. You mould not fuffer thofe 
Flowers, which you intend to blovr 
fine the fucceeding Year, to bear 
Seeds, but cut off the Flowers whert 
they begin to decay ; for thofe Roots 
which have produe'd Seeds, feldom 
flower well afterwards ; nor will the 
principal old Root, which has flow- 
er'd ftrong, ever blow fo fair as will 
the Off-fets; which is what ihould 
be principally obferv'd, when a Per- 
fon purchafes any of thefe Roots i 
and a great Part of the Complaints 
made by thofe who have bought 
thefe Roots at a dear Rate, is princi- 
pally owing to this. For the Perions 
who fell them, being appiis'd of this 
Matter, generally part with their 
old Roots to their Purchafers, and 
reierve the Off fets for their own 
Ufe ; which old Roots will often 
fo much degenerate from what they 
were the preceding Year, as to cauie 
a Sufpicion, whether the Perfons 
they were purchas'd from had not 
changed the Roots ; and this Dege- 
neracy always attends thefe Flowers, 
after having flower'd extremely large 
and fair, or that they have been per- 
mitted to feed : fo that it is abfo- 

lutel/ 



R A 

lately neceffary to fow Seeds every 
Year, in order to preferve a Succef- 
fion of good Flowers. 

The Manner of preparing the 
Beds, and the Diftance and Method 
of planting the Roots, having been 
already directed, I mall not repeat 
it here ; but will only obferve, that 
thefe Flowers, being tender, mufl 
be protected from hard Frofts, and 
cutting (harp Winds, efpecially after 
Cbrifmas, when their Flower-buds 
are forming ; for if they are neg- 
lected at that Seafon, their Flowers 
will rarely prove fair ; nor mould 
you fuffer them to receive too much 
Wet in Winter or Spring, which is 
equally as injurious to them as Froft. 
In planting of thefe Roots you 
fhould obferve to place the femi- 
double Kinds, from which you in- 
tend to fave Seeds, in feparate Beds 
by themfelves, and not intermix 
them with the double Flowers, be- 
caufe they will require to be treated 
in a different manner ; for when the 
Flowers of the femidouble Kinds be- 
gin to fade, you mould carefully 
guard them from Wet ; for if they 
are permitted to receive hard Rains, 
or are watered at that Seafon, the 
Seeds rarely come to Maturity ; or 
are fo weak, that fcarce one in fifty 
of them will grow. 

When the Seed begins to ripen 
(which may be eafily known, by fe- 
parating from theAxis, and falling), 
you fhould look it over every Day, 
gathering it as it ripens ; for there 
will be a confiderable Diftance in 
the Seeds of the fame Bed coming to 
Maturity, at leaft a Fortnight, and 
fometimes three Weeks, or a Month. 
When you gather the Seed, it fhould 
not be expos'd to the Sun, butfpread 
to dry in a fhady Place ; after which, 
you mud put it up where the Ver- 
min cannot come to it, until the time 
offowing it. 



R A 

By this Method of fowing Seeds 
every Year, yOu will not only in- 
crease your Stock of Roots, but alfo 
raife new Varieties, which may be 
greatly mended by changing the 
Seeds into frefh Ground ; for if a 
Perfon continually fows his Seed in 
the fame Garden many Years, they 
will not produce near fo fine Flow- 
ers, as if he procufd his Seeds at 
fome Diftance ; which is alfo the 
Cafe with moft other Plants. 

It will alfo be neceflary to take 
away all the Earth out of the Beds 
in which the Roots were blown the 
preceding Year, and put in new, if 
you intend to plant Ranunculus's 
there again ; otherwife they will not 
thrive near fo well, notwithstanding 
you may add fome new Compoft to 
the Beds : and this is what all cu- 
rious Florifts continually obferve. 
RAPA, Turnep. 

The Char afters are ; 
The flower confijis of four Leaves, 
which are placed in form of a Crofs : 
out of the Flower -cup rifts the Point a! \ 
which afterward turns to a Pod, di- 
vided into two Cells by an intermedin 
atePartition, to which the V alves ad- 
here on both Sides, and are full of 
roundifh Seeds : to thefe Marks mufl 
be added, A carneous and tubcrofe 
Root, 

The Species are ; 

1. Rap a fativa rotunda, raJice 
Candida. C. B. P. Round Garden- 
turnep, with a white Root. 

2. Rap a fativa rotunda, radicc 
fupra terram viridi. Boerh. Ind. 
Round Garden-turnep, whofe Root 
is green above ground. 

3. Rap a fativa rotunda, radice 
punicea. C. B.P. Round Garden- 
turnep, with a purple Root. 

4. Rap a fativa rotunda, radice 
olfoleta nigricante. C. B. P. Round 
Garden turnep, with a jufty-blaclc 
Root. 

5. Rap a 



R A 

5. RaPA fativa rotunda, t a dice 
Jtris & intus fiavefcente. C. B. P. 
Round Garden-turnep. with a yel- 
lovvRoot both within and without. 

6. RaPa radice oblonga, feu fcemi- 
na. C. <B. P. Oblong, or female 
Turnep. 

There are feme other Varieties of 
this Plant, which differ in the Shape 
or Colour of their Roots ; but as 
they are only feminal Variations, it 
would be needleis to enumerate them 
in this Place, fmce it is the Grit and 
third Sorts here mention'd, which 
are chiefly cultivated for the Table 
in England. The yellow Sort, and 
that with long R.oots, were formerly 
more cultivated than at prefent ; for 
it is now very rare to fee either of 
thele brought to theMarkets, though 
fome Years fince they were fold in 
as great Plenty as the common round 
Sort. 

Turneps delight in a light fandy 
Soil, which mult not be rich ; for in 
a rich Soil they grow rank, and are 
Ricky ; but if it be moift, they will 
thrive the better, efpecialiy in a 
frefh Land, where they are always 
fweeter than upon an old worn-out, 
or a rich Soil. 

The common Seafon for fowing 
of Turneps is r«ny time from the Be- 
ginning of June to the Middle of 
Augujf, or a little later ; tho' it is 
not advifeable to fow them much af- 
ter, becaufe, if the Autumn mould 
not prove very mild, they will not 
have time to apple before Winter. 
But, notwithftanding this is the gene- 
ral Seafon in which the greateft Part 
of Turneps are fown in the Coun- 
try, yet aboit London they are fewn 
fucceffively from March to Augujl, 
by thofe who propagate them to 
fupply the Markets with their Roots; 
but there is a great Hazard of lofing 
thofe which are fown early in the 
Year, if the Seafon ihould prove drv, 

Vol. III. 



R A 

by the Fly, which will devour whole 
Fields of this Plant while young ; fo 
that where a fmall Quantity for the 
Supply of a Family is wanted, it will 
hi abfolutely necefTary to watev- 
them in dry Weather : and where a 
Perfon fows thofe Seeds in April and 
May, it Ihould always be upon a 
moilt Soil, othcrwife they feldom 
come to good, the Heat of the Wea- 
ther at that Seafon being too great 
for them upon a dry Sod : but thofe 
which are fown toward the Middle 
or Latter-end of June, commonly 
receive fome refrelhing Showers to 
bring them forward ; without which, 
it is very common to have them all 
deftroy'd. 

Thefe Seeds mould always be 
fown upon an open Spot of Ground ; 
for if they are near Hedges, Walls* 
Buddings, cr Trees, they will draw 
up, and be very long-topp'd ; but 
their Roots will not grow to any 
Size. 

They are fown in great Plenty in 
the Fields near London ; not only 
for the Ufe of the Kitchen, bur 
for Food for Cattle in Winter, 
when other Food fails ; and this 
Way is become a great Improvement 
to barren fandy Lands, particularly 
in Norfolk, where, by the Culture of 
Turneps, many Perfons have doubled 
the yearly Value of their Ground. 

The Land upon which this Seed 
is fown, fhould be plow'd in Ami, 
twy fallow 'd in May, and made very- 
fine ; then the Seed fhould be fown 
pretty thin (for it being fmall, a lit- 
tle will fow a large Piece of Ground: 
two Pounds of this Seed is fufficient 
for an Acre of Land ; but one Pound 
is the common Allowance). The 
Seed mull be harrow'd in, and the 
Ground roll'd with a wooden 
Roll, to break the Clod% and make 
the Surface even. In a Week or 
ten Davs after fowinp-, the Pianrs 

+ F will 



R A 

will come up ; at which time, if the 
Seafon mould prove dry, they will be 
in great Danger of being deftroyed 
by the Fly ; but if it fo happen, the 
Ground muft be fovvn again ; for 
the Seed being cheap, the chief Ex- 
pence is the Labour. 

When the Plants have got four or 
five Leaves, they mould be hoed to 
deftroy the Weeds, and to cut up 
the Plants where they are too thick ; 
leavingthe remaining ones about fix 
or eight Inches afunder each Way, 
which will be room enough for the 
Plants to ftand for the nrft Hoeing : 
but in the fecond Hoeing, which 
muft be perform'd about threeWeeks 
or a Month after the firft, theyihould 
be cut up, fo as that the remaining 
Plants may ftand fourteen or fixteen 
Inches Diitance, or more, efpecially 
if they are defign'd for feeding of 
Cattle ; for where the Plants aie 
allow'd a good Diftance, the Roots 
will be proportionably large ; fo that 
what is loft inN umber, will be over- 
gain'd by their Bulk ; which is what 
I have often obferVd. But in fuch 
Places where they are iown for the 
Ufe of the Kitchen, they need not 
be left at a greater Diftance than 
ten Inches, or a Foot ; becaufe large 
Roots are not fo generally efteem'd 
for the Table. 

It is not many Years fince the 
Pra&iceof fowing Turneps, for feed- 
ing of Cattle, has been of general 
Ufe : how it happen'd that this Im- 
provement mould have been fo long 
negle&ed in every Part of Europe, 
is not eafy to determine ; fince it is 
very plain, that this Piece of Huf- 
bandry was known to the Antients. 
For Columella, in treating of the 
feveral Kinds of Vegetables which 
are proper for the Field, recom- 
mends the cultivating of the Rapa 
in plenty ; becaufe (fays he) thofe 
Roots which are not wanted for the 



" R A 

Table, will be eaten by the Cattle- 
And yet this Plant was not much 
cultivated in the Fields till of late 
Years ; nor is the true Method of 
cultivating Turneps yet known, or, 
at leaft, not praclis'd, in foms of the 
diftant Counties of England, at this 
time. For in many Places the Seed 
is fown with Barley, in the Spring ; 
and thofe Plants which come up, 
and live till the Barley is cut, pro- 
duce a little Green for the Sheep to 
pick up, but never have any Roots. 
In other Places, where the Turnep- 
feed is fovvn by itfelf, the Method 
of hoeing them is not underftood ; 
fo that Weeds and Turneps are per- 
mitted to grow together : and where 
the Turneps come up thick in 
Patches, they are never thinned ; fo 
that they draw up to have long 
Leaves, but never can have good 
Roots ; which is the principal Part 
of the Plant ; therefore Ihould be 
chiefly attended to. 

The general Method now pracli- 
fed in England, for cultivating this 
Plant in the Fields, is the fame as 
is praclifed by the Farming-garden- 
ers, who fupply the London Markets 
with thefe Roots, and is the fame as 
before directed. But it is only with- 
in theCompafsof a few Years, that 
the Country-people have been ac- 
quainted with the Method of hoeing 
them ; fo that the Farmers ufually 
employ'd Gardeners, who had been 
bred up in the Kitchen-gardens, to 
perform this Work. And the ufu- 
al Price given per Acre, for twice 
hoeing, and leaving the Crop clean, 
and the Plants fet out properly, was 
feven Shillings ; at which Price the 
Gardeners could get fo much 
per Week, as to make it worth their 
while to leave their Habitations, and 
praclile this in different Counties, 
during the Seafon for this Work ; 
which always happens, after the 
greateft 



R A 



greateft Hurry of Bufinefs in the 
Kitchen-gardens is over : fo that 
they ufually formed themfelves in 
fmall Gangs of fix or feven Perfons, 
and fet out on their different Routes; 
each Gang fixing at a Diftance 
from the reft, and undertaking the 
Work of as many Farmers in the 
Neighbourhood, as they could ma- 
nage in the Seafon : but as this 
Work is now perform'd by many 
Country Labourers, that Practice is 
loft to the Kitchen-gardeners, the 
Labourers doing it much cheaper. 

There has alfo been another Me- 
thod praclis'd very lately, by fome 
very curious Farmers, in cultivating 
of Turneps ; which is, by fowing 
the Seed in- Rows, with the Drill- 
plough. In fome Places, the Rows 
are fown three Feet afunder, in 
others four, in fome five, and fome 
fix. The latter has been recommend- 
ed by fome, as the molt proper Di- 
ftance ; and although the Intervals 
are fo large, yet the Crop produe'd 
on an Acre has been much greater, 
than upon the fame Quantity of 
Land where the Rows have been 
but half this Diltance ; and upon all 
the Fields which have been drilled, 
the Crops have greatly exceeded 
thofe which have been hand-hoed. 
The late Lord Vifcount To<wvJkcnd 
was at the Expence of making the 
Trial of thefe two different Methods 
of Hufbandry, with the greateft 
Care, by equally dividing the fame 
Fields into different Lands, which 
were alternately fown in Drills, and 
the intermediate Lands in broad 
Caft. The latter were hoed by 
Hand, in the common Method, and 
the other cultivated by the Hoeing- 
plough ; and when the Roots were 
fully grown, his Lordfliip had an 
equal Quantity of Land, which had 
been fown in different Methods, 
nieafured, and the Roots drawn up 



and weighed ; and thofe Roots 
which, had been cultivated by the 
Plough, were fo much larger than 
the other, that the Crop of one Acre 
weighed a Ton and an hair more than 
thatof an Acrein theotherHufbandry. 

But when the Turneps are fown 
in Drills, they will require to be 
hoed by Hand, to feparate and cut 
out the Plants, where they are too 
near together in theRows ; as alfo to 
cut up the Weeds between the Plants 
where the Plough cannot reach them. 
If this is carefully perform'd, the 
plowing of the Intervals, which en- 
courage the Growth of the Roots, 
by thus ftirring of the Ground, will 
make it much better prepaid for 
the Crop of Barley, or whatever 
elfe is fown the following Spring. 
This Method of Culture may be fup- 
pos'd to be more expenfive than 
that commonly pra&is'd, by thofe 
unacquainted with it ; but thofe who 
have made Trials of both, find the 
Horfe - plowing to be much the 
cheapeft, and by far the beft. For 
the Country - people who are em- 
ployed in Hand-hoeing of Turneps, 
are very apt to hurry over their 
Work, fo that half the Weeds are 
left growing, and the Plants are fel- 
dom fingled out fo well as they 
fhould be ; nor are they curious 
enough to diftinguifh the Charlock 
(which is one of the moft common 
Weeds in arable Land) from the 
Turneps ; fo that about the Middle 
of September it is very common to fee 
the Fields of Turneps full of the 
yellow Flowers of the Charlock. 
Now, in the Horfe-plowing, all the 
Weeds in the Intervals will be in - 
tirely deftroyed ; fo that if a few 
Plants in the Rows of Turneps 
fhould be overlook'd, they may be 
eafily drawn out when they appear 
vifible. 

The greateft Evil which attends a 
4- F 2 Crop 



R A 



R A 



Crop of Turneps, is that of their be- 
ing dcftroyed by the Fly ; which 
ufually happens ioon after the Plants 
come above-ground, or while they 
are in the Seed-leaf ; for after they 
have put out their rough Leaves 
pretty flrong, they will be pall this 
Danger. This is always in dry 
Weather ; fo that if there happens 
Rain when theTurneps come up, 
they will grow fo fall, as to be foon 
out of Danger from the Fly. And 
it has been found, that thofe which 
have been fown inDrills have efcap'd 
the Fly much better than thofe which 
are fown in the broad Cad : but 
if Soot is fown along the Surface of 
each Drill, it will be of great Ser- 
vice to keep off the Fly ; and a fmall 
Quantity of it will be fuHicient for 
a 1 trge Field, where the Drills only 
are to be cover'd. 

Another Danger of the Crops be- 
ing defiroyed, is from the Caterpil- 
Jers, which very often attack them, 
when they are grown fo large as to 
have fix or eight Leaves on a Plant. 
The fureit Method of dellroying 
thefe Infects is, to turn a large Par- 
cel of Poultry into theField ; which 
ihould be kept hungry, and turn'd 
early in the Morning into the Field. 
Thefe Fowls will loon devour the 
Infects, and clear the Tnrneps. To 
this Evil theTurneps which are fown 
in Drills are not io much expos'd ; 
for as the Ground between the Rows 
will be kept ftirred, the Plants will 
be kept growing; fo will not be in 
Danger of fuftering from thefe In- 
fecls ; for the Parent -infects never 
depofit their Eggs upon any Plants 
which are in Health ; but as focn 
as they are Hinted, they are immedi- 
ately cover'd with the Eggs of thefe 
Infects. And this holds in general 
with Vegetables as with Animals, 
which are feldpm attacked by 
Vermine when they are in perfeft 



Health ; fo that it is the Di- 
feafe which occafions the Vermin, 
and not the Vermin the Difeafe, 
whereas, when they become un- 
healthy, they are foon overfpread 
as is commonly imagined. Now as 
the Plants will always be in greater 
Health when the Ground is well 
ftirr'd about them, fo there will be 
lefs Danger of their fuffering from 
thefe Enemies, when they are culti- 
vated by the Horfe hoe, than in the 
common way. 

When the Turneps are fown in 
Drills, it will be the bell way to hoe 
between every other Row at firft, 
and, fome time after, to hoe the al- 
ternate Intervals ; by which Method, 
the Plants will receive more Benefit 
from the often ftirring of theGround, 
than they would do, if all the Inter- 
vals were hoed at one time ; and the 
Plants will be in lefs Danger of fuf- 
fering from the Earth being thrown 
up too high on fome Jlows, while 
others may be left too bare of Earth: 
but when the Earth has been thrown 
up on one Side of the Drill, it may 
be turned clown again before the 
next Interval is hoed. And "this al- 
ternate moving of the Earth will 
prepare the Ground very well for 
the fucceeding Crop, as well as 
greatly improve the Turneps. But 
as this Plough cannot well be drawn 
nearer to the Drills than two or three 
lnches,the remainingGround fnould 
be forked to loofen the Parts, and 
make way for the Fibres of the 
Roots io llrike out into the Inter- 
vals; otherwife, if the Land is ftrcng, 
it will become fo hard in thofe 
Places which are not ftirred, as to 
ltint the Growth of the Turneps. 
And this may be done at a fmall 
Expense ; a good Hand will per- 
form a great deal of this Work in a 
Day ; and whoever will makeTrial, 
will find their .Account in praclifing 



R A 



R A 



it ; efjpecialJy on all flrong Land, 
where the Turneps are much more 
liable to fuffer from the binding of 
the Ground, than they will be on a 
ioofe Soil ; but yet, in all Sorts of 
Ground, it will be of great Service 
to pra&ife this. 

When the Ground is thus ftirr'd 
in every Part, one Plowing will be 
fuffic;ent, after the Turneps are eat- 
en, for the fowing of Barley, or any 
other Crop ; fo that there will be an 
Advantage in this, when the Tur- 
neps are kept late on the Ground, as 
will be often the Cafe, efpecially 
when they are cultivated for feeding 
of Ewes, becaufe it is often the Mid- 
dle of April before the Ground will 
be cleared : for the late Feed in the 
Spring, before the natural Grafs 
comes up, is the moft wanted, where 
Numbers of Sheep or Ewes are 
maintain'd; and one Acre of Turneps 
will afford moreFced, than fiftyAcres 
of the belt Palture, at chat Seafon. 

In Norfolk, and fome other Coun- 
ties, they cultivate great Quantities 
of Turneps for feeding of Black 
Cattle, which turns to great Advan- 
tage to their Farms ; for hereby they 
procure a good Dreffing for their 
Land : fo that they have extraordi- 
nary good Crops of Barley upon 
thole Lands, which would not have 
been worth the plowing, if it had 
not been thus huhbanded. 

When the Turneps are fed off the 
Ground, the Cattle mould not be 
iurrer'd to run over too much of 
the Ground ; for if they are not con- 
fined by Hurdles to as much as is 
fufficient for them one Day ( and 
thefe mould be every Day remov'd 
forward 1 , the Cattle will fpoil three 
times the Quantity of Turneps they 
can eat ; fo that it is very bad Haf- 
bandry to give them too much room. 

I cannot omit taking notice of a 
common Miftake, which has gene- 



rally prevailed with Perfons who 
have not been well inform'd to the 
contrary ; which is, in relation to 
the Mutton which is fatted with 
Turneps, mod People believing it to 
be rank and ill-tafted ; whereas it is 
a known Fact, that the beft Mutton 
this Country affords, is all fatted 
on Turneps ; and that rank Mut- 
ton, whole Fat is yellow, is what the 
low marfhy Lands of Lincolnjbire, 
and other rank Paftures, produce. 

In order ro fave good Turnep- 
feeds, you (hould tranfplant fome of 
the faired Roots in February, place- 
ing them at lealf. two Feet aiunder 
each Way, obferving to keep the 
Ground clear from Weeds, until the 
Turneps have fpread fo as to cover 
the Ground, when they will p^vent 
the Weeds from growing; arc when 
the Pods are formed, you ihould 
carefully guard them againlt the 
Bird-, otherwife they will devour 
it, efpecially when it is near ripe; 
at which time you mould either 
moot the Birds as they a;ight up- 
on the Seed, or lay fome b^rdl mM 
Twigs upon it, whereby fome of 
them will be caught ; and if they 
are permitted to remain fome time, 
and afterward turn'd loofe, they 
will prevent the Birds from coming 
thither again fome time, as I have 
experimented. When the Seed is ripe, 
it mould be cut up, and fpread to dry 
in the Sun; after which it may be 
threhVd out, and preferved for Ufe. 

RAPH ANISTRUM, Charlock. 

This differs from theRadifh, in 
having a jointed Pod, containing one 
rounaifli Seed in each Joint. 

There arc fevera! Varieties of this 
Plant, two of which grow wild in 
England \ the others are Natives of 
¥rdnte\ Spain, and Italy\ but as they 
are Weeds which gro.v frfeq^endjr 
oti arabie l and, I fhali not e&2nie« 
rate the- Varieties. 

4 F 3 RA- 



R A 

RAPHANUS, Radifh. 

The Chai afters are; 
The Flower confifts cf four Leaves, 
which are placed in form of a Crofs : 
cut of the Fl wer^cup rifes the Poin- 
tal } which afterward turns to a Pod 
in form of an Horn, that is thick , 
fpongy, and fwrnfffd with a 'double 
Row cf roundifh Seeds, which are fe- 
f crated by a thin Membrane. 
The Species are ; 
T. Raphanus minor oblongus. C, 
B. P. Small oblong or common 
Radifh. 

2. Raphanus niger major rotun - 
dus, Mor. Hifl. Great round black 
Radifii, commonly calTd The Spa- 
nifh Radifn. 

3. Raphanus major orbicularis •, 
f.oribus candidis. C. B. P. Great 
round - rooted Radifh, with white 
Flowers. 

4. Raphanus minor oblongus py- 
riformisy <vu1go Ramurazza. Hort. 
Cath. The leffer Radifh, with an 
oblong pear-fnap'd Root. 

5. Raphanus major orbicularis •, 
ivil rotundus. C. B. P. Greater 
Radilh, with a round Root, com- 
monly call'd White Spanijh Radifh. 

The firll Sort here mention'd is 
that which is commonly cultivated 
in Kitchen-gardens for its Root ; 
of which there are feveral Varieties, 
as the Small-topp'd, the Deep-red, 
and the Long- topp'd ftrip'd Radifh ; 
all which are Varieties arifing from 
Culture. The fmall-topp'd Sort is 
moft commonly preferr'd by the 
Gardeners near London ; becaufe 
they require much lefs room than 
thofe with large Tcp% and may be 
left much clofer together ; and as 
the forward Radifhes are what pro- 
duce the greater!: Profit to the Gar- 
dener, fo tnefe being commonly fovvn 
upon Borders near Hedge?, Walls, 
or Pales, if they are of the large- top- 
ped Sort, they will be apt to grow 



11 A 

moftly at Top, and not fwell fo 
much in the Root as the other,efpe- 
cially if they are left pretty clofe. 

The Seafons for fowing this Seed 
are various, according to the time 
when they are defired for Ufe ; but 
the earlier!: Seafon is commonly to- 
ward the Latter-end of Oclober, when 
the Gardeners near London fow them 
to fupply the Market; and thefe, if 
they do not mifcarry, will be fit for 
Ufe in March following, which is 
full as foon as moll People care to 
eat them. Thefe (as I faid before) 
are commonly fow n on warm Bor- 
ders, near Walls, Pales, or Hedge?, 
where they may be defended from 
the cold Winds. 

The fecond Sowing is commonly 
about ChriflmaSy provided the Seafon 
be mild, and the Ground in a fit 
Condition to work : thefe are fown 
near Shelter, but not fo near Pales 
and Hedges as the firft Sowing. 
Thefe, if they are not deflroy'd by 
Froft, will be fit for Ufe the Begin- 
ning of April t but in order to have 
a Succefhon of thefe Roots for the 
Table through the Seafon, yen 
mould repeat fowing of their Seeds 
once a Fortnight, from the Middle 
of January till the Beginning of 
April i always obferving to fow the 
latter Crops upon a moift Soil, 'and 
an open Situation ; otherwife they 
run up, and grow fticky, before they 
are fit for Ufe. 

Many of the Gardeners near Zo«- 
don fow Carrot-feed with their early 
Radifhes; fo that when their Ra- 
difhes are kilPd, the Carrots will re- 
main : for the Seeds of Carrots com- 
monly lie in the Ground five or fix 
Weeks before they come up, and 
the Radifhes feldom he above a 
Fortnight under-ground ; fo that 
thefe are often up, and kill'd, when 
the Carrot-feed remains fafe in the 
Ground : but when both Crops fuc- 

cecd, 



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ceed, the Radifhes muil be drawn 
off very young ; otherwife the Car- 
rots will be drawn up fo weak, as 
not to be able to fupport themfelves 
when the Radifhes are gone. 

It is alfo a conftant Practice with 
thefe Gardeners, to mix Spinach- 
feed with their latter Crop of Ra- 
dices ; fo that when the Radifhcs 
are drawn off, and the Ground 
cleanM between the Spinach, it will 
grow prodigioufly, and in a Fort- 
night's time will as completely cover 
the Ground, as though there had 
been no other Crop. And this Spi- 
nach, if it be of the broad-leav'd 
Kind, will be larger and fairer than 
it commonly is when by itfelf ; 
becauie where People have no other 
Crop mix'd with it, they commonly 
fow it too thick, whereby it is draw n 
up weak ; but here the Roots ftand 
pretty far apart, fo that after the Ra- 
dilhes are' gone, they have full room 
to fpread ; and if the Soil be good, it 
is a prodigious Size this Spinach will 
grow to, before it runs up for Seed : 
but thisHufbandry is chiefly praclis'd 
by fuch Gardeners as pay very dear 
for their Land, and are obligM to 
have as many Crops in a Year as 
polTible, otherwife they could not 
afford to pay fuch large Rents. 

When the Radifhes are come up, 
and have got five or fix Leave?, they 
mull be pull'd up where thev are too 
clofe; oihen.ife they will draw up 
to ton, but the Roots will not in- 
crease their Bulk. In doing of this, 
fome only draw them out by Hand : 
but the beft Method is, to hoe them 
with a fmall Hoe, which will ftir the 
Ground, and deftroy the young 
Weeds, and alfo promote theGrowth 
of the Plants. The Diitance which 
thefe (hould be left, if for drawing 
up fmall, may be three Inches ; but 
if they are to Hand until they are 



pretty large, fix Inches are full near 
enough ; a:;d a fmall Spot of Ground 
will afford as many Radifhes at each 
fowing, as can be fpent in a Family 
while they are good. 

If you intend to fave Seeds of 
your Radifhes, you mould, at the 
Beginning of May , prepare a Spot of 
Ground in proportion to the Quan- 
tity of Seeds intended ( but you 
mould always make Allowance for 
badSeafons; becaufe it often hap- - 
pens, in a very dry Seafon, that 
there will not be a fourth Part of 
the Quantity of Seeds upon the fame 
Proportion of Ground as there will 
be in a moift Seafon). This Ground 
mould be well dug and levelPd; then 
you mould draw up fome of the 
itraiteft and beft-coIour\d Radifhes 
(throwing away all fuch as are fhort, " 
and that branch out in their Roots): 
thefe mould be planted in Rows three 
Feet Diftance, and two Feet afunder 
in the Rows ; oblerving, if the Sea- 
fon be dry, to water them until they 
have taken Root ; after which they 
will require no farther Care, but 
only to hoe dou n the Weeds be- 
tween them, until they are advanced 
fo high, as to fpread over the 
Ground, when they will prevent the 
Growth of Weeds. 

When the Seed begins to ripen, 
you fhould carefully guard it againfl 
the Birds, which will otherwife de- 
ftroy it. When it is ripe (which you 
may know by the Pods changing 
brown), you fhould cut it, and fpread 
it in the Sun to dry ; after which you 
mould threfh it out, and lay it up 
forUfe, where the Mice cannot come 
to it, otherwife they will eat it up. 

The fmall round-rooted Radifh 
is not very common in England - t but 
in many Parts of Italy it is the only 
Sort cultivated. Tke Roots of this 
Kind are mary times as large as a 

4 E 4 fmaii 



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fma.ll Turnep, and are very {weer. 
This may be propagated in the fame 
manner as the common Sort; but 
only with this Difference; mix. That 
this muft not be fown till the Be- 
ginning of March, and the Plants 
allow'd a greater Diitance. The 
Seeds of this Kind are very fubjett 
to degenerate when fav'd in England; 
ib that it is proper to have them from 
Abroad every Year. 

The other round-rooted Radifnes 
are rarely cultivated in England ; but 
thofe who have a mind to have 
them, may fow them in the fame 
manner as the Jaft. 

The Black and White Spanijh Ra- 
diih.es are commonly cultivated for 
medicinal Ufe ; though there are 
(ome who are very fond of them for 
the Table. Thefe are commcnly 
fown about the Middle of July, or a 
little earlier; and they are fit for the 
Table by the End of Auguf, or the 
Beginning of September; and they 
vviil continue good till the Fro ft 
fpoils them. Thefe muft be thinned 
to a greater Diftance than the com- 
mon Sort ; for the Roots of thefe 
grow as large as Turneps ; there- 
fore mould not be left nearer toge- 
ther than fix Inches. 

Some Perfons who are very curi- 
ous to have thefe Roots in Winter, 
draw them out of the Ground before 
the hard Froft comes on, and lay 
them up in dry Sand, in the fame 
manner as is praclis'd for Carrots ; 
being careful to guard them from 
Wet and Froft ; and by this Method 
they preferve them till the Spring. 

RAPIST RUM, Charlock, or 
Wild Muftard. 

There are two or three Species of 
this Plant, one of which grows wild 
•in England; the other two are 
Weeds in - the South of France, Italy, 
and Spain. Thefe are never pre- 



ferv'd, except by Eotanifls for Va- 
riety. 

RAPUNCULUS, Rampions. 
The Characters are ; 

The Flo-ucer covjijls of one Leaf, in 
its Form approaching to a Bellfhape ; 
but is fo expanded and cut, that it 
almcjl represents the Figure of a Star: 
the Point al is commonly fplit into tnxio 
horned Dimijtom, and the Flo<vuer-cup 
becomes a Fruit, ivhich is divided in- 
to three Cells, inclafng many fmall 
Seeds. 

The Species are ; 

1. Rapunculus fpicatus. C.B.P. 
Spiked Rampion 

2. Rapunculus fpicatus o.lbus. 
C. B. P. Spiked Rampion, with a 
white Flower. . 

3. Rapunculus Alpinus cornicu- 
latus. C. B. P. Horned Rampion of 
the Alps. 

4. Rapunculus fcabiof<e ca pi tula 
cceruleo. C. B. P. Rampion with 
blue fcabious-like Heads. 

5. Rapunculus Jcabiofa capitulo 
albo. C. B. P. Rampion with white 
fcabious-like Heads. 

6. Ranunculus fpicatus, fore 
favefcente. Inf. R. H. Spiked Ram- 
pion, with a yeilowifh Flower. 

7. Rapunculus Creticus, feu 
pyramidalis altera. C.B. P. Pyra- 
midal Rampion of Crete. 

8. Rapunculus folio graminco. 
Inft.R. H. Grafs-leav'd Rampion. 

9. Rapunculus Creticus petro- 
maruln ,fore albo. Tourn. Cor. Ram- 
pion of Crete, with a white Flower. 

10. Rapunculus Orient alls, fo- 
liis cinguftis dentatis. Tourn. Cor, 
Eaftern Rampion, with narrow in- 
dented Leaves. 

11. Rapunculus Orient alts an- 
gv.Jiifciius multicaulis totus fioridus* 
'lourn. Cor. Eaftern- narrow - leav'd 
Rampion, with many Stalks, filled 
with Flowers, 

i2. Ra> 



R A 

I 2. Rapunculus Orientalis, cam- 
panula: pratenfes folio. Toum. Cor. 
Eaftern Rampion, with a Meadow- 
bell-flower- lea f . 

13. Rapunculus Orientalis, fo- 
His longioribus, afpcris iff rigidis. 
Toum. Cor. Eaftern Rampion, with 
longer rough ftiff Leaves. 

14. Rapunculus Or iev talis al- 
tiffimns, foliis glabris C? rigidis. 
Toum. Cor. The tallelt Eaitern Ram- 
pion, with fmooth itirF Leaves. 

1 5. Rapunculus Orientalis, be- 
fperidis folio. Tourn. Cor. Eaftern 
Rampion, with a Dames - violet - 
leaf. 

Thefe are all of them hardyPlants, 
which will thrive in the open Air. 
They are propagated by Seed, which 
fhould he fown in Autumn ; for if 
they are kept out of the Ground till 
the Spring, they frequently fail. 
Thefe Seeds mould be fown on a Bed 
of frelh undunged Earth, where they 
are defigned to remain ; for they do 
not thrive fo well when they are 
tranfplanted. Therefore the belt 
Method is, to make fmall Drills 
crofs the Bed, about eighteen Inches 
afunder, and fow the Seeds therein : 
then cover them lightly over with 
Earth; for if they are buried too 
deep, they will rot in the Ground. 
In about a Month after the Seeds are 
fown, the Plants will come up, 
when they mould be diligently weed- 
ed ; which is all the Care they will 
require till Spring; at which time 
the Plants mould be thinned where 
they are too clofe, fo as to leave them 
fix or feven Inches apart in the Rows j 
and afterward they require no far- 
ther Attention but to keep them clear 
from Weeds. In June the Plants 
will flower, and if the Summer prove 
favourable, tiicy will produce ripe 
Seeds. 

As thefe Plants do rot continue 
apove two or three Years, there 



R A 

mould be Seeds fown every other 
Year, to continue the Sorts ; for 
they are Plants which require little 
Trouble to cultivate them, and their 
Flowers make a pretty Variety in 
large Gardens ; therefore they mould 
be allowed a Place amongft other 
hardy Flowers. 

RAPUNTIUM, Rampions, or 
Cardinal's Flower. 
The Species are ; 

The Flo-wer cor.fijh of one Leaf 
which is of an anomalous Figure, hol- 
lowed like a Pipe, and furrowed or 
chanelTd ; divided, as it were, into 
many Parts, in the Shape of a T cngue, 
defended by a Vagina or Covering, 
which enfolds the Point a I: when the 
Flowers decay, the Flower-cup turns 
to a Fruit, divided into three Cells 
full of fmall Seeds, which adhere to 
a Placenta, which is divided into three 
Parts. 

The Species are ; 

1. Rapuntium maximum, cocci- 
neo fpicato fore. Col. in Rich. Great- 
er Rampionr, with a crimfon fpiked 
Flower, commonly cali'd The fear- 
let Cardinal's Flower. 

2. Rapuntium America7ium, fore 
dilute caeruho. H. R. Par. The blue 
Cardinal's Flower. 

3. Rapuntium Americanum, vir- 
g& aurece foliis, parvo fore caeruleo. 
Town. Cardinal's Flower with 
Golden-rod-leaves, and a fmall blue 
Flower. 

4. Rapuntium Americanum, fo- 
ribus albii. Inf. R. H. Arnerican 
Cardinal Flower, with white Flow- 
ers. 

5. Rapuntium Americanum, coc- 
cineo fore, lint is a I bis elegant cr piclo. 
Inf. R. H. American Cardinal Flow- 
er, with a fcarlet Flower, elegantly 
ftriped with White. 

6. Rapuntium Americanum a/- 
tifftmum, foliis cirf.i, fore vircfce>:te. 
Plum. Cat. Thetalleft American Car- 
dinal 



K A 



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dinal Flower, with Leaves like the 
Melancholy - thiftle, and greenilh 
Flowers. 

7. Rapuntium Americanum, fo- 
liis cirfii lucidis, fiore multiplici coc- 
cineo conglobato. Plum. Cat. Ameri- 
can Cardinal Flower, with mining 
Melancholy- thitlle-leaves, and many 
fcarlet Flowers growing, in Clu- 
tters. 

8. Rapuntium Americanum, tra- 
chelii folio \ fiore purpura fcente. Plum. 
Cat. AmericanC2LrA'\T\2\ Flower, with 
a Throatwort-leaf, and a purplifti 
Flower. 

9. Rapuntium /wwVmw, fo- 
his oblongis, fioribus par<vis caeruleis, 
/pica longijfima. American Cardinal 
Flower, with oblong Leaves, and 
fmall blue Flowers, growing in a 
long Spike. 

10. Rapuntium urens Solonienfe. 
Mor. H. R. Bl<ef)\ Burning Car- 
dinal Flower of Blots. 

1 I. Rapuntium urens, ficre pur- 
pureo-carru'co. Inji. R. H. Burning 
Cardinal Flower, with a bluifh-pur- 
ple Flower. 

12. Rapuntium Africanum mi- 
nus angufiifolium, fiore <violaceo. Inf. 
R. H. Lefler narrow-leav'd African 
Cardinal Flower, with a violet-co- 
lour'd Flower. 

13. Rapuntium JEthiopicum, 
t *violaceo galeato fiore, foliis finaflri. 

Breyn, Cent. Ethiopian Cardinal 
Flower, with a violet galeated 
Flower, and Leaves like the Pi- 
nafter. 

14. Rapuntium AEthiopirum, 
cceruko galeato fiore, foliis coronop:. 
Breyn. Cent. Ethiopian Cardinal 
Flower, with a blue galeated Flow- 
er, and Leaves like Bucks-horn- 
plantain. 

15. Rapuntium AEtbiopie:>.m, 
carruleo galeato fiore, foliis dentatis. 
Breyn. Cent. Ethiopian Cardinal 



Flower, with a blue galeated Flow- 
er, and indented Leaves. 

16. Rapuntium Canadenfe pw 
milum, linarice folio. Sarrac. Low 
Canady Cardinal Flower, with a 
Toadflax-leaf. 

i j. Rapuntium Creticum mini- 
mum, bellidis folio, fiore maeulato. 
Tourn. Cor. The leaft Cardinal 
Flower of Crete, with a Daify-leaf, 
and a fpotted Flower. 

The firft Sort is greatly prized by 
the Curious for the Beauty of its rich 
crimfon Flowers, which exceed all 
the Flowers I have yet feen, in the 
Deepnefs of its Colour: and thefe 
commonly, when their Roots are 
ftrong, produce large Spikes of thefe 
Flowers, which continue a long 
time in Beauty, and make a moft 
magnificent Shew amongft other 
Flowers. The time of their Flow- 
ering is commonly in July and Au- 
gufi j and if the Autumn proves very 
favourable, they will fometimes pro- 
duce good Seeds in England. Thefe 
Plants are Natives of Virginia and 
Carolina, where they grow by the 
Sides of Rivulets, and make a moft 
beautiful Appearance j from whence 
the Seeds are often fent into England, 
Thefe Seeds commonly arrive here 
in the Spring ; at which time they 
mould be fown in Pots filFd with 
light Earth, and but juft cover M 
over ; for if the Seeds are buried 
deep, they will not grow. Thefe 
Pots mould be placed under a Frame, 
to defend them from Cold, until the 
Seafon is a little advanc'd ; but they 
mould not be plac'd on an Hot-bed, 
which will injure the Seeds. 

When the Weather is warm, to- 
ward the Middle of April, thefe Pots 
mould be placed in the open Air, in 
a Situation where they may have the 
morning Sun till Twelve of the 
Cle$k| obfei ving to water them con.- 

lUmly 



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ftantly in dry Weather ; and when 
the Plants are come up, and are 
grown pretty ftrong, they mould be 
tranfplanted each into a fmall Pot 
rill'd with frem light Earth, and 
placed in the fame Situation, ob- 
ferving to water them in dry Wea- 
ther ; and in Winter they mould be 
placed under an Hot - bed - frame, 
where they may be fheker'd from fe- 
vere Frolls ; but in mild Weather 
they mould be as much expofed to 
the open Air as poflible. 

The March followiug thefe Plants 
mould be put into larger Pots filPd 
with the fame frem Earth, and plac'd, 
as before, to the morning Sun ; ob- 
ferving to water them in dry Wea- 
ther, which will caufe them to flow- 
er ftrong the Autumn following. 

Thefe Plants are alfo propagated 
by parting of their Roots : the beft 
Seafon for which is, either foon af- 
ter they are palt Flower, or mMarcb; 
obferving to water and manage 
them, as hath been directed for the 
feedling Plants, both in Winter and 
Summer. 

The blue Sort conftantly produces 
ripe Seeds in England ', which mould 
be fovvn foon after they are ripe : in 
the Spring following the Plants will 
come up, when they mould be tranf- 
planted and manag'd as the other 
Sort ; with which Culture this will 
alfo agree. This is prelerv'd for 
Variety ; but the Flowers are not 
near fo beautiful as thofe of the 
former Sort. 

The thirdSort hath fmall blueFlow- 
ers, and is an annual Plant, perifh- 
ing as foon as the Seeds are ripe. 
This may be raifed in the fame 
manner as the former; but is fcarce- 
ly worthy of a Place in the Flower- 
garden. 

The fourth Sort is a Variety of the 
fecond, from which it differs only 
jn the Colour of the Flower - 3 and 



the fifth Sort is a Variety of the firfl: ; 
but neither of thefe Variations are 
lafting: for from the Seeds which I 
have laved from thefe, and fown, I 
had fcarce one Plant which prov'd of 
the fame Colours as the Parent- 
plants. 

The fixth and feventh Sorts feem 
to . be only Varieties of each other. 
The fixth Sort I have propagated fe- 
veral times, and have had the Plants 
produce Flowers ; but the feventh I 
have not yet feen in Flower. Thefe 
were collected by Mr. Robert Millar 
in Jamaica. 

The eighth Sort is an annual Plant; 
if the Seeds of this are permitted to 
fcatter in the Pots, and are fhelter'd 
in Winter, the Plants will come up 
in plenty, and require little more 
Care than to tranfplant them into 
Pots, and place them in a warm 
Situation. 

The ninth Sort is a biennial Plant, 
which perilhes foon after the Seeds 
are ripe. This produces very fmall 
blue Flowers, growing in long (len- 
der Spikes ; fo makes but an indif- 
ferent Appearance. 

The tenth Sort is an hardy Plant, 
fo may be fown in the common 
Ground ; and if the Seafon proves 
favourable, the Plants will flower, 
and perfect their Seeds the fame 
Year; and, in a warm Situation, the 
Plants will live through the Winter. 
The eleventh is only a Variety of 
this. 

The twelfth, thirteenth, four- 
teenth, and fifteenth Sorts are annual 
Plants, which periih as foon as their 
Seeds are ripe. The Flowers of 
thefe are fmall ; fo are not much 
valued. 

The fifteenth and feventeenth 
Sorts are alfo pretty hardy ; but as 
they have little Beauty, ar«j fekiom 
prefer v'd in Gardens. 

RAUVOLFIA. 

The 



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The Characters are; 
// hath a tubulous Flower ccnfifl- 
ing of one henf y whofe upper-Part 
fpreads open into a plain Surface, and 
is cut into ft*veral Parts ; from whofe 
Cup arifs the Point a I, fixed like a 
Kail, which afterward becomes an 
alvioft globular foft Fruit, full of 
Milk, in which are contained one or 
two hard Seeds. 

The Species are ; 

1. Rauvolfia tetraphyHa angu- 
fit folia. Plum. Nov. Gen. Four-leav'd 
Rauvolfia, with narrow Leaves. 

2. Rauvolfia tetraphylla lati- 
falia. Plum. Nov. Gen. Four-leav'd 
Rauvolfia, with broad Leaves. 

This Name was given to this 
Genus of Plants by Father Plumicr, 
who was the Perfcn that difcover'd 
them in America, in Honour to Leo- 
nard Ravwolf] who was a curious 
Botanift, and flouriuYd about the 
Year 1583. He travelled into the 
Holy Land, and feveral other Places 
in the Eaft, and publihYd his Travels 
in High-Dutch, which were tranf- 
lated mioEngliJb under thelnfpe&ion 
of the great Mr. Ray. 

Thele Plants grow plentifully at 
Csw/^jsfromwhence I receiv'd their 
Seeds, which were collected by Mr. 
Robert Millar, Surgeon. 

The Seeds of thefe Plants mould 
be fown in Pots filPd with frefh 
Earth, and plung'd into an Hot-bed 
of Tanners Bark ; for as they are 
very hard, they frequently remain a 
long time in the Ground : therefore 
when they are in Pots, they may be 
fhifted from one Bed to another, as 
their Heat decays. When the Plants 
come up, they muft b?. frequently 
refretVd with Water; but it mult 
not be given them in large Quanti- 
ties; for the Plants are fucculeut, 
and full of a milky Juice ; fo are in 
Danger of rotting w;;.h, too much 
Moiiiure . They {he 1 I - ' atfd >ia<.f a 



large Share of frclh Air admitted to 
them in warm Weather ; and when 
they are about two Inches high, they 
mould be tranfplanted each into a 
feparate fmall Pot filled with frefh 
light Earth, and then plunged into 
the Hot -bed again; obferving to 
made them from the Sun, until they 
have taken new Root ; after which 
time they mould have free Air ad- 
mitted to them every Day, in pro- 
portion to the Warmth of the Seafon . 
In this Hot-bed the Plants may re- 
main till toward Michaelmas, when 
they mould be removed into the 
Stove, and plunged into the Tan- 
ners Bark, where they mult be kept 
warm, and not have too much Moid- 
ure in cold Weather, left it rot 
them. 

As thefe Plants are Natives of 
very hot Countries, fo they will not 
live in the open Air in England ; 
therefore they fhould conftantly re- 
main in the Stove ; and if they re- 
main in the Bark-bed, they will 
thrive much falter, than when they 
are placed on Stands in a dry Stove. 
But in the Summer -feafon they 
mould have a large Share of frefh 
Air admitted to them ; and the 
Leaves of the Plants muft be now- 
and-then warned with a Sponge, to 
clear them from the Filth they are 
apt to contract ; which, if fuffer'd to 
remain, will retard the Growth of 
the Plants. Where this Care is taken 
of them, they will thrive very fail, 
and the fecond Year will produce 
Flowers, and continue fo to do for 
many Years ; and will perfect their 
Seeds in England. They may alfo 
be propagated by Cuttings, which 
mould be laid to dry for two or 
three Days before they are planted; 
and then mould be plung'd into a 
moderate Hot-bed of Tanners Bark, 
obfervi;^ to inade them until they 
have taken Root ; after which time 

they 



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they may be treated as the feedling 
Plants. 

RESEDA, Baftard rocket. 
The Characters are ; 

It hath a poly pet alous anomalous 
Flower, compofed of feveral dijfmilar 
Petals, out of whofe Cup arifes the 
Pointal, which afterward becc?nes a 
membranaceous Fruit, for the mof 
part three or four-cornered, oblong, 
and, as it were, cylindraceous , preg- 
nant with round f Seeds. 
The Species are; 

1. Reseda vulgaris. C. B. P. 
Common Baftard-rocket. 

2. Reseda crifpa Gallica. Bocc. 
Rar. PL Curled French Baftard- 
rocket. 

3. Reseda latifolia, fore fid'tjo. 
Mar. Hijl. Broad -leav'd Baftard- 
rocket, with a yellow Flower. 

4. Reseda foliis calcitrapee, fore 
albo. Mor, H. R. Bhf Baftard. 
rocket with Star-thiftle-leaves, and 
a white Flower. 

5. Reseda minor vulgaris. Inf. 
R. H. Smaller common Baftard- 
rocket. 

6. Reseda minor vulgaris, folio 
minus incifo. Inf. R. H. Smaller 
common Baftard - rocket, with a 
Leaf lefs cut. 

7. Reseda minor vulgaris, foliis 
iniegris. Inf. R. H. Small common 
Baftard-rocket, with whole Leaves. 

8. Reseda Pyrenaica, linari<e 
folio glauco. SchoL Bot. Pyrcnean 

Baftard - rocket, with a glaucous 
Toad -flax-leaf. 

9. Reseda JEgyptiica minor, fo- 
ri bus fragrantijjimis. The Mignonette 
d'Egypt, or fmall fweet-fcented Re- 
feda. 

Thefe Plants are preferred in the 
Gardens of fome Perfons, who are 
curious in Botany ; but at prefent 
they are not ufed in Medicine. All of 
thero, but the laft, are very hardy 
Plant", which are propagated by Seeds : 



thefe mould be fown in the Spring, 
on an open Bed of frefh undunged 
Earth, in the Place where they are 
defign'd to remain ; and when the 
Plants come up, they fhould be hoed 
to feparate them, where they are too 
cloi'e, as alfo to deftroy the Weeds. 
The four firft Sorts fhould be allow- 
ed eighteen Inches, or two Feet ; 
but the other Sorts, being of lefs 
Growtif/ do not require above half 
that room. The Weeds mould be 
CQnftantly hoed down between the 
Plants when they arife, which is all 
the Culture the Plants require. Some 
of thefe Plants will flower the fame 
Year they are fown, when they come 
up early in the Spring ; but in gene- 
ral they do not flower till the fecond 
Year, when they produce their Seeds, 
and the fianrs commonly perifh, 
foon after. If the Seeds of thefe 
Plants are permitted to fcattcr, the 
Plants will come up, and ftcck the 
Ground, fo as to become Weeds. 

The ninth Sort hath been lately 
introduced into the Etiglijh Gardens. 
The Plants of this Sort are generally 
annual, and perifh i'oon after their 
Seeds are ripe ; though if the Plants 
are placed in a warm Stove in the 
Autumn, they may be preiervjd thro* 
the Winter, and the Plants will keep 
conftantly in Flower. 

This Sort fhould be fown on a 
moderate Hot-bed in March ; and 
when the Plants are ftrong enough to * 
tranfplant, they fhould be pricked 
out upon another moderate Mot-bed 
to bring them forward : but the 
Plants fhould have a large Share of 
Air in warm Weather, otherwjfe 
they will draw up verv v, eak. About 
the Latter end of May the Hants 
may be planted out, fome into Pots, 
to place near the Apartments ; and 
others into warm Borders, where 
they may -emain to flower and feed. 
For the Flants which grow in' the 



It I I 



R II 



full Ground, often produce more 
Seeds than thofe which are in Pots : 
but at the time when the Seed-veffels 
begin to fwell, the Plants are fre- 
quently infefted with green Cater- 
pillers, which, if they are not de- 
ftroyed, will eat off all the Seed- 
veffels. 

The Flowers of this Plant have a 
ftrong Scent like freth Rafoberries, 
which will fpread over a Room in 
Which two or three Plants are plac'dj 
and for this are greatly efteem'd. 

RHABARBARUM MONA- 
CHORUM. Vide Lapathum. 

RHAMNOIDES, The Sea 
Buckthorn. 

The Characters are ; 

// hath the whole appearance of 
the Buckthorn ; but is Male and Fe- 
male in different Trees : tfc Flowers 
of the Male have no Petals : the 
Flower -cup confjis of two Leaves, in 
the Centre of which are federal fmall 
Stamina : the Female Trees produce 
roundijh Berries, each of which con- 
tains a finglt Seed. 
The Species are ; 

1. Rhamnoides florifera, falicis 
foliif. T. Cor. Male willow - leav'd 
Sea Btukthorn. 

2 . ffcir a M N o I D E s fruclifera, foliis 
falicis, baccis hviter flavefcentibus. 
T. Cor. Female willow-leav'd Sea 
Buckthorn, with yellow Berries. 

Thefe Plants grow in great Plenty 
upon the Sea-coafb of Lincolnjhire, 
and at Sandwich, Deal, and Folkfton, 
in Kent -, as alfo in divers Parts of 
Scotland. 

They are preferv'd in feveral Gar- 
dens near London for Variety ; where, 
being intermixed with other Shrubs 
of the fame Growth, they afford an 
agreeable Profpecl:. 

Thefe Shrubs are eafily propa- 
gated from Suckers, which they 
fend forth in great Plenty from the 



old Plants. Thefe Suckers may be 
taken off any time in February or 
March, and planted in a Nurfery, 
where they may be train'd up for 
two or three Years ; after which 
they may be remov'd to the Places 
where they are to remain. There 
is no very great Beauty in thefe 
Plants ; but as their Leaves and 
Flowers are very different from moll 
other Trees, they make a pretty 
Variety in fmall Wildernefs- quar- 
ters j or, when planted in Clumps 
with various Trees, they will grow 
to be ten or twelve Feet high ; 
but it is very rare to fee them 
larger. 

RHAMNUS, The Buckthorn. 
The Characlers are ; 

It hath a funnel - Jhafd Flower , 
conjijling of one Leaf, which is divi- 
ded toward the Top into four or five 
Segments : out of the Flower-cup rifes 
the Pointal, which afterward be- 
comes afoft roundijh Berry, very full 
of Juice> inclofing four hard Seeds, 
which are round and fmooth on the 
Outfide, but flatted on the other. 
The Species are ; 

1. Rhamnus catharticus. C.B.P. 
Common purging Buckthorn. 

2. Rhamnus catharticus minor* 
C. B. P. Leffer purging Buck- 
thorn. 

3. Rhamnus Hifpanicus, folio 
buxi, minor. Tourn. Leffer Spanijh 
Buckthorn, with a Box-leaf. 

4. Rhamnus catharticus minor \ 
folio longiori. Inf. R. H. Leffer 
purging Buckthorn, with a longer 
Leaf. 

5. Rhamnus tertius, fore her* 
haceo, baccis nigris. C. B. P. Clu- 
fius's third Buckthorn, with an her- 
baceous Flower, and black Berries. 

6. Rhamnus Hifpanicus, buxi fo- 
lio ampliorc. Inf. R. H. Spanijh Buck- 
thorn, with a larger Box-leaf. 

7. RhA' 



R. H 

7. Rhamnus Hi fp annus, cle<e fo- 
lio, lift. R. H. Spamjb Buckthorn, 
with an Olive-leaf. 

8. Rhamnus Hifpanicus, byperici 
folio. Infl.K. H. Spanijb Buckthorn, 
with a St. JohnVwort-leaf. 

9. Rhamnus Opticus, amygdali 
folio minori. Tourh. Cor. Candy Buck- 
thorn, with a fmaller Almond-leaf. 

10. Rhamnus Orient alis, alaterni 
folio. T oum. Cor. Eaftern Buckthorn, 
with an Alaternus-leaf. 

I t. Rhamnus Creticus, buxi fo- 
lio minori Tourn. Cor. Eaftern Buck- 
thorn, with a fmaller Box-trce-leaf. 

12. Rhamnus Orientalis, amyg- 
dali folio ampliore. Tourn. Cor. Eaft- 
ern Buckthorn, with a larger Al- 
mond-leaf. 

The firft of thefe Trees is very 
common in the Hedges in divers 
Parts of England; the Berries of 
which are ordered by the College of 
Phyficians for medicinal Ufe ; but 
particularly for making a Syrup, 
which was formerly in great Ufe ; 
but of late the Perfons who fupply 
the Markets, have gather'd feveral 
other Sorts of Berries, which they 
have either mixed with thofe of the 
Buckthorn, or have wholly fubfti- 
tuted them in their place. Thefe 
are the Berries of the Frangula t Cor- 
nus fcemina, &c. which Mixture hath 
fpoiled the Syrup, and renderM it 
lefs efteem'd. But whoever purchafes 
the Buckthorn-berries, may diftin- 
guilh whether frhey are right or not, 
by opening them, and obferving the 
Number of Seeds in each ; for thefe 
have commonly four, whereas the 
Frangula has but two, and the Cor- 
nus faemina but one ; as alfo by 
bruiling of the Berries on white Pa- 
per, the Juice giving a green Tin- 
cture. 

The fecond Sort is lefs common 
in England^ and only to be found in 
Gardens where it is cultivated for 



R H 

Variety. Both thefe Sorts may be 
propagated by laying down their 
tender Branches in Autumn; which, 
if duly water'd in dry Weather the 
fucceeding Summer, will take Root 
in the Compafs of one Year; and 
may then be tranfplanted, either 
where they are to remain, or in fome 
Nurfery, to be train'd up for a few 
years,- and then remov'd to their 
Places of Growth. 

The firft Sort will grow to the 
Height of eighteen or twenty 
Feet ; but, being a ftraggling Grow- 
er, is leldom much cultivated in 
Gardens. 

The fecond Sort feldom rifes 
above five Feet high; therefore 
fhould be planted amongft Shrubs of 
the fame Growth ; where it will add 
to the \Sariety, though it has little 
more Beauty than the former. 

They may a!fo be propagated by 
Seeds, which muft be fown on a Bed 
of frefti Earth, foon after they are 
ripe ; the Spring following the 
Plants will appear, when they muft 
be carefully clean'd from Weeds ; 
the Autumn following they may be 
tranfplanted out, and managed 'as 
the Layers. »f 

The third Sort is alfo preferv'd in 
feveral curious Gardens for Variety: 
this produces vaft Quantities of pur- 
ple Flowers moft Part of the Sum- 
mer, and many times ripens its Seeds 
in England. This may be propagated 
by laying down the tender Branches 
in the Spring, which will take Root 
by the Spring following, when 
they mould be planted into Pots ; 
and require to be houfed in Winter, 
though they need only be Ihelter'd 
from the extreme Froft ; but Ihould 
have as much free Air as poffible in 
mild Weather, and in Summer muft 
be often water'cf. It delights in a 
frem light Soil, and requires to be 
often remov'd ; becauie the Roots 
increafe 



R H 



R II 



increafe fo greatly, as to fill the 
Pots in a fhort time. 

The fourth, fifth, fixth, feventh, 
and eighth Sorts grow wild in the 
Woods in Spain, Portugal, Italy, 
and the South of France ; and, for 
Variety, fome of the Sorts have 
been admitted into the Englifh Gar- 
dens, though they are Plants of lit- 
tle Beauty. Thefe grow to the 
Height of fix or eight Feet, and are 
hardy enough to live through the 
Winter in the open Air in England. 

The ninth, tenth, eleventh, and 
twelfth Sorts grow in the Iflands of 
the Archipelago, where Dr. bourne- 
fort collected their Seed?, and fent 
them to the Royal Garden at Paris. 
Thefe are alio hardy enough to live 
in the open Air in England, and are 
all of them Shrubs growing about 
the fame Height as the former. 

Thefe may all be propagated by 
laying down their Branches in the 
fame manner as hath been before 
directed for the other Sorts, or from 
the Seeds : the latter Method is to 
be preferr'd, where the Seeds can 
be procured ; becaufe thofe Plants 
which arife from Seeds, will always 
be ftronger, and grow erect ; where- 
as thofe which come from Layers, 
are very fubject to {hoot out lateral 
Branches, whereby they are retarded 
in their upright Growth. 

RHUS, The Sumach-tree. 
The Characters are ; 

The Flowers confijl of fi<ve Leaves, 
•which are placed in a circular Order, 
and expand in form of a Rofe ; from 
who/e Flower-cup rifes the Point a I, 
tvhich afterward becomes a roundifh 
or almoji kidney-Jhap 'd Vejfcl, contain- 
ing one Seed of the fame Shape : to 
which Marks may be added, The 
Flowers growing in Bunches, and the 
Leaves are 'either winged, or baiiC 
three Lobes. 



The Species are ; 

1. Rhus folio uimii C. B. P. 
Elm-leav'd Sumach. 

2. Rhus Virginianum. C. B. P. 
Virginian Sumach, by fome falfly 
call'd The Stag's-hom-tree. 

3. Rhus Americanum, panic ul a 
fparfa herbacea, ramis patulis gla^ 
bris. Hart. Elth. American Sumach, 
with loofe herbaceous Panicles, and 
fmooth Branches, commonly call'd 
New-England Sumach. 

4. Rhus Canadenfe, folio longiori, 
utriuque glabro. Inf. R. H. Canady 
Sumach, with a longer Leaf, fmooth 
on each Side. 

5. Rhus tcnuifalia Virginiana hu- 
tnilis : Rhus angufi folium. C. B. P. 
Pluk. Aim. Dwarf Virginian Su- 
mach, with narrow Leaves. 

6. Rhus Africanum trifoliatum 
majus, foliis fubtus argenteis acutis, 
& margine incifs. Pluk. Phyt. Great 
African three-leav'd Sumach, with 
narrow Leaves cut on their Edges, 
and white underneath. 

7. Rhus Africanum trifolium mi- 
nus glabrum,fplendente folio jubrotundo 
integro ; forte Lentifcus Africanus tri- 
phyllos quorundam. Pluk. Phyt. Lef- 
fer three - leav'd African Sumach, 
with a whole roundifh mining 
fmooth Leaf. 

8. Rhus Aficanum trifoliatum 
majus, folio Jubrotundo integro, molli 
Cif incano. Pluk. Phyt. Greater 
three-leav'd African Sumach, with 
a whole roundifh woolly Leaf. 

The firil Sort grows plentifully in 
the warm Parts of Europe, as alfo in 
Turky, where the Branches are ufed 
for Tanning of Leather ; and altho' 
this is a Native of Europe, yet it is 
more rare in the Englifh Gardens, 
than any of the American Kinds. 
This grows to the Height of fix or 
eight Feet, and will refill the Cold 
of the ordinary Winters in England ; 

but 



R H 



R H 



but in fevere Froft the Plants are of- 
ten deltroyed. 

The Leaves of this Sort are much 
rounder than thofe of the American 
Kinds, and each Lobe is lhaped 
fomewhat like the Leaves of Elm ; 
but there are many of thefe Pinna 
on each Mid rib, fo that it hath as 
long pennated Leaves as any of the 
other ; wherefore the Title of Elm- 
leaf is very improperly applied to 
this Plant : however, as it has been 
generally known by that Name, I 
have chofen to continue it. 

The fecond Sort is very common 
in many Gardens, where it endures 
the fevereft Cold of the Winters in 
the open Air ; and is ufually inter- 
mixed, in fmall Wildernefs quarters, 
amonglt other Trees of the like 
Growth, where it affords an agree- 
able Variety. This produces Bunches 
of fmall Flowers in June, at the 
Extremities of the Branches, which 
are fucceeded by Seed-s, which are in- 
clofed in red Covers ; fo that the 
whole Spikes appear of a fine red 
Colour. Thefe Bunches are fome- 
times ufed in Dyeing ; and the 
Branches of the Trees are ufed for 
Tanning of Leather in America, 
where thefe Trees grow in plenty. 

This Tree will grow to be eight 
or ten Feet high ; but is very fub- 
]e£l to produce crooked unfightly 
Branches ; fo that it can't be re- 
due'd to a regular Stem, which ren- 
ders it unfit to plant fingly in an 
open Situation : but amonglt other 
Trees, where the Deformity of the 
Stem is hid, it looks very well. 
This is by fome called Stags-horn- 
tree, from its having loft woolly 
Shoots, refcmbling the young Horns 
of a Stag. 

The third Sort has not been many 
Years introdue'd into the Englijh 
Gardens ; yet is now become more 
common in the Nurfeiies than either 

Vol. Ill, 



of the other. It was brought firfl 
from Penfylvania ; but fince, the 
Seeds have been brought from iWw* 
England, and other Northern Parts 
of America. This produces much 
ftronger Shoots, and grows more 
erect, than the others ; but as the 
Spikes of Seeds are of an herbaceous 
Colour, they do not make fo good 
an Appearance as thofe of the fecond 
Sort. 

The fourth Sort hath fmooth 
long-pointed Leaves, which are of 
a glaucous Colour ; the Spikes of 
Flowers are of a bright red Colour ; 
fo that this Sort makes a very beau- 
ful Appearance when in Flower ; 
but is of humbler Growth than ei- 
ther of the former. This produces 
a great N umber of Suckers from the 
Roots, and grows very irregular in 
its Branches. There is another Va- 
riety of this, which differs in the 
Spikes of Flowers, being coverM 
over with a white Powder, as if 
frofted ; but this is not a diftintt 
Species. 

The fifth Sort is alio a Shurb of 
humble Growth, feldom nfing more 
than four Feet high in England, 
This is by fome call'd the Lentifcus- 
leav'd Sumach. The Pinna of thefe 
Leaves are join'd by a Border or 
Wing, which ™ns along the Mid- 
rib : the Flowers of this Sort are not 
very beautiful ; but as the Leaves 
of the Shrub are of a fmgular Stru- 
cture, they are admitted into theGar- 
densofthe Curious for Variety-fake. 
This Sort is hardy enough to endure 
the Cold of our ordinary Winters very 
well in the open Air, if it is planted 
in a ihelter'd Situation. 

All the Sorts may be propagated 
by Seeds, which fhould be fown 
foon after they are ripe ; and then 
the Plants will come up the follow- 
ing Spring : but if the Seeds are not 
fown till the Spring, it will be a 
4 G Year 



R H 

Year before the Plants will appear. 
The beft Method of raifing thefe 
Plants from Seeds is, to fow them in 
Pots of light Earth, and place them 
under an Hot-bed-frame in the Win- 
ter, where they may be conltantly 
expos'd to the open Air in mild 
Weather ; but mould be cover'd in 
hard Froft. And if the Pots are 
plung'd into fome old Tanners Bark, 
which has no Heat, this will pre- 
vent the Earth from drying, as alio 
keep out the Froft. When the 
Plants come up, they will require no 
other Care but to water them in dry 
Weather ; and if, the following 
Winter, the Pots are plac'd in Shel- 
ter, it will fecure the Plants from 
being injur'd by Froft ; and in the 
Spring, before they begin to fhoot, 
they mould be tranfplanted into 
Nurfery -beds, where they may grow 
a Year or two ; by which time they 
will have obtained Strength enough 
to be planted where they are to re- 
main. 

The four firlt -mention'd Sorts 
propagate themfelves fo faft by 
Suckers, that their Seeds are feldom 
fown ; but the fifth feldom produces 
any Suckers, which occafions its be- 
ing fcarce in the Gardens ; for the 
Seeds do not ripen in England. 

The African Sorts are all pre- 
ferv'd in Pots or Tubs, and houfcd 
in Winter, being too tender to en- 
dure the Cold of this Climate in the 
open Air. Theijg may be propagated 
by laying down their young Branches 
into frefh Earth ; obferving to water 
them duly in dry Weather, which 
will greatly forward their Rooting. 
In two Years they will be fit to tranf- 
plant ; when they maybe taken from 
the old Plants, and each placed in a 
feparate Pot fill'd with frefh light 
Earth. The bedtime for tranfplant- 
ing of thefe Plants* is in April, ob- 
ferving >to water and made them un- 



R i 

til they have taken Roof ; afte? 
which they may be expos'd with 
Myrtles, Oleanders, and other hardy 
Exotics, during the Summer-feafon, 
and in Winter muft be houfcd with 
them ; being equally as hardy, and 
only require to be fcreened from fe- 
vere Froft. 

Thefe Plants rarely produce Flow- 
ers in England ; but as they retain 
their Leaves all the Winter, and may 
eafily be reduced to a regular Head, 
they are preferved for the Diverfity 
of their Leaves, which adds to the 
Variety of a Green-houfe. 

RIBES, The Curran-tree. 
The Char afters are ; 

// hath no Prickles ; the Leaves 
are large ; the Flower covjifts only of 
five Leaves, which are placed in a 
circular Order ; and expand in form 
of a Rofe : the Ovary, which arifes 
from the Centre of the Flower-cup, be- 
comes a globular Fruity which is pro- 
duced in Bunches. 

The Species are ; 

1. Rises vulgaris acidus ruler. 
J. B. Common red Curran. 

2. Rises major, fruftu rubro. H. 
Eyft. The large Dutch red Cur- 
ran. 

3. Rises vulgaris acidus albas 
baccas ferens. J. B. Common white 
Curran. 

4. Ribes qute groffularia bortenfis, 
majors fruftu alio. H. R. Par. Large 
Dutch white Curran. 

5. Rises major, fruftu cameo. 
The Champaign Curran, vulgo. 

6. Rises Alpinus aula's. J. B. 
The Goofberry-leav'd Curran. 

7. Riees fruftu parvo. Merr. Pin* 
The fmall wild Curran. 

8. Rjbes nigrum vulgo diftum, fo- 
lio oknte. J .B. The black Curran. 

9. Rises vulgaris, foliis ex lutco 
variegatis. The yellow ftrip'd- 
leav'd Curran. 

10. Rises vulgaris* foliis ex albo 

il.ganitr 



R I 

eleganter <variegatis. The common 
Curran, with Leaves beautifully 
variegated with Green and White. 

11. Ribes fruclu alba, foliis ex 
albo <varitgatis. The white Curran, 
with ftriped Leaves. 

12. Ribes Alpinus dulcis, foliis 
wurugatis. The ltriped Goofberry- 
leav'd Curran. 

13. Ribes fruffu nigra, foliis wa- 
riegatis. The black Curran, with 
ilriped Leaves. 

14. Ribes Americanus, fru&u ni- 
gro. The American black Curran. 

The five firft-mention'd Sorts are 
preferv'd in all curious Gardens, for 
the fake of their Fruits : indeed, of 
late Year?, the common red and 
white Currans have been neglecled, 
fince the Dutch red and white 
have become plenty in England ; 
thefe producing much larger and 
fairer Fruit to the Sight than the 
common Sorts, though I think the 
common Sorts are much better rla- 
vour'd ; fo that they mould not be 
intirely neglecled by fuch as are curi- 
ous in Fruits. 

The fixtli Sort is preferv'd as a 
Curiofity, by fuch as delight in Va- 
riety ; but the Fruit is not valuable. 

The feventh Sort is found wild in 
England. The Fruit of this Kind is 
imall, and ill-tailed ; which renders 
it unworthy of being cultivated in 
Gardens. 

The eighth Sort is preferved in 
fome old Gardens ; but the Fruit 
having a dilagreeable ftrong Tafle, 
has occafion'd its being but little 
cultivated of late Years, unlefs for 
medicinal Ufe. There is a Rob 
made of this Fruit, which is in great 
Requeft for the Cure of fore Throats 
and Quinfies ; from whence this 
Fruit has been called Squinancy-ber- 
ries. 

Thofe Sorts with variegated 



R 1 

Leaves are preferved by fuch as 
are fond of ttrip'd Plants ; but as 
their grcateft Beauty is only in the 
Spring, before their Leaves grow 
large, after which they become more 
green, they are fcarcely worth pre- 
ierving in a Garden. 

The fourteenth Sort was obtained 
by Mr. Peter Coliinfon from America, 
in whofe fine Garden it has produced 
Fruit ; and from thence hath been 
communicated to feveral other curi- 
ous Gardens. The manner of this 
Plant's Flowering is very different 
from the other Sorts of Currans, for 
which Variety it may have a Place 
amongft other Shrubs; but the Fruit, 
being fomewhat like our black Cur- 
ran, is not much erreem'd. 

All thefe Sorts m?.y be r afily pro- 
pagated by planting their Cut ings 
any time from September to March 
(but the Autumn is the belt), upon 
a Spot of frefli Earth, which in the 
Spring mull be kept very clear from 
Weeds ; and in very dry Weather, 
if they are water'd, it will greatly 
promote their Growth. Thefe may 
remain two Years in this Nurfery ; 
during which time they muft be 
pruned up for the Purpofes defign'd, 
i. e. either to clear Stems, if for 
Standards ; or if for Walls, Pales, 
or Efpaliers, they may be trained up 
flat. 

Then they fhould be planted out 
where they are to remain; the belt 
Seafon for which is foon after the 
Leaves begin to decay, that they 
may take Root before Winter; fo 
that they may be in no Danger of 
fufFering from Drought in the 
Spring. 

Thefe Plants are generally planted 
in Rows at about ten Feet afunder, 
and four Feet Diftance in ihe Rows ; 
but the bell Method is to train them 
againil low Efpaliers, in which man- 

4 G z ncr 



R I 

ner they will take up much !efs room 
in a Garden, and their Fruit will be 
much fairer. 

The Diftance they Ihould be plac'd 
for an Efpalier, ought not to be lefs 
than ten or twelve Feet, that their 
Branches may be trained horizon- 
tally ; which is of great Importance 
to their Bearing. 

Thofe that are planted againft: 
Pales or Walls, mould alfo be allow- 
ed the fame Diftance ; if they are 
planted againft a South -eaft Wall or 
Pale, it will caufe their Fruit to ripen 
at leaft a Fortnight or three Weeks 
{boner than thole in the open Air; 
and thofe which are planted againft. 
a North Wall or Pale, will be pro- 
portionably later ; fo that by this 
Method the Fruit may be continued 
a long time in Perfection, efpecially 
if thofe againft the North Pales are 
matted in the Heat of the Day. 

Thefe Plants produce their Fruit 
upon the former Year's Wood, and 
alfo upon fmall Snags which come 
out of the old Wood ; fo that, in 
pruning them, thefe Snags (hould be 
preferved, and the young Shoots 
ihorten'd in proportion to their 
Strength. The only Method, very 
neceflary to be obferv'd in pruning 
of them, is, not to lay their Shoots 
too clofe, and never to prune their 
Snags to make them fmooth : this, 
with a fmall Care in obferving the 
manner of their Growth, will be 
fufricient to inftrucl: any Perfon 
how to manage this Plant, fo as to 
produce great Quantities of Fruit. 

Thefe Plants will thrive, and pro- 
duce Fruit, in almoft any Soil or 
Situation, and are often planted un- 
der the Shade of Trees ; but the 
Fruit is always beft when they are 
planted to the open Air, and upon a 
drv Soil. 

'RICINOIDES, Phyfic-nut, 



R I 

The Characters are ; 
The Male Flowers co??JiJl of fever al 
Leaves, which are placed in a circu- 
lar Order, and expand in form of a 
Rofe : thefe are barren : and grout 
at remote Diftances from the female 
Flowers, upon thefamePlant ; in which 
are produced the Embryocs, which are 
wrapt up in the Flower-cup, and af- 
terward become tricapfular Fruits, 
containing one oblong Seed in each CelL 
The Species arc ; 

1. Ricinoides Americana, goffy- 
pii folio. 7 cum. American Phyfic-nut, 

. with a Cotton- leaf. 

2. Ricinoides arbor Americana, 
folio multif do. Tourn. Tret American 
Phyfic nut, with a multifid Leaf, 
commonly called in the Weft-Indies, 
French Phyfic- nut. 

3 Ricinoides Americana, ft aphyf 
agrite folio. Tourn. American Phy- 
fic-nut, with a Staves-acre- leaf, call- 
ed in the Weft -Indies, Belly -ach- weed, 
and wild CaiTada. 

4. Ricinoides Americana, elseog- 
ni folio. Plum. American Phyfic-nut, 
with a Wild-olive-leaf. 

5. Ricinoides frutefcens , alth<r& 
folio. Plum. Cor. Shrubby Phyfic- 
nut, with a Marih-mallow-leaf. 

6. Riciniodes foli is populi hir~ 
futis. Plum. Cat. Phyfic-nut with 
hairy Poplar-leaves. 

7. Ricinoides frutefcens, linarits 
fliis obtufis. Plum. Cat. Shrubby 
Phyfic-nut, with blunt Toad-flax- 
leaves. 

8. Ricinoides/^//.? citrii, argen- 
teo polline conjperfa. Plum. Cat. Phy- 
fic nut, with a Citrcn-leaf, powder'd 
over with Silver. 

9. Ricinoides wcrbafi folio. 
Plum. Cat. Phyfic-nut with a Mul- 
lein-leaf. 

10. Ricinoides caftanea folio. 
Plum. Cat. Phyfic-nut with a Cheft- 
nut-leaf. • 

11. Ricinoides herbaccum, fotiu 

tr:fiJii 



R I 

trlfidis <vel quinquefidis & ferratis. 
Houji. Herbaceous Phyfic-nut, with 
three or five-fawed Leaves. 

I 2. Ricinoides folio fubrotundo 
ftrrato, fruEiu parvo conglomerate. 
Houji. Phyfic-nut with a roundifh 
fawed Leaf, and fmall Fruit, grow- 
ing in Gutters. 

13. Ricinoides palujlre, fruflu 
hifpdOy faliis fubrotundis, ner<vojis iff 
[/pen's. Hon/}. Marlh Phyfic-nut, 
With a prickly Fruit, and roundifa 
ribbed Leaves, which are rough. 

14. Ricinoides frutefavs, lauri 
folio ; calyce amplijjimo <viridi. Houji. 
Shrubby Phyfic-nut, with a Bay- 

1 and a large green Flower- cup. 
1 5. Ricinoides, ex qua par at ur 
Tcumefol Gallorum. Inft. R. H. App. 
Phyfic-nut, from which the Tourncfol 
of the French is made. 

Plants arc very common in 
the warm Parts of America. The firft 
So. planted in Hedges, in molt 
Parts ot 'Jamaica and Barbados; and 
is propagated by Slips or Cuttings, 
which will take Root very freely, 
and make a good Fence in a (hort 
time, being very quick of Growth. 
This rifes to be twenty Feet high, 
and produces a great Quantity of 
Nuts, which are given from three 
to feven, for a Vomit; but if the 
thin Film be taken off, they may be 
eaten in Quantities without any ill 
F.fTcct. There is an Oil drawn from 
thefe Seeds, wh ; ch is ufed for burn- 
ing in Lamps. 

The fecond Sort is cultivated in 
Gardens mjamaica and Barbados, for 
the Beauty of its Flowers, which are 
of a tine fcarlet Colour, and produced 
in large Bunches on divers Parts of 
the Plant. The Nuts of this Kind 
are larger than the other, but have 
much the fame Quality. This is not 
a Native in any of the Englifh Set- 
tlements in the Wejl-lndies ; but was 
brought thither either from the Spa- 



R I 

nifi or French Settlements, from 
whence it had the Names of French 
and Spanijh Phyfic-nut. 

The third Sort is very common in 
the Savannas in Jamaica and Bar- 
bados : the Seed of this Kind is the 
common Phyfic among the poorer 
Sort, for the dry Belly-ach. 

The fourth Sort grows plentifully 
upon the Sea-coafl in divers Parts of 
the W tjl - Indies ■, and is fometimes 
brought into England & a Curiofity, 
where, in fome very good Gardens, 
it is preierved with the former 
Sorts. 

The feven next-mention'd Sorts 
were difcover'd by Father Plumier 
in America : the firft and fecond Sorts 
have been found growing plentifully 
in the I Hand of Jamaica : the third, 
fifth, fixth, feventh, eighth, ninth, 
and tenth Sorts were found in plen- 
ty about La Vera Cruz, by the late 
Dr. William Houjloun, from whence 
he fent their Seeds to England : the 
eleventh Sort was alfo difcover'd by 
the fame Gentleman at Jamaica, 
All thefe Sorts are very tenderPlants, 
being Natives of very warm Coun- 
tries, and require to be tenderly 
treated, otherwife they will not grow 
in this Country. The fecond, fe- 
venth, eighth, ninth, and tenth Sorts 
are annual ; fo their Seeds muft be 
fown on an Hot- bed early in the 
Spring; and when the Plants are 
come up, they mould be tranfplant- 
ed each into a feparate fmall Pot fill- 
ed with light rich Earth, and then 
plunged into a moderate Hot- bed of 
Tanners Bark, obferving to fhade 
them, until they have taken Root; 
and then they mould have frefii Air 
admitted to them by raifmg the 
GlaiTes every Day in warm Wea- 
ther ; and they muft be frequently 
watered. In about a Month's time, 
the Plants will have filled thefe Pots 
with their Roots ; when they mould 
4 G 3 • b.e 



R I 

be fhaken out, and put into larger 
Pots filled with rich Earth, and 
plunged again into the Hot-bed, 
provided tnere is room for the 
Plants to grow in Height, without 
being prefled by the Glaftes ; in 
which' Cafe it will be proper to put 
them into the Bark-bed in the Stove ; 
for they are too tender to thrive in 
the open Air in this Country, in the 
warmeft Seafon of the Year. In 
'July thefe Plants will flower, and 
their Seeds will ripen in Augujl and 
September ; foon after which time 
the Plants will decay. 

The feven firft-mention'd, as alfo 
the fourteenth Sort, are perennial 
Plants, which may be prefcrved in 
a warm Stove feverat Years ; but 
the firft is by much the larger-grow- 
ing Plant of all the Sorts. This will 
grow to the Height of twelve or 
fourteen Feet; but rarely produces 
Flowers in England. The fecond 
Sort grows about eight or nine Feet, 
and produces its beautiful fcarlet 
Flowers every Year ; and fome- 
times will ripen its Fruit with us. 

The third Sort feldom rifes more 
than three Feet high j but divides 
into many Branches, and frequently 
produces its Flowers and Seeas in 
England. 

The fourth is a flender-ftemnVd 
Plant, rifir.g four or five Feet high, 
having filvery Leaves ; for which it 
is chiefly valued. This grows in the 
Bahama JJIands, and in moft of the 
warm Parts o! America; and is much 
more nice in its Culture than either 
of the other Sorts. 

The fifth, fixth, feventh, and 
fourteenth Sorts are fnrubby Plants, 
which grow five or fix Feet high 
with us 5 but in their native Coun- 
tries they are much larger, and 
branch out on every Side. As thefe 
Plants produce Flowers of little 
Beauty, they are feldom cultivated 



R I 

but in Botanic Gardens for the fake 

of Variety. 

Thefe Plants muft be placed in a 
Bark-ftove (with other Plants which 
are the Produce of the fame Coun- 
tries) ; during vvhich Seafon they 
fhould be often refrelhed with Wa- 
ter, and the Stove mould be kept up 
to Ananas Heat (as mark'd on the 
Botanical Thermometers) ; in this 
they Will continue flouriihing all the 
Winter, and early the next Spring 
will produce Flowers, which will be 
fucceeded by Fruit. 

The eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, 
twelfth, and thirteenth Sorts are an- 
nual Plants, which are alfo Natives 
of the warm Parts of America ; fo 
thefe muft be fown on a good Hot- 
bed in the Spring ; and if the Plants 
are brought forward early, and 
placed in the Bark-ftove, they will 
perfect their Seeds in England. But 
thefe mould have a large Share of 
Air in warm W r eather, efpecially at 
the time when they are in Flower ; 
for as the Male Flowers grow at re- 
mote Diltances from the Female, on 
the fame Plants, there is a Neceflity 
for the Ad million of Air to aiTift the 
wafting of the Farina for the Im- 
pregnation of the Seeds, otherwife 
they will be barren ; which is often 
the Occafion of the Lofs of thefe 
Species in Europe. 

The twelfth Sort is an annual 
Plant, and is found wild in the 
South of France, Spain, and Italy, 
from which the Tournelbl is made, 
that is us'd for colouring Wine and 
Jellies. This is made of the Juice 
which is lodgM between the outer 
Cover and the Seeds ; and, if rubbed 
on Cloth, at firft appears of a lively 
green Colour, but foon changeth to 
a bluifh - purple Colour : if thefe 
Cloths are put into Water, and af- 
terwards wrung, they will colour 
the Water of a Claret-colour. The 

Rags, 



R I 

Rags, thus dy'd, are brought to 
England, and fold in the Druggifts 
Shop?, by the Name of Tourneiol. 

Tnis Sort may be propagated by 
Seeds, which mould be fown in the 
Autumn, foon after they are ripe, 
on a warm Border of frefh light 
Earth ;and if any of the Plants come 
up before Winter (which fometimes 
happens), they mould be melter'd in 
hard Froil, otherwife they will not 
live through the Winter. But the 
Seeds generally remain in the 
Ground until the Spring, when the 
Plants will appear ; at which time 
they fhould be cleaned fromWeeds ; 
and where the Plants are too clofe, 
th-y (hould be thin ed, fo as to leave 
them about fix Inches afunder ; and 
in very dry Weather, if they are 
now-and-then refrelhed with Water, 
it will promote their Growth. 
This is all- the Culture they require, 
except the keeping them conilantly 
clear from Weeds ; for the Plants 
do not thrive well, if they are trans- 
planted ; fo they mould be fown 
where they are defigned to remain. 
In July the Piants will flower, and 
their Seeds will ripen in Augujl or 
September, and decay foon after. 

RICINUS, Palma Chriiti, vulgo. 
The Characters are ; 

Toe Flowers are apetalous ( i. e. 
have no Leaves ), conffing of many 
Stamina, wh : ch arife in the Centre 
of the Flower- cup : thefe are barren ; 
for the Embryoes are produced at re- 
mote Dt fiances, upon the fame Plant-, 
which afterward become triangular 
Fruits, having three Cells ; in each 
of which is contained one oblong Seed, 
which has an hard Shell. 
The Species are. ; 

I. Ricinus vulgaris. C. B. P. 
The common Palma Chnili, com- 
monly known in the IFtJl-lndies by 
the Name of Oil-nat, or Agnus 
Callus. 



R I 

2 . Ricinus vulgaris minor. C.B. 
P. Caule rutilante. The letter Pal- 
ma Chrifti, with redifh Stalks, com- 
monly call'd in Barbados , red Oil- 
feed. 

3 . R I c l N u s vulgaris minor. C.B. P '. 
Caule virefcentc. Leffer Palma Chri- 
fli, with green Stalks, commonly 
call'd white Oil-feeds in Barbados. 

4. Ricinus Americanus major \ 
caule virefcente. H. R.P. The great- 
er Palma Chriili, with green Stalks. 

5. Ricinus Africanus maximus 
caule geniculato rutilante. H. R.Par. 
The greatelt African Palma Chrifti, 
with redifli jointed St Iks. 

6 . Ricinus Indicus, fruclu rugofo 
non echinato. Indian Oil-feed, with 
a rough Fruit not echinated. 

7. Ricinus Americanus, fruclu 
raamofo hifpido. John. Dend. Ame- 
rican Oil -feed, with prickly Fruit 
growing in a duller. 

8. Ricinus Americanus, fruclu 
racsmofo glabro major e. Millar. Ame- 
rican Oil- feed, with larger fmooth 
Fruit growing in a Clufter. 

q. Ricinus Americanus minor, 
fruSlu racemojo glabr 0. Millar . Small- 
er American Oil -feed, with fmooth 
Fruit growing in Clutters. 

10. Ricinus Zeylanicus, foliis 
profundius laciniatis. Inf. R. H. 
Oil-feed of Zeylon, with Leaves deep- 
ly cut in. 

11. Ricinus hum ills, foliis fub- 
rotundis J'erratis, iff fubtus argtntds, 
fire frucluque conglomeratis. Houft. 
Dwarf Oil- feed, with roundifh faw- 
ed Leaves, which are filvery under- 
neath, and the Flowers and Fruit 
growing in Bunches. 

The five Sorts firll-mention'd are 
very common in divers Parts of 
Africa and Amci-ica ; and one of them 
is alfo found in the warm Parts of 
Europe ; but in England they are 
preierv'd with great Care in feveral 
curious Gardens. 

4G4 The 



R I 

The firft Sort has been a long time 
in this Country, but was formerly 
treated as an annual Plant; whereas, 
if it be preferv'd in a good Green- 
houfe, it will abide two or three 
Years, and become a large Plant. 

The fecond and third Sorts grow 
prDmiicuoufly all ovtx America, where 
tneir Seeds are gather'd to draw an 
Oil from them, for the Ufe of* 
Lamps ; thefe Seeds are frequently 
fent into England, intermixed with 
each other. 

The fourth Sort is alfo very com- 
mon in America, growing promifcu- 
oufly with the common Sort ; the 
Seeds of both being gather'd indif- 
ferently to draw an Oil from them. 

The fifth Sort, though mention'd 
to be a Native of Africa, yet is alfo 
very common in divers Parts of 
America, from whence I have feve- 
ral times receiv'd the Seeds. This 
produces very large Leaves and 
Seeds, and will grow to a large 
Size, if planted in a rich Soil. I have 
meafur'd one of the Leaves of this 
Plant (which was growing nearCW- 
Jea), which was upward of two Feet 
Diameter ; and the Stem was as 
large as a middle fiz'd Broom -ftaff, 
tho 1 but of one Summer's Growth. 

The Seeds of the fixth Sort were 
brought from the Eajt-lndies, which 
came up and fiourifh'd in the Phy- 
fic-garden at Cbelfea. This Sort 
grows about the fame Height as the 
common Kind ; but the Leaves are 
not fo deeply divided. The Cover- 
ings of the Seeds are not prickly, as 
in moft of the other Sores (fomewhat 
refembling the outer Cover of the 
Chelmut) ; but are rough, and full 
of Protuberances. 

The Seeds of the feventh and 
eighth Sorts were fent from Jamai- 
ca by Mr. Robert Millar, who ga- 
ther'd them on the North Side of 



R I 

thatlfland. Thefe Plants grow, in 
their native Country, to be eigh- 
teen or twenty Feet high, and con- 
tinue two or three Years. They 
are nearly alike in their outward 
Appearance ; but differ in the Co- 
vering of their Seeds, the feventh 
having prickly Covers, and the 
eighth being fmooth. 

The ninth Sort is a lew Plant, 
feldom rifing above three Feet high, 
and differs from the common fmall 
Sort, in having fmooth Covers to 
the Seeds : this is lefs common, and 
hath not been remarked by any Bo- 
tanical Writer. 

The tenth Sort is a Native of 
Ceylon, from whence the Seeds were 
brought to Holland; and hath been 
cultivated in many curious Gardens. 
The Leaves of this Kind are very 
deeply jagged, in which it chiefly 
differs from the common Sort. 

The eleventh Sort was dilcover'd 
by the late Dr. William Hewfiom at 
Campecby, from whence he fent the 
Seeds to England. This is a very 
low Plant, feldom rifing above nine 
Inches or a Foot high, and perifhes 
foon after the Seeds are perfected. 

Thefe Plants may be propagated 
by fowing their Seeds upon an Hot- 
bed ■, and when they are come up, 
they fnould be each planted into a 
feparate Pot fili'd with frefli light 
Earth, and plunged into a frefh Hot- 
bed, obferving to water and made 
them until they have taken Root ; 
after which they mufc have a great 
Share of free Air, when the Seafon 
is mild, otherwife they will draw up 
tall, and be very weak ; and as thefe 
Plants grow very fait, their Roots 
will in a fhort time fill the Pots : 
therefore they mould be fhifted into 
larger Pots filled with the like frefh 
Earth; and toward the Latter end 
of May, when the Seafon is warm, 



R I 

they may be harden'd to endure the 
open Air by degrees ; and then, if 
they are planned out into a very rich 
Border, and in dry Weather duly 
waterM, they will grow to a very 
large Size, particularly the firft Sort, 
which I have feen upward of ten 
Feet high in one Seafon ; and thefe 
Plants have produe'd a great Quan- 
tity of Flowers and Seeds ; but 
if you intend to preferve them 
through the Winter, they muft ne- 
ver be placed in the full Ground, 
becaufe after their Roots have been 
widely extended, there will be no 
tra./planting them with Safety ; 
therefore the bell way is to ftiift 
them into larger Pots from time to 
time, ab their Roots (hall require, 
placing them in the open Air during 
the Surnmer-feafon, in fome warm 
Situation, where they may rema ; n till 
Otiobtr, when they muft be remov'd 
into the Houfe with other Exotic 
Plants, obferving duly to water 
them inWinter wnen they require it, 
and let them have free Air in mild 
Weather ; for they only require to 
be proteded from Froft, and cold 
Winds, fo that they will endure the 
Winter in a warm Green - houfe 
without any Addition of artificial 
Warmth. 

The nrfi four Sorts will perfect 
their Seeds the firft Seafon in this 
Climate, provided they are fovvn 
early in the Spring ; but the fifth 
Sort will rarely produce any till the 
fecond Year ; fo that there is a Ne- 
ceifity of preferving this through the 
Winter, otherwife it cannot be main- 
tain'd in England. 

Thefe Plants deferve a Place in 
every curious Garden for the fingu- 
lar Beauty of their Leaves (notwith- 
ftanding their Flowers are not very 
valuable), efpecially thofe Sorts 
which may be propagated every Year 
from Seeds, became thofe Perfons 



K 1 

who have no Green-houfe to place 
them into in Winter, may cultivate 
them as other annual Plants; amongfl: 
which thefe, being placed either in 
Pots or Borders, afford an agree- 
able Variety : but it muft be ob- 
ferv'd, as thefe are large-growing 
Plants, never to place them too near 
other Plants of lefs Growth, becaufe 
thefe will overbear and deftroy them; 
and thofe which are planted in Pots, 
mould be allow'd room for their 
Roots to expand, and muft be fre- 
quently water'd, otherwife they will 
not grow very large. 

R1COPHORA, Yams. 

The Characters of this Genus of 
Plants are not fufhciently delcribed 
to afcertain what Gals it belongs 
to; nor do thefePlants produceFlow- 
ers in any of the European Gardens ; 
fo that, unlefs the Flowers are exa- 
mined by a ikilful Perfon in their 
native Places of Growth, it will not 
be known where to place it. 

Dr. Van Roytn, Profeifor of Bota- 
ny at Leyden, has ranged thefePlants 
under the Genus of Diofcona; but 
from the imperfect Remains of fome 
Flowers brought from America, it 
appeared to me this mould not be 
placed there. 

The S pedes are ; bamt 

1. RicoTHORAlndica, feu In 
rubra, caule alato fcammonii, foliit 
nervojis conjugatis. Par. Bat, Prod* 
The red-ftall^d Yam. 

2. RlCOPHORA magnaVirgimana, 
bryonitf nigrse modo 'volubilis \Jingulari 
folio ner-vofo jiexili, caule tetragono, 
ad angulos elato. Pluk. Almag. The 
great Virginian Yam, with a fquare 
Stalk climbing like Black-bryony, 
and a fingle-ribb'd Leaf. 

There are fome other Varieties 
of this Plant in the warm Parts of 
the Eajl and IVefi-Indies ; but th* r e 
two are the moft commonly culti- 
vated for Ufe. Thefe Plants are 

wild 



R I 

wild in the Woods in Zeylon, and are 
reckoned as good as thofe which are 
cultivated ; but as they are difficult 
to dig up, and grow fcattering at a 
great Diftance from each other, fa 
the Inhabitants of that Ifland plant 
them in open Fields for Food. Thefe 
are alfo cultivated by the Inhabit- 
ants of Jamaica, and the other 
Iflands in America ; and are efteemed 
a very wholfome Food. The man- 
ner of propagating them is the fame 
as for Potatoes ; which is, to divide 
the Roots into feveral Pieces, pre- 
ferving a Bud or Eye to each, and 
planting them in Drills, at about a 
Foot and an half Diftance in the 
Rows, and three Feet afunder Row 
from Row. Thefe Drills mould be 
made a Foot deep ; and, after the 
Pieces of Roots are laid therein, 
mull be covered over with the Earth 
which came out of the Drills. After 
this they require no farther Care 
but to keep the Ground clear from 
Weeds, until the Shoots are grown 
flrong, when they will over-top the 
Weeds, and prevent their growing. 
In about ten Months after the plant- 
ing, the Roots will be fully grown 
for Ufe ; when they will, fome of 
them, weigh five or fix Pounds per 
Root or more : when they are taken 
out of the Ground, they muft be 
laid up in dry Sand to prefer ve them 
for Ufe ; but the Sand muft be kept 
very dry, othervvife the R'jots will 
grow, and oftentimes they will rot 
with much Moifture. With thefe 
Roots the Planters feed their Ne- 
groes inftead of Bread ; and they 
grind the Roots to a Powder, and 
make Puddens of it, in the fame 
manner as Wheat-flour is ufed in 
England: but the P^oots muft be 
well foaked in Water before they are 
ufed, to draw out the (harp biting 
Tafte, which ^they have when taken 
oat of the Ground. 



R I 

Thefe Plants are preferved in fome 
curious Gardens in Europe for Va- 
riety ; but as there is little Beauty 
in them, they are hardly worthy of a 
Place ; for they muft be kept in a 
warm Stove, and plunged into the 
Tanners Bark, otherwile they will 
not thrive in this Country. The 
Shoots of thefe Plants will rife to the 
Height of ten or twelve Feet, and 
twine about the Plants which are 
near them ; fo that where thefe are 
preferved, they mould be placed 
near a Trelace on the Back-fide of 
the Bark-bed ; and as the Shoots are 
produced, they mould be trained 
up to the Poles of the Trelace to 
fupport them, that they may not 
ramble over the Plants, and deftroy 
them. The Shoots of thefe die to the 
Root in Winter ; after which time 
they mould not have much Water 
given to them, left it mould rot 
them ; but, during the Summer-fea- 
fon, they muft be plentifully watered 
in hot Weather. Thefe Roots muft 
be taken up^in March , before they 
begin to moot, and new-potted ; and 
at the fame time, it will be proper to 
cut off the old decayed Parts of the 
Roots, preferving on'y the found, 
and fuch as have good Buds or Eyes 
for planting : for if the whole Roots 
are planted, as they were taken out 
of the Ground, they are very fubject 
to rot ; fo that it is much better to 
cut the Roots into feveral Parts, and 
let thefe lie a few Days to heal their 
Wounds, before they are planted. 
Thefe mould be plunged into an 
Hot bed, and mult have very little 
Moifture until they (hoot; but after- 
ward will require itmore plentifully. 

RJVINIA. 
The Characters are ; 

The Flower is apclalous : the Em- 
blement confcjis of four L^oi-fs, 
which are placed circularly ', and ex - / 
pand in form of a Rofe : the Point 'at 



R O 



is Jituated in the Centre, attended by 
fix Stamina, which are extended be- 
yond the Empalcme::t : the Point al af- 
terward becomes a foft roundijh Berry, 
full of Juice, in which is included a 
Jingle Seed. 

The Title of this Genus was giv- 
en to it by Father Plumier, who dif- 
cover'd the Plants in America, in 
Honour to Auguftus Quirtnus Riii- 
nus, a famous Botamil of Leipfic, 
who publifh'd two Volumes of Plants 
in Folio, in which the Figures of 
the Plants are engraven on Copper- 
plates. Thefe were publifh'd in 
1690. 

Dr. Linnaeus has applied the Ti- 
tle of this Genus to the Solanoides 
of Tourncfort, which is by Dr. Boer- 
baave join'd to the Phytolacca ; fo 
has been of late Years chiefly known 
by the Name of Phytolacca fruclu 
tninori; but this is totally different 
from Plumier 1 * Plants ; and the 
Doctor has charged Father Plumier 
with an Error in the engraving of 
the Characters of this Genus with fix 
Stamina, inltead of four : whereas 
Plumier $ Plants have fix Stamina ; 
but the Plant which the Doctor has 
applied to this Title has but four. 
Therefore the Miftake is the Doc- 
tor's, and not Father Plumier 's. 
The Species are ; 

1 . R 1 v 1 n 1 a humilis racemofa,bac- 
cis puuiceh. Plum. AW. Gen. Dwarf 
branching Rivinia, with fcarlet Ber- 
ries, fometiines call'd Curran-tree 

2 . Rivima fcandi vs raccmofa, 
amplis folaui foliis, baccis <violaceis. 
Plum. N^v. Gen. Climbing branch- 
ing Rivinia, with ample Night- 
fhade-leave?, and Violet-berries. 

The firlt Sort grows about four or 
five Feet high, having very woody 
Stems and Branches ; the Leaves are 
fhaped fomewhat like thofe of the 
Pear-tree, but are more pointed : 
the Flowers are produe'd in a long 



Bunch, like thofe of the Curran-tree, 
toward the End of the Branches. 
Thefe are fucceeded by Berries 
about the Size of Currans, of a fcar- 
let Colour. 

The other Sort hath climbing 
woody Branches, which twill them- 
felves about thofe Trees which 
grow near it; and rifes to the 
Height of twenty Feet ; the Leaves 
of this Sort are much larger than 
thofe of the other ; the Flowers- 
grow in clofer Clutters; and the Ber- 
ries are of a Violet - colour when 
ripe. This Sort was found grow- 
ing in Jamaica, by the late Dr. 
William Houjloun, who alfo found 
the firlt. Sort at the Havannab. 

Both thefe Plants are tender ; fo 
cannot be preferved through the 
Winter in England, unlefs they are 
placed in a warm Stove. They may- 
be propagated by Seeds ; but thefe 
commonly remain a whole Year in 
the Ground : fo that they mould be 
fewn in Pots,which may be plung'd 
into the Tan-bed, where they muft 
be kept warm inWinter, and in the 
following Spring mould be plung'd 
into a frefh Hot-bed of lan, to 
bring up the Plants : and when they 
are fit to remove, they mould be 
each planted into a feparate fmall 
Pot filPd with frem light Earth, and 
plung'd into the Tan-bed ; and then 
the Plants lhould be treated in the 
fame manner as hath been directed 
for other tenderPlants from the fame 
Countries. 

I received the Berries of the firft 
Sort from Antigua, by the Name of 
Currans. 

ROBINTA, Falfe Acacia. 

The Characters are ; 
The Empalcment of the Flower y 
of one Leaf, and divided into four 
Parts, the three Under -figments being 
narrow, but the upper one is broad: 
the F/ow-er is of the pea - bloom 

Kind: 



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Kind: the Standard is large, roundijh, 
and fpreads open : the two W ings are 
aval and obtufe : the Keel is roundijh, 
comprefs'd y obtufe, and is extended the 
Length of the W ings : in the Centre 
of the Keel is Jit totted the Pointal, at- 
tended by ten Stamina, nine of them 
being joined together, and the other 
funding Jingle : theje are inclojed by 
the Keel : the Pointal afterward be- 
comes an oblong comprefs'd Pod, inclofe • 
ing kidney-Jhaf d Seeds. 
The Species are ; 

1 . Rob in i a pedunculis raeemofis. 
foliis pinnatis. Hort. Upjal. Com- 
mon Virginia Acacia, with fmooth 
Pods. 

2. Rob in I a foliis pinnatis, legu- 
minibus echinatis. Virginia Acacia, 
with fhort prickly Pods. 

3. PvOBiNiA pedunculis fmplicijji- 
tnis, foliis pinnatis. Hort. Upjal. 
The Caragana. 

4. Robin 1 a pedunculis JimpliciJ]i~ 
mis, foliis quaternatis petiolatis. Hort. 
Upfal. Falle Acacia, with a Tingle 
Footilalk, having four Lobes. 

5. Robin 1 a pedunculis jimplicijf- 
nsisy pinnis fubrotundis, leguminibus 
alaiis. Falie Acacia, with fingle 
footilalks, round Lobes, and wing'd 
Pods ; commonly calPd Dog-wood 
in the Weft - ladies. 

The firft Sort has been long an In- 
habitant of many EngHJb Gardens, 
where it was commonly known by 
the fimple Title of Acacia : but as 
this is of a very different Genus 
from the true Acacia, Dr. Fourncfort 
has given the Tile of Pfeudoacacia 
to this Genus of Plants: but Dr. 
Linn<cus has rejected this Name, as 
it is a Compound ; and has cail'd it 
Rjbinia, in Honour to Moniieur 
Robine, who introduced this Tree 
into the Gardens of France from 
tiorth-America. 

The fecond Sort is lefs common 
than the fitft. There was a large 



Tree of this kind, fome Years ago, 
growing in the Bifhop of London's 
Garden at Fulham, which produced 
plenty of Seeds. The Pods of this 
Sort are much fhorter, and clofely 
befet with ftiort Prickles ; but in 
other refpeclsit agrees with the firft 
Sort. There is alio anotherVariety 
of thisTree, which has rofe-colour'd 
Flowers ; but this is not common in 
England, nor do I believe it is plenty 
in America ; though I have been in- 
form'd, that in fome of the Woods 
in New- England, they are in as 
great Plenty as the common Sort ; 
which if true, in time this Sort may 
become common in England. 

The third Sort is a Native of Si- 
beria, from whence the Seeds have 
been brought, and diftributed to 
many Gardens in England and Hol- 
land. This Sort grows to the 
Height of twenty or thirty Feet in 
its native Country, and produces 
long Clutters of fweet yellow Flow- 
ers : but in England there are few 
of thefe Plants which thrive well; 
for they generally begin to moot 
with the firft warm Weather in Fe- 
bruary, and if Froft happens after 
(which is generally the Cafe in this 
Country), the Shoots are kilPd; and 
this flints the Plants fo much, as that 
they do not recover it the following 
Summer. This is propagated by 
Seeds, which mould be fown on a 
Bed of light Earth, in the Spring of 
the Year, covering them about half 
an Inch deep with the fame light 
Earth. The Plants will come up in 
abouc five or fix Weeks, and will re- 
quire no other Care but to keep 
them clean from Weeds ; and in 
the Autumn they mult be tranfplant- 
ed where they are defign'd to re- 
main, becaufe they do not bear 
tranfplanting well. Thefe Plants 
Ihould have a cool Situation, and a 
moiii Soil, in which I find they thrive 

bettef 



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better than when they have a warm 
Situation. Where thefe Plants have 
fucceeded belt, they have produc'd 
Flowers, and perfected their Seeds, 
the fourth Year from Seeds : but in 
other Places I have known the Plants 
ftand three or four Years after their 
Removal, without making the 
leaft Progrefs. 

The fourth Sort is alfo a Native 
of Siberia : this grows to be a Shrub 
of about five or fix Feet high, bear- 
ing Clufters of yellow Flowers, 
which come out early in the Spring. 
This Sort thrives better in England 
than the former ; but they both do 
beft in a cold Situation, and a moift 
Soil. The firft Sore is generally propa- 
gated in the Bnglijb Nurferies, by 
Suckers taken from the Roots of the 
old Trees : but thefe are not fo va- 
luable as thofe which are raifed from 
Seeds ; becaufe they do not make 
near fo great Progrefs in their 
Growth, and are very fubject to 
fend forth many Suckers from their 
Roots, whereby the Ground will be 
fill'd with them, to a great Diftance; 
and thefe Suckers will draw away 
the Nourifhment from the old Plants, 
whereby theirGrowth will be great- 
ly retarded. 

If this is propagated by Seeds, 
they fhould be fown on a Bed of 
light Earth, about the Latter-end of 
March, or the Beginning of April. 
If the Bed is well cxpofed to the 
Sun, the Plants will appear in 
about five or fix Weeks, and will 
require no farther Care but to keep 
them clear from Weeds. In this 
Bed the Plants may remain till 
the following Spring, when they 
ihouH be tranfplanted into a Nurfe- 
ry about the Latter end q{ March, 
placing them in Rows at three Feet 
.Diftance Row from Row, and a 
Foot and an half afunder in the 
Rows. In this Nurfery they may 



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remain two Years, by which time 
they will be fit to tranfplant where 
they are defign'd to grow : for as 
thefe Trees fend forth long tough 
Roots, fo, if they Hand long unre- 
mov'd, the Roots will extend them- 
felves to a great Diftance ; therefore 
they muft be cut oft* when the Plants 
are tranfplanted, which fometimes 
occafions their mifcarrying. 

Thefe Trees will grow well upon 
almoft every Soil, but beft in a light 
fandy Ground, in which they will 
moot fix or eight Feet in one Year ; 
and while the Trees are young, they 
make an agreeable Appearance, be- 
ing well furniftfd with Leaves ; but 
when they are old, the Branches be- 
ing frequently broken by Winds, 
render them unfightly ; efpecially if 
they ftand in an expofed Place. The 
Leaves of thefe Trees come out the 
Beginning of jkfajr, and they flower in 
June, and frequently ripen Seeds in 
England. 

Thefe Trees were formerly in 
great Requeft in England, and were 
frequently planted in Avenues, and 
for (hady Walks ; but theirBranches 
being frequently broken, or fplit 
down by the Wind in Summer, when 
they are cloath'd with Leaves, ren- 
der thefe Trees improper for this 
Purpofe ; and their Leaves coming 
out late in the Spring, and falling 
off" early in the Autumn, occafion'd 
their being neglected for many Years: 
but of late they have been much in 
Requeft again, fo that the Nurferies 
have been cleafd of thefe Trees ; 
though in a few Years they will be 
as lictle inquired after ab heretofore, 
when thofe which have been lately 
planted begin to have their ragged 
Appearance. 

The Flowers of this Tree are 
produced in long pendulousBunches, 
and, when they are in plenty, make 
a fine Appearance, being ot an ele- 
gant 



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gant White, and they have an agree- 
able Odour ; but they feldom laft 
longer than a Week in Beauty. 

The fifth Sort is a Native of the 
warmeft Parts of America, where it 
grows to the Height of thirty Feet, 
having a large Trunk : the Branches 
are produced irregularly on every 
Side : thefe are cloathed with wing- 
ed Leaves, which are generally com- 
pofed of feven large roundilh Lobes, 
each having a ftiort Footftalk. The 
Flowers are produced on the Branches 
before the Leaves put out : for in 
their native Soil thefe Trees cart their 
Leaves in the great Droughts ; where- 
as thofe Plants which are preferred 
in England, retain their Leaves 
throughout the Year. 

This is a tender Plant ; fo will not 
live through the Winter in England, 
unlefs it is placed in a warm Stove. 
It is propagated by Seeds, which 
mould be fown in the Spring upon 
an Hot-bed ; and, when the Plants 
come up, they mud be treated in the 
fame manner as hath been directed 
for other tender Plants, and mould 
be conftantly kept in the Tan-bed in 
the warm Stove. There are fome 
of thefe Plants in England ten Feet 
high; but they have not produced 
Flowers. This is call'd Dogwood 
in America. 

RONDELETIA. 
The Characters are ; 

It hath a falver-Jhap^d Flower, 
conjijling of one Leaf which is tubu- 
lous, and rejis on the Empalement ; 
which Empalement afterward becomes 
a roundijh coronated Fruit, divided 
into two Cells, containing many fmall 
Seeds. 

We know but one Species of this 
Plant ; viz. 

Rondeletia arbor efcens, tini fa- 
cie. Plum. Nov. Gen. Tree-like Ron- 
deletia, with the Face of Laurus 
Tinus. 



This Plant was difcover'd by Fa- 
ther Piumitr in America, who gav« 
it this Name in Honour to Guliel- 
mus Rorideletius, a famous Phyfician 

of Montpelier. 

The Seeds of this Plant were fent 
to England by Mr. Robert Millar, 
Surgeon, who collected them on the 
North Side of the Ifland of Jamaica, 
where the Trees grow plentifully, as 
alfo in feveral Parts of the Spanife 
Weft-Indies. 

This Plant, being very tender, 
cannot be preferv'd in England, un- 
lefs it is kept in a warm Stove. It 
is propagated by Seeds, which mould 
be fown on an Hot-bed early in the 
Spring ; and when the Plants are 
come up, they mud be tranfplanted 
into feparate fmall Pots, and plunged 
into a moderate Hot-bed of Tan- 
ners Bark, where they mull be treat- 
ed in the fame manner as hath been 
diredted for the Perefkia ; and in 
Winter muft be plac'd in the Tan- 
bed in the Stove, where thefe Plants 
will thrive, and in two or three 
Years will flower ; when they will 
make an agreeable Variety amongft 
other tender Exotic Plants. 

ROSA, The Rofe-tree. 
The Characters are ; 

The Flower is compo/ed of feveral 
Leaves, which are placed circularly, 
and expand in a beautiful Order ; 
whofe leafy Flower-cup afterward 
becomes a roundi/b or oblong flrjby 
Fruit, inclofng feveral angular hairy 
Seeds : to which may be added, It is 
a weak pithy Shrub, for the ?noft part 
befet with Prickles, and hath pinna- 
ted Leaves. 

The Species are ; 

I'. Rosa fylvefiris inodora, feu ca- 
nina. Park. I heat. The Wild -briar, 
Dog-rofe, or Hep-tree. 

2. Rosa fylvefiris, fruclu ma j ore 
hifpido. Raii Syn. Wild-briar, or 



R O 

Dog -rofe, with large prickly 
Heps. 

3. Rosa fylveftris pomifera major 
noftras. Raii Syn. The greater Englijh 
apple-bearing Rofe. 

4. Rosa pumila fpinofiftima, foliis 
pimpinelU glabris, fore albo. J. B. 
The Dwarf wild -burnet -leav'd 
Rofe. 

5. Rosa pumila fpinofiffima, foliis 
fimpinelliS glabris, ex luteo Cff viridi 
elegant er <variegatis. The Dwarf 
wild-burnet-leav'd Rofe, with varie- 
gated Leaves. 

6. Rosa pimpinella minor Scotica, 
fioribus ex albo & cameo eleganter 
variegatis. Pluk. Aim. The ltriped 
Scotch Role. 

7. Rosa fylveftris, foliis odoratis. 
C. B. P. The Sweet-briar, or Eg- 
lantine. 

8. Rosa fylveftris odor a five Eg- 
lanteria, fore duplici. Park. Parad. 
Sweet-briar with a double Flower. 

9. Rosa fylveftris, foliis odoratis, 
fore plena. The Sweet-briar with a 
very double Flower. 

10. Rosa fylveftris, foliis odora- 
tis, fempervirens, fore plena incarna- 
to. Ever-green Sweet briar, with a 
double pale Flower. 

1 1 . Rosa rubra multiplex. C.B.P. 
The double red Rofe. 

12. Rosa Dmnafcena. Park. Parad. 
The DamaLc Rofe. 

1 3. Rosa Provincialis, five Hol- 
landica, Damafcena. Park. Pa? ad. 
The Damafk Provence Rofe. 

14. Rosa Provincialis major, fore 
pleno ruberrimo. Boerh. Ind. Alt. 
The red Provence Rofe. 

15. Rosa centi folia Batavica. 
Clufi H. The Dutch hundred- leav'd 
Rofe. 

16. Rosa Provincialis fpinofiffima, 
pedunculo mufco/o. Boerh. Ind. Alt. 
The Mofs Provence Rofe. 

17. Rosa Provincialis rubra. Park. 



R O 

Parad. Thecommon Provence Rofe. 

18. Rosa holofericea fimplex. Park. 
Parad. The fingle Velvet Rofe. 

19. Rosa holofericea multiplex* 
Park. Parad. The double Velvet 
Role. 

20. Rosa odore cinnamomi, flore 
pleno. C. B. P. The double Cinna- 
mon Rofe. 

2 1 . Rosa odore cinnamomi, fimplex* - 
C. B. P. The fingle Cinnamon 
Rofe. 

22. Rosa lutea fimplex. C.B.P* 
The fingle yellow Role. 

23. Rosa lutea multiplex. C. B. P. 
The double yellow Rofe. 

24. Rosa fylveftris At/ft riaca, fore 
phoeniceo. Park. Theat. The Aufrian 
Rofe. 

25. Rosa fylveftris Auftriaca^ 
fore totum luteum. The yellow Ail- 
ftrian Rofe. 

26. Rosa uno ramo luteos, ceteris 
puniceos fores gerens fimplices. Boerh. 
Ind. Alt. The Aufrian Rofe, with 
yellow Flowers upon one Branch, 
and purple Flowers on the other. 

27. Rosa alba vulgaris major. 
C. B. P. The common white Rofe. 

28. Rosa alba minor. C. B. P. 
The leffer white Rofe. 

29. Rosa Candida femiplena. J. 
B. The femidouble white Rofe. 

30. Rosa incarnata. Park. Parad. 
The Blum Rofe, or Maiden-bluih. 

31. Rosa Prteneflina variegata 
plena. Hort. Eyft. The York and Lan- 
c after Rofe. 

32. Rosa rubra & albo variegata, 
Rofa mundi vulgo did a. Raii Hift. 
The Rofe of the World, or Rofa 
mundi. 

33. Rosa Franc of urtenfis. Park. 
Parad. The Frankfort Rofe. 

34. Rosa fempervirens. Park. 
Parad. The ever green Rofe. 

35. Rosa omnium calendarum. H. 
R. Par. The monthly Rofe. 

36. Rosa 



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36. Rosa omnium calendarum, 
fore variegato. The ilriped monthly 
Rofe. 

37. Rosa fine /pint's, Jlore mi nor e. 
C. B. P. The Rofe without Thorns. 

38. Rosa fine fpinis, fore major e 
ruberrimo. The royal Virgin Rofe. 

39. Rosa fyhefiris Virginienfis. 
Rati Hifi. The wild Virginian Rofe. 

40. Rosa fyhefiris Virginiana, 
Jlore majore pallido. The wild Virgi- 
nian Rofe, with a larger pale Flow- 
er. 

41. Rosa Americana mofchata, 
Jlore minore. The American Mufk 
Rofe, with a fmaller Flower. 

42. Rosa Americana odor at ijp. ma 
ferotina, fiore pallido pleno. The mod 
fweet-fcented American late-flower- 
ing Rofe, with a double Flower. 

43. Rosa mofchata, fimplici fiore. 
C. B. P. The fingle Mufk Rofe. 

44. Rosa mofchata, fiore pleno. 
C. B. P. The double Mufk Rofe. 

45. Rosa mofchata fempervirens. 
C. B. P. The ever -green Mufk 
Rofe. 

46. Rosa Belgica, five vitrea, 
Jlore rubro, Rea. Flor. The red Belgic 
Rofe. 

47. Rosa Belgica, five vitrea, 
fiore rubicante. Rea. Flor. The Blum 
Belgic Rofe. 

48. Rosa marmorea. Rea. Flor. 
The marbled Rofe. 

49. Rosa Provincialis, fiore fim- 
plici. The fingle Provence Rofe. 

50. Rosa Damafcena, fiore fim- 
plici. The fingie Damafk Rofe. 

51. Rosa pimpinella minor Scotica, 
Jlore livide rubente. The Dwarf 
Scotch Rofe, with a bluifh-red Flow- 
er. 

The firft Sort of Rofe grows wild 
in the Hedges in moft Parts of Eng- 
land : the Fruit of this Tree is made 
into a Conferve for medicinal Ufe ; 
but this is feldom cultivated in Gar- 
dens. 



The fecond, third, and fourth 
Sorts alfo grow wild in divers Parts 
of England ; and are rarely preferved 
in Gardens, untefs for Variety-fake. 

The third Sort is a very tall- 
growing Shrub, having ftrong up- 
right Shoots ; the Flowers are fingle, 
and of a bright -red Colour; the 
Fruit is very large, and is by fome 
Perfons made into a Sweet-meat ; fo 
the Plant is cultivated in many Gar- 
dens on that account. 

The fourth Sort is of humble 
Growth, feldom rifing much above 
three Feet high ; the Leaves are like 
thofe of Burnet ; the Flowers are 
white, fingle, and have a mufky 
Scent. 

The fifth Sort is a Variety of the 
fourth, and is preferved by fome for 
the Beauty of its flriped Leaves. 

The fixth Sort is found wild in 
Scotland, and has been by many fup- 
pofed to be the fame as the fourth 
Sort, but only differing, therefrom in 
having variegated Flowers; which 
is a great Miftake ; for I have ob- 
ferv'd, where the two Sorts were 
cultivated on the fame Soil for many 
Years, and yet retain'd a confider- 
able Difference in the Size of the 
Plants, the Scotch Sort being not half 
fo large as the other; yet the Flow- 
ers were much larger, the Leaves 
were lefs, and the Branches much 
weaker, than thofe of the fourth 
Sort. 

The lafl Sort here mention'd was 
rais'd from the Seeds of the Scotch 
Rofe ; and altho' the Flowers were 
plain-colourM, yet the whole Ap- 
pearance of the Plant cominues the 
fame as the original Kind; which is 
a plain Proof of its being different 
from the fourth Sort. 

The Sweet-briar, altl-io' wild in 
fome Parts of England, yet is pre- 
ferv'd in moll curious Gardens, for 
the extreme Sweemefs of its Leaves, 

which 



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\rhich perfumes the circumambient 
Air iq the Spring of the Year, elpe- 
ciaily after a Shower of Rain. The 
Flowers of this Sort, being Angle, 
are not valu'd j but the Branches or 
the Shrubs are cut to intermix with 
Flowers to place in Batons to adorn 
Halls, Parlours, (Sc. in the Spring 
of the Year, the Scent of this Plant 
being agreeable to mo ft Per fens. 

Tne double-flower'd Sweet - briar 
is preferv'd cn the account of its 
beaut:ful Flowers, as well as for the 
Sweetneis of its green Leaves. 

The other Sort, with very double 
Flowers, has been lately obtained 
from Seeds ; and as the Flowers of 
this Kind are much mors double 
than thofe of the other, it has ob- 
tained tile Preference with molt Peo- 
ple : the Flowers of this Sort have 
little Scent. 

The ever- green Sweet-briar, with 
a double pale Flower, has been very 
lately obtained "from Seeds : the 
Leaves of this Sort commonly con- 
tinue green till the Spring, which 
has occafion'd many Perfons to co- 
vet the Plants ; but this is what has 
been obtained from Seeds feveral 
times, tho' not with a double Flow- 
er. 

All the other Sorts of Rofes are 
originally of foreign Growth ; but 
are hardy enough to endure the Cold 
of our Climate in the open Air, and 
produce the molt beautiful and fra- 
grant Flowers of any kind of Shrubs 
yet known : this, together with the r 
long Continuance in Flower, has 
juftly render'd them the moil valuable 
of all the Sorts of flowering Shrubs ; 
befide, the great Variety of different 
Sorts of Roles make a Collection of 
Flowers, either for Bafons, or in the 
Garden, without any other addi- 
tional Mixture ; and their Scent, be- 
ing the melt inoiFenSve Sweet, is 
generally efteemed by moil Perfons. 

Vol. 111. 



But in order to continue thefe 
Beauties longer than they are natu- 
rally difpofed to lait, it is proper to 
plant fome of the monthly Rofes 
near a warm Wall, which will oc- 
cafion their Budding at leaft three 
Weeks or a Month before thofe in 
the open Air: and if you give them 
the Help of a Glafs before them, ic 
will bring the ; r Flowers much for- 
warder, efpecialiy where the Dung 
is placed to theBackfide of the Wall 
(as is pra&is'd in railing early Fruits) : 
by this Method 1 have feen fair Rofe» 
of this Kind blown :n February ; and 
they may be brought much fooner, 
where People are curious this way. 

You fhouid alio cut off the Tops 
of fuch Shoots which have been pro- 
duced the fame Spring, early in 
May, from fome of thefe Sorts of 
Rofeswhich are planted in the open 
Air, and upon a firong Soil: this 
will caufe them to make new Shoots, 
which will flower late in Autumn ; 
as will alio the late removing the 
Plants in Spring, provided they do 
not fuffer by Drought, as I have fe- 
veral times experienced, but parti- 
cularly in the Year 1718. when I 
had Occafion to remove a large Par- 
cel of thefe Plants in May, j oft as 
they were beginning to flower : in 
doing of which I cut off all the 
Flower - buds ; and, after having 
opea'd a Trench in the Place where 
they were to be planted, I poured a 
large Quantity of Water, lb as to 
render the Ground like a Pap ; then 
I took up the Plants, and placed 
them therein as foon as poflible, thai 
their Roots might not dry ; and a^' 
ter planting them, I water'd the 
Ground well again, and covcr'd tha 
Surface over with Mulch, to pre- 
vent its' drying : after this 1 re- 
peated watering the Plants all ever 
t.vo or three times a Week, in the 
Evening, until they had taken Root: 

4 rt in 



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in about three Weeks time the Plants 
fhot out again, and produe'd a great 
Quantity of Flowers in Angujl and 
September, which were as fair as 
thofe produced in June. This is the 
only Sort of Rofe for this Purpofe, 
there being no other Sort which will 
flower early and late, except this. 

The next Sort of Rofe which 
flowers in the open Air, is the Cin- 
namon, which is immediately fol- 
Jow'd by the Damafc Rofe ; then the 
Blulh, and York and Lancajhr ccme; 
after which the Provence, Dutch, 
Hundred -leav'd White, and moll 
other Sorts of Roles, follow ; and 
the lateft Sorts are the two Mufk 
Rofes, which, if planted in a fhady 
Situation, feldom rlower until S/p- 
Hmber\ and if the Autumn proves 
mild, will continue often till the 
Middle of October. 

The Platts of thefe two Sorts 
mould be placed again ft a Wall, Pale, 
or.other Building, that their Branches 
may be fupported ; otherwife they 
are fo ilender and weak, as to trail 
upon the Ground : thefe Plants 
fhould not be pruned until Spring, 
becaufe their Branches aiefomewhat 
tender ; fo that when they are cut in 
Winter, they often die after the 
Knife. Thefe produce their Flow- 
ers at the Extremity of the fame 
Year's Shoots, in large Bunches ; fo 
that their Branches muft not be 
ihorten'd in the Summer, left there- 
by the Flowers mould be cut off. 
Thefe Shrubs will grow to be ten or 
twelve Feet high, and muft not be 
check'd in' their Growth, if you in- 
tend they mould flower well ; fo 
that they fnould be placed where 
they may be allowed room. 

The low^ft Shrub of all the Sorts 
here mentioned is the Scotch Rofe, 
which rarely grows above two Feet 
high ; fo that this muft be placed 
among other Shrubs of the fame 



Growth. The red Rofe and the 
Ro/a mundi commonly grow from 
three to four Feet high, bat feldom 
exceed that \ but the Damafk, Pro- 
vence, and Frankfort Rofes grow to 
the Height of feven or eight Feet ; fo 
that in planting them great Care 
mould be taken to place their feve- 
ral Kinds, according to their various 
Growths, amongft other Shrubs, that 
they may appear beautiful to the Eye. 

The yellow Rofe, as alfo the Au- 
firian Rofe, are both Natives of 
America: thefe were originally 
brought from Canada, by the French: 
the other Varieties, which are now 
in the Gardens, of thefe Sorts, have 
been accidentally obtained, and are 
preferved by budding them on the 
other Sorts. The Shrubs of thefe 
Rofes feldom (hoot fo ftrong as moft 
of the other Sorts, efpecially in thfc 
light Land near London ; where they 
feldom produce their Flowers. Thefe 
are efteemed for their Colour, being 
very different from all the other Sorts 
of Rofes : but as their Flowers have 
no Scent, and are of (hort Duration, 
they do not merit the Price they are 
generally fold at. 

The Frankfort Rofe is of little 
Value, except for a Stock to bud 
the more tender Sorts of Rofes up- 
on ; for theFlowers feldom open fair, 
and have no Scent ; but it be- 
ing a vigorous Shooter, renders 
it proper for Stocks to bud the 
yellow and Aufirian Rofe?, which 
will render them ftronger than upon 
their own Stocks ; but the yellow 
Rofes feldom blow fair within eight 
or ten Miles of London; tho' in the 
Northern Parts oiGreat Britain they 
rlower extremely well. This Sort 
muft have a- Northern Expofure ; 
for if it is planted too warm, it will 
not flower. 

The Damafk and monthly Rofe 
feldom flower well in fmall confined 
Gardens, 



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Gardens, nor in the Smoke of Lon- 
don; therefore are not proper to 
plant in fuch Places ; tho' they fre- 
quently grow very vigoroufly there: 
rhefe always begin to (hoot the firft 
of any of the Sorts in the Spring ; 
therefore frequently fufFer from 
Froft, in Affile which often deiiroy 
all their Flowers. 

The Provence Rofe, which is the 
moft common Sort in England, is by 
far the molt valuable of them all ; 
tho' moft of the other Sorts are pre- 
ierr'd to it on account of their Scar- 
city : but the Flowers of this Sort 
are the faireft, and have the moft 
agreeable Scent, of any Sort yet 
known : and this is alfo very hardy, 
flowering in many Places where 
many of the others will fcarcely live; 
which renders it ftill more valuable : 
and if it was as rare to be feen as 
fome other Shrubs, would be efteem- 
ed perhaps more than any other. 

There are at lead three Varieties 
of this Rofe, which are promifcu- 
oufly fold by the Nurfery men, un- 
der this Title ; one of which is a low 
Shrub, feldom growing above three 
Feet high: the Flowers are much 
fmaller, and the Buds rounder, and 
even ; fo that before the Flowers 
open, they appear as if they had 
been clipp'd with ScifTars. This 
Mr. Rea calls {he dwarf red Rofe ; 
there are few Thorns on the Branches 
The other Sort is taller, and the Flow- 
ers are large, but not fo well fcented 
as the common Pro-vence Rofe. 

All the Sorts of Rofes may be 
propagated either from Suckers, 
Layers, or by budding them upon 
Stocks of other Sorts of Rofes ; 
which latter Method is only pradifed 
for fome peculiar Sorts, which do 
not grow very vigorous upon their 
own Stocks, and fend forth Suckers 
very fparingly ; or where a Perfon 
is willing tQ have more Sorts than 



one upon the fame Plant ; but then 
it muft be obferved, to bud fuch 
Sorts upon the fame Stock as are 
nearly equal in their Manner of 
Growth ; for if there be a Bud of a 
vigorous - growing Sort, and fome 
others of weak Growth, the ftrong 
one will draw all the Nourifhment 
from the weaker, and intirely ftarve 
them. 

The bed Sort for Stocks is the 
Fmnkfort Rofe, which is a vigorous 
Grower, and produces ftrong clean 
Shoots, which will take the Buds 
much better than any other Sort of 
Rofe : but you muft be very careful 
to keep the Stock after Budding in- 
tirely clear from Suckers or Shoots 
at the Bottom ; for if they are per- 
mitted to remain on, they will, in 
a fhort time, ftarve the Buds. The 
beft Seafon for budding of Rofes is 
in June ; the Manner of doing ir. 
being the fame as for Fruit- tre ec, 
need not be repeated here. 

J f you would propagate them from 
Suckers, they mould be taken ofF 
annually \nOftober t and tranfplant- 
ed out either into a Nurfery in Rows 
(as hath been directed for feveral 
other Sorts of flowering Shrubs), or 
into the Places where they are to re- 
main: forif theyare permitted to ftand 
upon the Roots of the old Plants 
more than one Year, they grow 
woody, and do not form fo good 
Roots as if planted out the firfc 
Year ; and fo there is more Danger 
of their not fucceeding. 

But the beft Method to obtain 
good-rooted Plants is, to lay down 
the young Branches in Autumn, 
which will take good Root "by the 
Autumn following (efpecially if they- 
are watered in very dry VVeather), 
when they may be taken from the 
old Plants, and tranfplanted where 
they are to remain. The Flints 
which are propagated by Layers, are 

4 H 2 ixo: 



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rot fo apt to fend out Suckers from 
their Roots, as thofe which are from 
Suckers; therefore fhould be pre- 
ferred before them ; becaufe they 
may be much eafier kept in Com- 
paf> : and thefe will alfo flower much 
ikronger. Thefe Plants may be tranf- 
planted any time from QQobtr to 
April ; but when they are defign'd 
to flower rtrong the flrft Year after 
planting, they fhould be planted 
early ; tho\ as I faid before, if they 
are planted late in the Spring, it 
will caufe them to flower in Au- 
tumn, provided they do not fuffer 
by Drought. 

Moll of thefe Sorts delight in a 
rich moift Soil, and an open Situa- 
tion, in which they will produce a 
greater Quantity of Flowers, and 
thofe much fairer, than when they 
are upon a dry Soil, or in a fhady 
Situation. The Pruning which they 
require is only, to cut out dead 
Wood, and the Suckers cleared orf, 
which fhould be done every Au- 
tumn : and if there are any very 
luxuriant Branches, which draw the 
Nourifhment from the other Parts 
of the Plant, they fhould be taken 
out, or fhorten'd, to caufe it to pro- 
duce more Branches, if there be Oc- 
cafion for them to fupply a Vacancy; 
but you mull avoid crouding them 
with Branches, which is as injurious 
to thefe Plants as to Fruit-trees; for 
if the Branches have not an equal 
Benefit of the Sun and Air, they 
will not produce their Flowers fo 
flrong, nor in fo great Plenty, as 
when they are more open, and bet- 
ter expos'd to the Sun ; fo that the 
Air may circulate the more freely 
between them. 

ROSA "SINENSIS. Vide Ket- 
mia Sinenfis. 

ROSE THE GUILDER. Vide 
Op'.-ius. 

ROSE-TREE. Vidt Rofa. 



ROSEMARY. Vide Rofmari- 
nus. 

ROSMARINUS, Rofmary. 

1 he Characters are ; 
// is a <vert;ci'late Plant, with a 
labiated fiiotver, conf/iing of one Leaf, 
ivkofe Uf per -lip cr Crejt is cut into 
two Parts, and turns up backward, 
with created Stamina, or Chives : 
but the Under -lip, or Beard, is divi- 
ded into three Parts ; the middle Seg- 
ment being hollow like a Spoon : out 
of the tixo or three tteth'd Flower- cup 
arifes the Pointal, attended, as it 
Wit?, by fur Embryocs, which after- 
ward turn to fo 77iany Seeds, that are 
roundijb, and are in c loft d in the 
Flower- cup. 

The Species are ; 

1. Rosmarinus hortenfis, /at lore 
folio. Mor. Hi ft. Broad-leav'd Gar- 
den Rofmary. 

2. Rosmarinus hortenfs, avgu- 
fiore folio.'C. B. P. Narrow-leav'd 
Garden Rofmary. 

3. Rosmarinus friatus, five au- 
reus. Park. Iheat. The Gold-ltriped 
Rofmary. 

4. Rosmarinus hortenfis, angu- 
fiiore folio, argent t us. H. R. Par. 
The narrow-leav'd Silver -Itrip'd 
Rofmary. 

5. Rosmarinus Almerienfs, fiore 
mojore fpicalo purpurafcente. Toum. 
Rofmary of Almtria, with a large 
fpiktd purplifh Flower. 

6. Rosmarinus fpontaneus, folio 
eleganter <variegato. Boerh. Ind. 
Broad-leav'd Rofmary, with an ele- 
gant llripcd Leaf. 

Dr. Lir.nrus has fcparated this 
Genus, with fome others, from the 
Clais where they have by all Bo- 
tamfts been ranged, on account of 
their having but two Stamina in each 
Flower : whereas the other Plants of 
this Clals have four, two long, and 
two Ihort : but this is not altogether 
jullihable; fince in every other Cha- 
racter, 



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rafter, they agree with their Conge- 
ners . 

Thefe Plants grow plentifully in 
the Southern Parts of France, in 
Spain, and in Italy, where, upon 
dry rocky Soils near the Sea, they 
thrive prodigioufly ; but, notwith- 
itanding they are produc'd in warm 
Countries, yet they are hardy enough 
to bear the Cold of our ordinary 
Winters very well in the open Air, 
provided they are planted upon a 
poor, dry, gravelly Soil, on which 
they will endure the Cold much bet- 
ter than upon a richerGround, where 
the Plants will grow more vigoroufl y 
in Summer, and fo be more fubject 
to Injury from Froft ; and they wiii 
not have fo itrong an aromatic Scent 
as thole upon a dry barren Soil. 

Thofe Sorts with ftriped Leaves 
are fomewhat tender, and lhould 
either be planted near a warm Wail, 
or in Pots filled with frefb light 
Earth, and fheitered in Winter un- 
der a Frame, otherwife they will be 
fubjecl to die in froily Weather. 

Ail thefe Sort:; may be propagated 
by planting Slips or Cuttings of them 
in the Spring of the Year, upon a 
Bed of frcfls light Earth ; and when 
they are rooted, they may be tranf- 
planted into the Places where they 
are deflgn'd to grow ; but it will be 
proper to do this about the Begin- 
ning of September, that they may 
take Root before the frofty Weather 
comes on ; for if they are planted 
too late in Autumn, they feldom 
live thro' the Winter, efpecially if 
the Weather proves very cold ; fo 
that if you do not tran (plant them 
early, it will be the better Method 
to let them remain unremoved un- 
til March following, when the Froft 
is over, obferving never to tranf- 
plant them at a Seafon when the dry 
Earl Winds blow, but rather defer 
the doing of it until the Seafon is 



more favourable ; for if they are 
planted when there are cold drying 
Winds, they are apt to dry up their 
Leaves, and kill them : but if there 
happen to be fome warm Showers 
foon after they are removed, it will 
caufe them to take Root immediate- 
ly ; fo that they will require no far- 
ther Care, but to keep them clear 
from Weeds. 

Altho 1 thefe Plants are tender 
when planted in a Garden, yet 
when they are by Accident roo:ed 
in a Wall (as I have feveral times 
feen them), they will endure the 
greateit Cold of our Winters, tho' 
expoied much to the cold Winds; 
which is occafion-d by the Plants be- 
ing more {tinted and itrong, and 
their Roots being drier. 

The Flowers of the narrow-leav'd 
Garden Sort are uied in Medicine, 
as are alfo the Leaves and Seeds. 

ROYEN A, African Bladder-nut. 
The Characters are ; 

The E/np dement of the Flower is 
of one Le 'if, fwellinr out in a Belly, 
and blunt at the Brim, where it is 
indent td in f<ve Parts : tb.: Flower is 
of one Leaf having a Tube the Length 
of the Empalcmcnt ; but fprends open 
at the Fop, where it is /lightly cut 
into f<ve Fat ts : in the Centre is fi- 
tuated the hairy Point a I, which is 
attendid by ten Jhort Stamina : the 
Pointal afterward becomes an o-vat 
Capfule, having fur Furrows open- 
ing in-one Cell, in which are contain- 
ed four oblong triangular Seeds, 
The Species are ; 

1. R oven a foil is ovatis. Li v. 
Hort. Cliff. Anican Bladder - nut, 
with a fiagle mining Leaf. 

2. Roylna ^/m lanceolatis gla- 
bris. Flor. Leyd. African Bladder - 
nut, with fmooth fpear-fhapM 
Leaves ; by fume cali'd African 
Whortle-berry. 

3. Roy en a fviiii lanceclati? h;r- 
4 « 3 'fitif. 



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R TJ 



fotit. Flor. Leyd. African Bladder- 
nut, with hairy fpear-ftiap'd Leaves. 

The fir ft Sort has been long an 
Inhabitant of fome carious Gardens 
in England : but it is not very com- 
mon here ; for it is very difficult to 
propagate. The fureft Method of do- 
ing it, is by laying down the young 
Branches, and theie will feldom take 
Root under two Years. I have alfo 
raifcd a few by Cuttings, but it was 
two Years before they put out 
Roots : and it was three Years be- 
fore they began to grow upward; 
and then they made but little Pro- 
gress. 

This Plant will grow eight or ten 
Feet high, and puts out its Branches 
on eve. y Side fo may be trained 
up t ; a regular Head: thefe Branches 
are doatned with oval mining 
Leaves, which are placed alternate- 
ly, and continue all the Year ; fo 
that it makes an agreeable Variety 
among other Exotic Plants in the 
Green houfe, during the Winter- 
feafon : the Flowers are produced 
from the Wings of the Leaves, along 
the Branches; but as they have lit- 
tle Beauty, few Perfons regard them. 
I have not obferved any Fruit pro- 
duced by thefe Plants in England. 
This was defcribed and figured by 
Dr. Herman, who was Profefibr of 
Botmy at Lfydtn, under the Title of 
Stapbylvdendrcn Africanum, folio f.n- 
gulari lurido. 

The otner two Sorts are at pre- 
fent rare in the Englijh Gardens ; 
but in the curious Gardens in Hol- 
land they are in greater Plenty. They 
are all of them Natives of the Cape 
of G cod Hope \ fo are hardy enough 
to live in a common Green -h©ufe, 
with Myrttes and Orange - trees : 
theie Plants may be treated in the 
fame way 

Thefe two Sort? are as difhcuit to 
propagate as the iirlfc which is the 



Caufe of their Scarcity : the beft 
time to lay down the Branches of 
thefe Plants is in Avgufl ; but the 
Cuttings mould be planted in July : 
they muft be planted in Pots, and 
fhaded from the Sun in Summer, and 
flickered under a Frame in Winter. 

RUBIA, Madder. 
The Characters are; 

The Flower confifts cf one fingle 
Leaf, wbi:b is cut into four or five 
Segments, and expanded at the Top: the 
Flower -cup afterward becomes a Fruit 
compofed oj two juicy Berries, clofely 
joined toge'ber, containing Seed, for 
the mo ft p rt bellow' 'd like a Navel : 
to which may be added, The Leaves 
being rcugb, and fur rounding the 
Stulhs in Wborles. 

The Speci s are ; 

1. Kubia iindcrum frdiva. C. B. 
P. Cultivated Dyers Madder. 

2. Ri B I A five (Iris afp?ra, qutf 
fylvejlris Diojcondis. C. B. P. Wild 
ivi adder. 

3. RuFIA fylvrftris Monfpffular.a 
mrjor. J. B. Great wild Madder of 
Montpelier. 

The firft of thefe Sorts was for- 
merly cultivated in divers Parts of 
England, for the Dyers Life; but of 
late Years it has been wholly neglect- 
ed; fo that at prtfent \ believe there 
is fcarce anv of it cultivated, except 
:n fmall Quantities for medicinal 
Ufe : how this Plant came to be fo 
much negiecled in England, I can- 
not imagine, fmce it will thrive as 
w : ell here as in any Country in Eu- 
rope ; and the Consumption of it in 
England is pretty large ; for I have 
been informed, that we pay up- 
wards of 30,000 /. annually for this 
Commodity, .which might be eafdy 
fav'd to the Nation, were it culti- 
vated h e re . At p ; e fe n 1 1 he g rea te ft 
Quantity of is is cultivated in Flan- 
ders and Holland ; from whence we 
are annually fumjfiiM with it, in 

three 



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three different Manners, and diftiii- 
guihYd by the Names of Madder in 
the Branch, Madder in the Bundle, 
and Madder unbundled. The firft 
Sort is brought to us in the Root, as 
it corner out of the Ground, with- 
out any other Preparation than that 
of being dried. The fecond Sort is 
that of Bunch Madder, or fuch as is 
made into Bundles, which is Mad- 
der in Branch, firft freed from the 
Bark and the Pith, then ground by 
a Mill into grofs Powder, as we 
buy it. The third Sort is the Mad- 
der unbundled, that is, the Branch- 
ed Madder ground into Powder ; 
but the Bunched Madder, or that in 
Bundles, is the beft, which, for its 
"Excellency, when it is frefh, is 
made into Bales, or put into Cafks : 
'tis of a pale Red ; bur, as it grows 
cider, increafes its Colour to a fine 
- Red : that of Zeala?id is efteemed 
the beft for the Dyers Ufe. 

In the Year 1727. I obferv'd a 
great Quantity of this Plant culti- 
vated in Holland, between Helvott- 
Jluice and the Brill ; and it being 
the firft time I had ever feen any 
con lider able Parcel of it, I was 
tempted to make fome Inquiries 
about its Culture, and take fome 
Minutes of it down upon the Spot, 
which I (hall here infert, for the 
Ufe of fuch as may have Curiofity to 
attempt the Culture of it. 

In Autumn they plow the Land, 
where they intend to plant Madder, 
in the Spring, and lay it in Iv'gh 
Ridges, that the Froft may mellow 
it ; m March they plow it again ; 
and at this Seafon they work it very 
deep, laying it up in Ridges eighteen 
Inches afunder, and about a Foot 
high ; then about the Beginning of 
April, when the Madder will begin 
to (hoot out of the Ground, they 
open the E3ith about their old 
Roots, and take off all the Side- 



Ihoots, which extend themfelves ho- 
rizontally, juft under the Surface of 
the Ground, preferying as much 
Root to tiiem as poflible: thefe they 
tranfplant immediately upen the 
Tops of the new Ridge% at about a 
Foot apart, obferving always to do 
this when there are iome Showers, 
becaufe then the Plants will take 
Root in a few Days, and will re- 
quire no Water. 

When the Plants are growing, 
they careful y keep the Ground 
hoed, to prevent the Weeds from 
coming up between them ; for if 
they are fmotrured by Weeds, efpe- 
cially when young, it will either de- 
ftroy or weaken them fo much, that 
they feldom do well after. In thefe 
Ridges they let the Plants remain 
two Seafons, during which time 
they keep the Ground very clem ; 
and at Michaelmas, when tht Tops 
of the Plants are decay 'd, they take 
up the Roots, and dry them for Sale. 
This is what I could learn of their 
Method of cultivating this P'ant ; to 
which I will fubjoin a few Obferva- 
tions of my own, which I have fince 
made upon the Culture of Madder 
in England. And, firft, I find there 
is no NeceiTity for laying the Ground 
up in Ridges in England, as is prac- 
tifed by the Dutch (especially in dry 
Land), becaufe the Places where I 
faw it were very wet Land, which is 
often floated in Winter ; fo that if 
the Plants were not elevated upon. 
Ridges, their Roots would rot in 
W r inter. Secondly, They mould be 
planted at a greater Diftance, in 
England-, the Rows mould be at 
lea ft three Feet Diftance, and the 
Plants eighteen Inches afunder in the 
Rows ; for as they e?:ter.d themfelves 
pretty far under-ground, fo, where 
they are planted too near, their 
Roots will not have ror.m to grow. 
And. thirdly, I rmd, that if all the 

4 H 4 * harizoa- 



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Vorizontal Rcots are deftroyed from 
time to time, as they are produc'd, 
it wdl cauie the large downright 
Roots to be much bigger ; in which 
the Goodnefs of this Commodity 
chiefly confifts : for if the upper 
Roots are f.iffered to remain, tney 
will draw off the principal Nourifn- 
ment from the downright Roots, as 
I have experienced ; for I planted a 
few Roots upon the fame Soil and 
Situation, which were of equal 
Strength, and rooted equally well : 
half of thefe I hoed round, and cut 
off the horizontal Roots ; fegkl the 
other Half I permitted the horizon- 
tal Roots to remain on ; and when I 
took them ail up, thofe which I had 
hoed about, and kept clear from ho- 
rizontal Roots, were almoft as large 
again as the other, and theRoots were 
double the Weight; which plainly 
proves it neceffary to cut oft thofe 
itiperficial Roots : fo that where 
this Plant is cultivated in Quantity, 
jt will be an excellent Method to ule 
the Hoeing - plough, to ftir the 
Ground, and deftroy the Weeds : 
for, with this Inftrument, a large 
Quantity of Ground may be kept 
clean, at a fmall Expence : and as 
this will ftir the Ground much 
deeper than a common Hoe, it will 
cut off the fuperficial Roots, and 
thereby improve the principalRoots. 

This Crop of Madder fhould be 
fliifted into frtfti Land j for the 
Ground which has had one Crop, 
will not be fit to receive another in 
lefs than four Years; during which 
time any other annual Crop may be 
cultivated on the Laud. 

The manner of drying and pre- 
paring thefe Roots for Ufe, I am not 
acquainted with, having never had 
an Opportunity of feeing that Part, 
fo can give no Inftruclions concern- 
ing it; but "Whoever {hall have Cu- 
liofKV enough to cultivate thi? ufeful 



Plant, might eafily inform them- 
felves, by going over to Holland at 
theSeafon of taking up the Roots. 

What I could learn from the Peo- 
ple with whom 1 converted in lid- 
land on this Affair, was, that they 
pared off the outfide Rind of the 
Roots, which is dried by itfelf, and 
is called Mull-madder. Then they 
pared off another flefhy Part of the 
Root, which is made into another 
Madder, and is called Number O ; 
but the Jnfide, or Heart of the Root, 
is called Crop- madder. The firft 
Sort is not worth above fifteen or 
iixteen Shillings per hundredWeight; 
the fecond Sort is fold at about forty 
Shillings ; but the third Sort will 
fell for five Pounds per Hundred. I 
have fince been inform'd, that there 
is no Neceftity of dividing it into 
thefe three Sorts for Ufe ; for if the 
Whole is dried, and ground toge^ 
ther, it will anfwer the Dyers Pur- 
pofe full as well. Theie Roots muff 
be dried on a Kiln, before they are 
ground to Powder : for which Pur- 
pofe, I fuppofe, the fame as are ufed 
for drying of Malt might be made 
ufeful for this Commodity. 

By feme few Experiments which 
I made, I imagine that one Acre of 
good Madder, when fit to take up 
for Ufe, will be worth above one 
hundred Pounds ; fo that if it were 
to ftand three Years in the Ground, 
and to be planted on Land of three 
Pounds pir Acre, it would pay ex- 
ceeding well ; confidering the annual 
Culture (if perform'd by a Piough) 
will be no great Expence ; the prin- 
cipal Charge being in the firft pre- 
paring of the Land, and the plant- 
ing: but whoever has a mind to 
cultivate this Plant, might rent 
very good Land for this Purpofe, 
for twenty five or thirty Shillings 
per Acre, at a Difta rice from London t 
but near feme Navigation* 

The 

r 



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The two Sorts of wild Madder 
are of no Ufe ; though their Roots 
feem to be of the facie Quality with 
the manured Sort ; and as they are 
never cultivated in Garden?, it is 
needlefs to fay any thing more of 
them in this Place. 

Thefe Plants love a loofe Soil, nei- 
ther too dry nor over-wet ; but will 
do better on a dry than on a wet 
Soil, becaufe in fuch Places the 
Roots are apt to rot in Winter. 

RUBEOLA, Petty-madder. 
The Character: are ; 

It hath a funnel jhapcd Flower, 
confifiing of one L"af, which is fight ly 
cut into four Parts at the Brim ; 
rejling on the Empalement, which is 
fometimes double \and fomttimn fingle : 
this Empalement afterward becomes 
a Fruity compofd of two naked 
Seeds, 

The Species are ; 

1. Rubeola la. 'ion folio. Inf. 
R. H. Broad -Jeav'd Petty - mad- 
der- 

2. Rubeola anguftiort folio. Inf. 
R H. Narrow- lea v'd Petty -mad- 
der. 

3. Rubeola vulgaris quadrifo- 
lia lwis y fioribus purpurajcentibus . 
Inft. R. H. Common fmooth four- 
leav'd Petty-madder, with purplim 
Prowers, commonly called Squinan- 
cy-wort. 

4. Rubeola Lufitanica afpera, 
fori bus purpura fcentibus. Inft. R. H. 

Rough Petty-madder of Portugal, 
with purplifn Flowers. 

5 . Rubeola Cretica fax at His 
fruticofa, gallii fclic, fore purpureo 
wiolaceo.! ourn. Cor. bhrubby rock 
^etty- madder of Candy, with a La- 
dies-beditraw-ieaf, and a violet pur- 
ple Flower. 

6. Rubeola Cretica far at His 
fruit efcens, fore favefcente. loum. 
Q'.r. Sr.rubby rock Petty -mrdder 
£j Candy, w;ui ayeliowifli Flower, 



7. Rubeola Cretica fasti dijfi. 
ma fmtefcens myrtifolia, fiore magnw 
fuave - rubente. Tourn. Cor. The 
molt linking flirubby Petty-madder 
of Candy, with a Myrtle-leaf, and a 
large pale-red Flower. 

8. Rubeola Orient alts fcetida 
fruticofa ferpylli folia, fore par<vo fua- 
ue-rubente. Tourn. Cor. Shrubby 
(linking Eaflern Petty-madder, with 
a Mother-of-thyme-leaf, and a fmall 
pale-red Flower. 

9. Rubeola Orientafis, foliis 
gal Hi, fore multiplier ex <viridi fla*vc- 
fcente. Tourn. Cir. Eaftern Petty- 
madder, with many greenifh-yellow 
Flowers. 

The firft, fecond, fourth, and ninth 
Sorts are annual Plants, which decay 
foon after they have perfected 
their Seed. Thefe are preferved 
in the Gardens of thofe Perfons who 
are curious in Botany, for the fake 
of Variety. They are very hardy 
Plants, which require no other Care 
than to clear them from Weeds : for 
if they are permitted to fcatter their 
Seeds, the Plants will come up, and 
maintain their Place, if they are 
not overborne with larger Weeds. 
The Seeds of thefe Plants may be 
fown either in Spring or Autumn, in 
the Places where they are to remain, 
which may be in almolt any Soil ; 
but they love an open Situation. 

The third Sort grows wild on. 
chalky Hills, in divers Parts of Eng- 
land. where the Branches trail on 
the Ground, and produce Tufts of 
purplifh Flowers from the Joints 
where the Leaves are fet on ; which 
open in Jur.e, and the Seeds are ripe 
in Jugu/t ; but the Roots abide ma- 
ny Years. This Plant is elteemed 
efficacious in the Cure of Quinfeys, 
either raken inwardly, or outwardly 
applied. 

) he fifth, fixth,feventh.and eighth 
S^r^ were diicover'd by Dr.Tourre- 

fort 



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fort in the Levant. Thefe are abide- 
ing Plants, which become fhrubby, 
and, by their different Appearance?, 
make an agreeable Variety in a 
Garden. They may be propagated 
by lowing their Seeds on a Eed of 
frefh unounged Soil, in the Spring ; 
and when the Plants come up, they 
mufl: be kept clear from Weeds, and 
in very dry Weather hey (ho old be 
retiefiied with Water ; and when 
the Plants ar<' about three or four 
Inches high, ih*y mould be tranf- 
planted, ic: each Sort, intoPotr, 
ihatthey may be meker'd undor an 
Jftot- bed-frame m Winter; and rhe 
others into dry warm Borders of 
poor Earth ; for in fuch Places 
where the Plant? grow ftowly, they 
\vi!J live through the Winter, better 
than when they are planted in a rich 
Soii. 

RUBUS, The Bramble, or Rafp- 
berry- burn. 

The Ch a rati en are ; 

It hath a Flower con fifing of five 
he av a, which are placed circularly, 
and expand in form of aRofe: theFlow- 
er cuf ii divided into five Parts con- 
taing many Stamina, in the Bofom of 
the Flower ; in the Centre of which 
fifes the Pointaly which afterward 
becomes the Fruity con fifing of many 
Protuberances, and full of Juice. 
The Species arc ; 

I . Rub us major, frutlu nigr*. J. 
B. The common Bramble, or 
blackberry bum. 

2- Rue us minor, frufiu cceruleo, 
J. B, The Dewberry - bum, or 
iefTer Bramble. 

3. Rub us vulgaris major, f rutin 
albo. Rati Syn. The common great- 
er Bramble-bufh, with white Fruit. 

4. Rue us vulgaris m.for, folio 
elegant er veriegato. * The greater 
Bramble-bu&, with a beautiful ftri- 
j>ed Leaf. 



C. Rub US Ida us fpinofus, fruclu 
rubra. J. B. The Rafpberry-bufh, 
Framboife, or Hind berry. 

6. Rubus Ida us fpinofus, fruclu 
alio. J. B. The Rafpberry-bulh, 
with white Fruit. 

7. Rubus Idaus fpinofus, fruclu 
ruhro ferotino. The Rafpberry-bufh, 
with late-red Fruit. 

8. Rubus Id a us non fpinofus. J. 
B. The Rafpberry-bufh, without 
Thoras. 

9 Rubus Idaus, fruclu nigro, 
Vtrgmianus Banifier. The Virgi- 
nian Rafpberry - bum, with black 
Fruit. 

10. Rubus odoratus.Cornut. Vir- 
ginia* flowering Rafpberry, vulgo. 

11. Rubus Americanus, magis 
ereStus, fpinis rarioribus,fiipite cceru- 
leo. Pluk. Aim. The Upright Pen- 
fyiwama Bramble, or Rafpberry - 
bufh. 

12. Rubus Alpinus humilis . J. 
B. Dwarf Bramble of the Alps. 

13. Rubus vulgaris, fpinis ca- 
rens. H. R. Par. Common Bram- 
ble, without Spines. 

14. Rubus fpinofus, foliis & fore 
elegant er laciniatis. Inf. R. H. 
Prickly Bramble, with Leaves and 
Flowers elegantly jagged. 

1 5. Rubus /for* albo pleno. H. R. 
Par. The Bramble with double 
white Flowers. 

16. Rubus non fpinofus, fruclu 
nigro major c, Polonicus. Barr. Icon. 
Poland Bramble without Thorns, 
and a larger black Fruit. 

The firH and fecond Sorts are ve- 
ry common in Hedges, and upon 
dry Banks, in molt Parts of England, 
and are rarely cultivated in Gardens. 
The third Sort was found by Mr. 
Jacob Bobart, in an Hedge not far 
from Oxford ; and hath fmce been 
cultivated in feveral Gardens as a 
Curicfitv, This does not onlv dif- 
fer 



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fer from the common Bramble in the 
Colour of the Fruit, but alfo in that 
of the Bark and Leaves, which, in 
this Sort, are of a lively Green; 
whereas thofe of the common Sort 
are of a dark-brown Colour. The 
fourth Sort is a variety of the com- 
mon Bramble, differing therefrom 
only in having firiped Leaves, for 
which it is preferv'd by fome Per- 
sons who are curious in collecting 
variegated Plants. 

The thirteenth Sort is in all re- 
fpects like the commonBramble, ex- 
cepting in this Particular, that there 
are no Thorns on the Branches or 
Leaves of this Sort. 

The fourteenth Sort differs from 
the common Bramble in having the 
Leaves and Flowers curioufly jag- 
ged. • 

The fifteenth Sort produces large 
Spikes of Flowers, which are very- 
large and double, fo that they make 
a fine Appearance, being almod as 
large and double as Rofes. This 
merits a Place in every good Gar- 
den ; becaufe it may be planted in 
any abject Part of the Garden, under 
Trees in Wilderrefs quarters ; where 
it will thrive and flower as well as 
v. hen planted in a more open Situa- 
tion. 

The fifteenth Sort is not very 
com men in England, but is a Native 
of Poland. This produces mnch 
Lirger Fruit than the commonBram- 
ble ; fo is preferv'd in the Gardens 
of fome curious Perfons for the fake 
of Variety, 

The Rafpberry-buih is alfo very 
common in divers Woods in the 
Northern Counties of England ; but 
v cultivated in all curious Gardens 
for ti e fake of its Fruit. Of this 
there are three Kinds, which arecul- 
fivated commonly in Gardens near 
London ; which are the common red, 
late- re.', and the white Sort? 3 but 



the Sort without Thorns is Iefs com- 
mon at prefent than the other. 

The ninth, tenth, eleventh, and 
twelfth Sorts are preferv'd as Curiofi- 
ties in feveral Gardens near London ; 
as their Fruits are of no Value, they 
are fcarcely worth cultivating, ex- 
cept in Botanic Gardens for Va- 
riety. 

All the Sorts of Bramble are eafily 
propagated by laying down of their 
Shoots, which in one Year will be 
fufficiently rooted to tranfplant ; fo 
may then be cut off from the old 
Plants, and planted where they are 
defign'd to remain ; which fhould 
be in Wildernefs-quarter?, or other 
abjeel Parts of the Garden, where 
they may have room to fpread,with- 
out incommoding other Plants. 

The Rafpberry is always cultiva- 
ted in Gardens, for the fake of the 
Fruit. There is a Variety of this 
Plant, which produces two Crops 
of Fruit every Year ; one in the 
ufual Seafon in July, and the fecond 
Crop in Ofiober ; and when the Au- 
tumn proves favourable, the fecond 
Crop will ripen extremely well; and, 
in fome Year?, have been in as great 
Plenty as the 6#ft Crop. 

The Rafpberries are always pro- 
pagated by Suckers, tho' I mould 
prefer fuch Plants as are ra fed by 
Layers ; becaufe they will be better 
rooted, and not fo liable to fend 
out Suckers as the other ; which ge- 
nerally produce fuch Quantities of 
Suckers from their Roots, as ro fill 
the Ground ; and where they are 
not carefully taken out, or thinn'd, 
caufe the Fruit to be frnaJl, and in 
lefs Quantities ; especially when 
the Plants are placed near each other, 
which is too often the Cafe ; for 
there are few Perfons who allow 
thefe Plants firnc:ent room. 

In preparing thefe Plants, the'r 
Fibres (Lou id be fr.ortened ; but the 

Buds, 



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Bugs, which are placed at a fma!l 
Diitance from the Stem of the Plant, 
mull not be cut off", becaufe thofe 
produce the new Shoots the follow- 
ing Summer. Theie Plants fhould 
be planted about two Feet afunder 
in the Rows, and four or five Feet 
Diitance Row from Row ; for if 
they are planted too clofe, their 
Fruit is never fo fair, nor will ripen 
fo kindly, as when they have room 
for the Air to pafs between the 
Rows. The Soil in which they 
thrive belt, is a frelh fandy Loan), 
neither too moift nor over dry; the 
Extreme of either being injurious to 
thefe Plants. 

The time for drefiing of them is 
in October, when all the old Wood, 
which produced Fruit the preceding 
Summer, (houM be cut down to the 
Surface of the Ground, and the 
young Shoots muit be fhorten'd to 
about two Feet in Length ; then the 
Spaces between the Rows mould be 
well dug, to er.courage their Roots ; 
and if you bury a very little rotten 
Dung therein, it will make them 
fhoot vigoroufly the Summer fol- 
lowing, and their Fruit will be much 
fairer. During the Summer-feafon 
tbey mould be kept clear from 
Weeds, which, with the before-men- 
ticn'd Culture, is ail the Manage- 
ment they will require : but it is 
proper to make new Plantations 
once in three or four Years, becaufe 
thofe are better than where thePiants 
are fufFefd to remain longer. 

The Virginian flowering Rafpber- 
ry is commonly propagated in the 
Nurferies a? a flowering Shrub. The 
Flowers of tin's Scrt are as lar^e as 
fmali Rofes ; and there is a Succef- 
fion of them for two Months or 
more, fo that they make an agree- 
able Variety during their Continu- 
ance This Sor; has produe'd Fruit 
in England which were larger tfean 



thofe of the common Sort ; but had 
little Flavour. Thefe were ripe in 
September, and the Plants on which 
they produe'd, grew on a ftrong 
Soil ; but it is very rare to fee any 
Fruit upon thefe Plants. 

The eleventh Sort frequently pro- 
duces Fruit in England, which are in 
Appearance very like the common 
Blackberry ; but have a different 
Flavour. Thefe ripen late in the 
Autumn, and are not worth culti- 1 
vating for their Fruit. 

RUDBECKIA, Dwarf Sunflow- 
er, vulgo. 

The Characters are ; 

It hatb Male and Hermaphrodite 
Flowers inclos'd in one common Em- 
palement : the Empalement is com- 
posed of two Orders of Leaves : the t 
Flower has a Border of Rays, and the 
Middle is occupied by a gnat Number 
of Hermaphrodite flowers, which 
form a Cone : the Hermaphrodite 
Flowers are tub ulcus, and cut into five 
Parts at the Brim ; thefe have the 
Pointal f.tuatid in their Centre,which 
is attended by five Jlender Stamina : 
the Male Flowers, which grow rcuud 
the. Border, and form the Rays, are 
fir etched out on one Side like a Tongue , 
which is cut into two or three Parts, 
and is plain : thefe are barren ; but 
the He rmaphrodite Flowers have each 
a Jingle oblong Seed, which is four- 
cornered, fucc ceding th.m. 

This Genus of Plants was by Mon- 
fieur Vaillant titled Obtlifcotheca ; 
but this being a compound Name, 
Dr. Linnaus has altered it to this of 
Rudbecha, in Honour to Dr. Rud- 
beck % who was Profeiior of Botany 
at UpfaJitX Sweden, 
The Species are ; 

I. Rudbeckia foliis lanceola'iO- 
cvatis alternis i'ndivifis, pi talis radii 
in teg, is. Fior. Virg, Dwarf Sun- 
flower, w;#b yellow Rays, and a dajrik 
Middle, 

2. RVD- 



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2. Rudbecki a foliis lanceolatis 
alternis indin)ifis, petalis radii bifi- 
dis, Flor. Vir. Dwarf American 
Sunflower, with purple Rays, which 
are bifid. 

3. Rudbecki a foliis compojitis 
laciniaiis. Lin. find. American 
Sunflower, with Leaves which are 
compofed of many Parts, and deeply 
cut. 

4. Rude ec ki a foliis compoftis 
anguflioribus laciniatis American 
Sunflower, with narrow cut com- 
pound Leaves. 

5. Rudbecki a foliis compofitis 
integris. Flor. L*yd. American 
Sun-flower, with whole compound 
Leaves. 

6. Rudbecki a foliis oppo fit is lan- 
ceolato-onjatis, petalis radii bifidis. 
Flor. Vir. American Sunflower, 
with oval fpear-ftiap'd Leaves plac'd 
oppofite, and the Petals bifid. 

The firft Sort has been many 
Years preferv'd in feveral curious 
Gardens in England. The Seeds of 
this Sort were fent from Virginia, 
under the Title of C, j,anihemu)n 
Americanum, doronici folio, fore luteo, 
umbone atro purpureo. This is a 
perennial Plant, which has rough 
oval Leaves growing clofe to the 
Ground ; from between thefe, in 
the Spring, the Footftalks of the 
Flowers come out, which grow 
about two Feet high, having two or 
three fmall Leaves placed alternately 
on each. The Top is crowned by 
a Angle Flower, about the Size of a 
large Marigold, having a Border of 
yellow Rays, and a conical dark 
Middle or Umbone. Thefe Flow- 
ers are of long Duration ; each Angle 
Flower will continue a Month in 
Beauty ; and as there is commonly 
a Succeflion of them on the fame 
Plant, they continue from the Mid- 
dle of July to the Middle of Otlober 
in Flower; which renders thefe 



Plants valuable. As this Sort rarely 
produces good Seeds in England, the 
Plants are commonly propagated by 
parting their Roo:s. The bell time 
for this is in March, before they be- 
gin to fhoot ; but there muft be Care 
had not to part the Roots into fmall 
Head's, efpecially where they are ex- 
pected to- flower ii.rong the fame 
Summer ; but in the Nurferies they 
are ufually divided very fmall for 
the Increafe of the Plants. But the 
Plants which are railed from Orr-fcts 
never flower fo flrong as thoie pro- 
duced from Seeds; fo that where the 
Seeds can be obtained, it is by much 
the bed Method to propagate them 
that way. 

The lecond Sort is alio a Native 
of Virginia and Carolina, and is more 
rarely to be found in the Englijb Gar- 
dens than the firil. The Leaves of 
this are longer, and more pointed, 
than the firft, and are not fo hairy. 
The Stalks of the Flowers are taller, 
and are frequently naked, having no 
Leaves coming out. The Flower 
has a Border of narrow long purple 
Rays, which are reflexed ; fo tnat 
thefe Flowers make not any great 
Appearance. However, as it is a 
fcarce Plant, it is generally fold at 
a good Price by thoie who deal in 
curious Plants. 

This Sort is propagated in the 
fame manner as the former ; but doth 
not produce fo great Plenty of OfF- 
fets as the firft, which occaiions the 
prefent Scarcity of the Plants. 

When the Seeds of thefe Plants 
can be procured, they fliould be 
fown in Pots fided with frefh light 
Earth, and placed where they may 
have only the morning Sun, and fre- 
quently watered in dry Weather. 
Some of the Plants may probably 
come up the nrft Year; but the great- 
eft Part of them will not appear till 
the Spring following ; io'that the 

Eartu 



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Earth mould not be diflurbed ; and 
it" any of the Plants fhould come up, 
they may be drawn out, and planted 
each into feparate Pots ; but the 
Seed-pots mould be placed under a 
Frame, where they may be fhelterM 
from fevere Froft, but in mild Wea- 
ther have a large Share of free Air ; 
and in the Spring following thePlants 
willcome up : when they have obtain- 
ed Strength,they may be planted out 
into a Border of light Earth, about 
four Inches afunder each Way. In 
this Bed they may remain until the 
Autumn following, when they fhould 
be tranfplanted where they are to 
Hand for Flowering, which mould 
be in a warm Situation ; otherwife, 
if the Winter proves fevere, they 
will be deftroyed : therefore it is ad- 
vifeablc to plant a few lants of each 
Sort in Po^s, that they may be placed 
under an Hot bed- frame in Winter, 
to fhelter them from hard Froft, in 
order to prelerve the Kinds. 

The third, fourth, and fifth Sorts 
are very hardy Plant', though they 
came orginally from the fame Coun- 
try as the others. Thefe grow fix 
or eight Feet high, and produce a 
great Number of Flowers in a fort of 
Umbel on the Tops of the Branches ; 
which are in Shape like fmall Sun- 
flowers, fo have been by many ran- 
ged in that Genus. Thefe Plants 
flower in July and Avgufi, and are 
proper Furniture for the Borders of 
large Gardens. They are propa- 
gated by Ofr-fets, which the Roots 
lurnifh in plenty ; and fhould be 
planted in October, that they may 
get good Root before the Froft fets 
in j and then they will flower ftrong- 
ly the following Summer : for when 
the Plants .are removed in the 
Spring, they will not get good Root 
in the Ground before they put out 
their Flower-ftems ; fo cannot pro- 
duce their Flowers fo large. Thefe 



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alfo perfeft their See^s in England 
in favourable Years. 

The fixth Sort fnouid be treated 
in the fame manner as the two firft ; 
but it is fomewhat hardier, and will 
perfed its Seeds in good Summer in 
England, fo may be propagated in 
greater Plenty. 

RUELLIA. 

The Ck arc c7er s are ; 

It hath a funnel jhap.d Flower, 
conjif.iug of one Leaf which is cut in- 
to fed eral Parts at the B im t from 
whofe Empalcmcnt arifes the Pointa/, 
which is fxed like a Nail in the Bot- 
tom cf the Flower, and afterward be- 
comes a membranaceous Pod, which 
opens into federal Parts, and is filed 
with fmall Seeds. 
The Species are ; 

1 . Rue LLI a Americana hum;' I is, 
afpbodeli radice. Plum. Nov. Gen. 
Dwarf American Ruellia, with an 
Afphodel root. 

2. Ruellia Caroliniana, foliis 
oblongis angufis,fore purpureo. Houf. 
Carolina Ruellia, with narrow oblong 
Leaves, and a purple Flower. 

3. Ruellia Americana humilis, 
par<vo fore cceruleo, capfulis tereti- 
bus. Houft. Dwarf American Ruel- 
lia, with a fmall blue Flower, and a 
taper Pod. 

The firft Sort was difcovered by 
Father Plunder in America, who 
gave this Name to the Genus, in 
Honour of Dr. Ruellius, who was a 
very learned Perfon in Natural Hi- 
ftory, and lived about two hundred 
Years pait. 

The fecond Sort grows plentifully 
in South-Carolina, from whence it 
was brought into the EngUJh Gar- 
dens. This Sort grows much ullei 
than the other two. 

The third Sort was difcover'd by 
the !atC Dr. William Hcufcun in Ja- 
maica, who fent the Seeds into Eng- 
land. The Flowers of tnis Kind ar« 

much 



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much {mailer than thofe of the other 
Sorts, and are of mort Duration, 
feldom continuing above one Day. 

Thefe Plants are propagated by 
Seeds, which muft be fown early in 
the Spring in Pots filled with light 
rich Earth, and plunged into a mo- 
derate Hot-bed ; and when the Plants 
come up, they muft be tranfplanted 
each into a feparate imall Pot filled 
with rich Earth, and plunged into 
an Hot-bed of Tanners Bark, where 
thev muft be (haded from the Sun, 
until they have taken new Root ; af- 
ter which time they muft have frefh 
Air admitted to them every Day in 
warm Weather, and be conftantly 
watered three or four times a Week 
during the Summer-feafon. If the 
Plants thrive well, thofe of the firft 
and third Sort will produce Flowers 
the July following, and will perfect 
their Seeds in Auguji ; but the Roots 
will continue, provided they are 
plunged into the Bark bed in the 
Stove, and kept in a moderate Tem- 
perature of Heat. 

The fecond Sort, which rifes 
much higher than cither of the other, 
will require to be fhifted into larger 
Pots, by the Beginning of June ; 
and then they ftiould be remov'd in- 
to the Stove, or a Glafs-cafe, where 
they may have a larger Share of 
Air ; otherwife they will draw up 
very weak, which will prevent their 
Flowering. This Sort dies to the 
Root every Winter ; but if the Pots 
are placed in a warm Stove, their 
Roots will live, and put out again 
the following Spring, fo may be 
continued feveral Years. This Sort 
will ripen Seeds- very well, provided 
the Plants are fhelter'd when they 
are in Flower. 

The firft Sort is by much the moft 
beautiful Plant, the Flowers being 
four times as large as thofe of either 
of the other Sorts, and are of a fine 



blue Colour ; fo that it makes a fine 
Appearance when it flowers ; and as 
the Plants are fmall, 'they may be 
kept in a little Com pal's, and are as 
well worth preferving, as moft ten- 
der Exotic Plants. When this Plant 
is miffed (which mould be the Be- 
ginning of April, before the new 
Leaves are put out), great Care 
Ihould be taken, that the Roots are 
not broken or bruifed ; for as they 
confift of many thick Tubers, if theie 
are injured, the Plant is frequently 
deftroy'd. 

RUSCUS, Knee-holly, or But- 
chers-broom. 

The Characters are ; 

The Flower- cup co-fjis of one Leaf, 
which is cut into federal Di-vi/ions, 
out of which is produced a globular 
bell-foaped Flower, conffling a If 9 of 
one Leaf ; in the Ct?itre of which 
arifes the Pointal, which afterward 
becomes a foft roundijh Fruit, in 
which are inched tor* or two hard 
Seeds. 

The Species are ; 

1. Ruscus TKyrtifolius acuLatus. 
Town. The common Knee-holly, 
or Butchers-broom. 

2. Ruscus anguftifolius, f rutin 
folio innafcente. Taunt. Narrow- 

lcav'd Butchers-broom, or Alexan- 
drian Laurel, with the Fruit grow- 
ing on the Leaves. 

3. Ruscus latif alius, fruclu folio 
innafcente. Toum. Broad - leav'd 
Butchers - broom, or Alexandrian 
Laurel, with the Fruit growing on 
the Leaves. 

4. Ruscus angujlif alius, fruclu 
fummis ramulis innafcente. Toum. 

Narrow-leav'd Butchers - broom, or 
Alexandrian Laurel, with the Fruit 
growing upon the Tops of the Bran- 
ches. 

C. Ruscus latifolius erenatvs, 
fruclu e crenis foliorum prodeuntihus . 
Broad leav'd Alexandrian Laurel, 

with 



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with the Fruit growing upon the 
Edges of the Leaves. 

6. Ruscus vulgaris, folio am- 
pliore. Hart. Paf. Butchers- broom 
with a larger Leaf. 

7. Ruscus vulgaris , folio angu- 
fiiore. Narrow - leav'd Butchers- 
broom. 

The firft Sort is very common in 
the Woods in divers Parts of Eng- 
land, and is rarely cultivated in Gar- 
dens. The Roots of this Kind are 
fometimes ufed in Medicine ; and the 
green Shoots are cut, and bound 
into Bundles, and fold to the But- 
chers, who ufe it as Befoms to fvveep 
their Blocks ; from whence it had 
the Name of Butchers-broom. 

The fecond, third, fourth, fixth, 
and feventh Sorts are hardy Plants; 
and though not: Natives of England, 
yet may be preferv'd in Gardens, if 
planted in a fhady Situation, as in 
Wildernefs-quarters, i5c. where they 
ferve to intermix with other Wood- 
plants, to make Variety. The fecond 
and third Sorts are fometimes ufed in 
Medicine. 

The fecond Sort has fmall Leaves 
growing out of the Middle of the 
larger ; lb it is called Bis -lingua by 
fome Writers. The other Hands in 
the Difpenfaries under the Title of 
Laurus Alexandrina. 

Thefe Plants produce their Flow- 
ers and Fruit on the Middle of their 
Leaves, which are of the Size of 
fmall Cherries ; and being of a fine 
red Colour, make a pretty Appear- 
ance, efpecially when there is plenty 
of the Fruit on the Plants. The 
Fruit is ripe in Winter ; fo that there 
are fome Perfons who cut the Bran- 
ches with their ripe Fruit, to put in- 
to Bafons, for adorning their Rooms 
at that Seafon, when there are few 
other Plants in Beauty ; and thefe 
will keep frefh a long time, when 
put into Water, 



Thefe Plants may be propagated 
by parting their Roots in the Spring 
of the Year, before they begin to 
make new Shoots; obierving, if the 
Seafon be dry, to water them until 
they have taken Root ; after which 
they will require no farther Care, 
but to keep them clear from Weeds ; 
obferving not to transplant or d;i- 
turb their Roots oftener than once 
in thrte Years ; for when they are 
often remov'd, they feldom mri\e 
well, and rarely produce Fruit. 

The fifth Sort ;s tender, and mult 
therefore be placed in Pots filled 
with frefli Earth, and in Winter put 
into the Green houfe; but it mould 
be placed where it may have free Air 
in mild Weather, and be conltantly 
watered : in which Management 
this Plant will fend forth Stems fix 
or eight Feet high, furnilh'd with 
Leaves from Bottom to Top; and in 
Junew'il] be clofely fet with Flowers 
upon their Edges, which make a 
a very beautiful and odd Appear- 
ance, and renders it worthy of a 
Place in every good Collection of 
Plants. This is alfo propagated by- 
parting the Roots, as the former, 
which mould not be done very of- 
ten ; becaufe, if the Roots are not 
permitted to remain fome time to 
get Strength, they will produce but 
weak Shoots, and very few Flowers: 
and in the Strength of their Shoots, 
and Number of Flowers, the great- 
er!: Beauty of thefe Plants confitb, 
This Sort grows plentifully at Ma- 
deira, from whence the Seeds may 
be procur'd ; but this commonly lies 
in the Ground a Year before the 
Plants come up ; fo mould be (own 
in Pots filled with freih Earth, and 
placed under an Hot-bed-frame in 
Winter, to fcreen the Seeds from 
the Froft; and the following Spring 
the Plants will appear. 

It is generally fuppofed, that it 

was 



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Was one of thefe Plants which the 
antient Victors were crownM with; 
fjnce from the Pliablenefs of their 
Branchef, whereby they are very 
proper to wreathe into any Figure, 
as alfo from the Refemblance thofe 
Coronets, which we fee furrounding 
the Heads of fome antient Bulb, 
have to the Leaves of thefe Plants, 
k is a probable Conjecture at leaft. 

RUT A, Rue. 

The Characters are ; 

The Flcnver for the mofl part con- 
ffls of four bolknu Leaves, which are 
placed orbicularly, and expand in form 
of a Rofe ; out of whofe Flanker-cup 
arijes the Pointed, which afterward 
becomes a roundijb Fruit, which is 
generally four-cornered, and composed 
ef four Cells fx V to an Axis, and full 
of fmall angular Seeds. 
The Species are ; 

1. Ruta major hortenfs latifdia. 
Mor. Hijl. The common broad- 
leav'd Garden-rue. 

2. Rut a hortenfs minor tenuifolia. 
Mor. Hijl. . The letter Garden-rue, 
with narrow Leaves. 

3. Ruta hortenfs minor tenuifolia. 
foliis variegatis argent eis. Boerh. 
Ind. The letter Garden-rue, with 
narrow Leaves, variegated with 
White. 

4. Ruta Chalepenfs latifolia, flo- 
T'tm pet a lis <villis fcatentihus. H. L. 
The broad-leav'd Aleppo Rue, whofe 
Flower leaves are befet with Down. 

5. Ruta Chalepenfs tenuifolia, 
forum prtalis villis fcatentihus. Mor. 
Hijl. Narrow -leav'd Aleppo Rue, 
whofe Flower-leaves are befet with 
Down. 

6. Ruta fylvefris major. C. B. P. 
Greater wild Rue. 

7. Ruta fylvefris minor. C. B. P. 
Smaller wild Rue. 

8. Ruta fylvefris linifolia Hi- 
fpanica. Bocc Muf Spanjb wild 

Rue, v. ith a Flax leaf. 
Vol.. III. • 



The firft Sort here menticn'd is 
that which the College of Phyficiar.s 
have directed to be uied in Medicine, 
and is the moil commonly cultivated 
in England. 

The fecond Sort is propr.gared 
but in few Gardens in England ; tho' 
the third, which is a Variety of tne - 
iecond, and only differing from it in 
having its Leaves variegated wicii 
White, is very commmon in Eng- 
land, being greatly cultivated by 
thofe Gardeners who fupply the 
London Markets with Plants in the 
Spring-feafon ; at which time this 
Plant makes a beautiful Appear- 
ance : but as the Seafon advances, 
and the Plants increafe in Vigour, 
the Variegation of the Leaves goes 
off, and they appear almoit green ; 
but their Colour returns in Winter. 

The two Sorts of Aleppo Rue are 
only prefer v'd in fome curious Gar- 
dens, being rarely ufed in Medi- 
cine ; though of late Years the broad- 
leav'd Sort was become fo plenty, as 
to be brought to the Markets inllead 
of the firlt Sort : but being much 
ranker, and of a more offenfive 
Smell, it was neglected. 

The greater wild Rue is lefs com- 
mon in Engla?ui than either of the 
former. This I raifed from Seeds, 
which were fent me by my honoured 
Friend Mr. Henry Hopkey, from Gi- 
braltar, where this Plant grows up- 
on the Hills in great Plenty. 

The fmaller wild Rue is alfo un- 
common : the Leaves of this Sort are 
fmall, and neatly fet on the Branches, 
fo as to make a very pretty Appear- 
ance ; but this, and the former Sort?, 
are tender ; fo are frequently de-> 
ftroy'd by Cold in the Winter. Thefe 
two Sorts produced plenty of Seeds 
in the Phy fic-garden at Che If a .which. 
feemed very perfect ; but not one of 
them came up v/hen fown. 

The eighth Sort is alfo tender, and 
4 1 comes 



R U 

comes from the fame Country ; there- 
fore thefe three fhould be planted in 
Pots, and (helter'd in Winter from 
fevere Froft ; but they mult have 
free Air in mild Weather. 

All thefe Plants may be propagated 
either by fowing of their Seed?, or 
by planting Slips or Cuttings; both 
of which muft be done in the Spring. 
The manner of propagating them 
from Cuttings being the fame with 
Rofmary, &c. I mall not repeat it 
here, but refer the Reader to that 
Article ; and if they are propagated 
by Seeds, there needs no farther Care 
but to dig a Bed of frefh Earth in 
the Spring, making it level ; then to 
fow the Seeds thereon, and rake the 
Ground fmooth : after which you 
muft obferve to keep the Bed clear 
from Weeds until the Plants are 
come up about two Inches high ; 
when they mould be tranfpianted out 
into frelh Beds, where they may re- 
main for Ufe. All thefe Plants muft 
have a dry Soil, otherwife they are 
very fubject to be deftroy'd in Win- 
ter. The two Aleppo Rues, and the 
wild Rue, are fomewhat tenderer 
than the common Sort ; but thefe 
will endure our ordinary Winters 
very well in the open Air, efpecially 
if they are planted on a dry Soil. 

The firft Sort was formerly ufed 
to plant for Edgings on the Sides of 
Borders ; it was then called Herb of 
Grace ; but was by no means pro- 
per for this Ufe j for the Plants 
ihoot fo vigoroufly, that there is no 
keeping them within the Bounds of 
an Edging ; befides, when they are 
kept clofely mear'd, they appear 
very ragged and ftumpy ; and their 
Roots fpread fo far, as to exhauft the 
Goodnefs of the Soil, fo that the 
other Plants would be deprived of 
their Nourimment j which Reafons 
have caus'd them to be wholly neg- 
lected for this Purpofe ; fc that at 



R U 

prefent they are chiefly cultivatej 
for medicinal Ufe, or to furnifh the 
Balconies for the Citizens in the 
Spring. 

RUTA CANINA. Vide Scro- 
phularia. 

RUTA MURARIA, Wall-rue, 
or White Maiden-hair. 

This Plant is found growing out 
of the Joints of eld Walls in divers 
-Parts o{ England, where it is gather 'd 
for medicinal Ufe ; but as it cannot 
be cultivated in Gardens, fo as to 
grow to Advantage, I fball not fay 
any thing more of it in this Place. 

RUYSCHIANA. 
The Characters are } 

It hath a lahiated Flower cgv fif- 
ing of one Leaf whofe Upper-lip ( or 
Creft J is divided into two Parts ; but 
the Beard is cut into three Segments^ 
the middle Segment being divided into 
two Parts, and is twijled like a Screw: 
out of the Empaiemcnt arifes the Poin- 
tal t fixed like a Nail in the hinder 
Part of the Flower, attended by four 
Embryoes ; which afterward become 
fo many Seeds inclofcd in the Empale- 
ment. 

We have but one Species of this 
Plant ; which is, 

Ruyschiana fore cceruleo ma- 
gno. Boerh.Ind. alt. Ruyfchiana with 
a large blue Flower. 

This Name was given to this 
Plant by the learned Dr. Boerbaave, 
ProfefTor of Botany at Leaden, in 
Honour to Dr. Ruyfcb, who was Pro- 
fefTor of Anatomy and Botany at Am- 
fierdam. It was by fome Writers in 
Botany ranged among the Hy flops ; 
by others it was made a Ground- 
pine ; and by fome a Self-heal ; to 
neither of which it exactly agreed: 
which occafion'd Dr. Boerhaave to 
conftitute a new Genus of it by this 
Name. 

This is a perennial Plant, which 
dies to the Root in Autumn, and rifes 

again 



R U 



again the following Spring. It com- 
monly grows about two Feet high, 
and has long narrow Leaves, fome- 
what refembling thofe of Rofmary ; 
on the Topsof the Stalk, the Flow- 
ers are produced in a clofe thick 
Spike, growing in Whorle^ round 
the Stalk ; which are of a fine blue 
Colour, and make a very pretty Ap- 
pearance during their Continuance in 
.Beauty ; which in a cool Seafon is 
fometimcs fix Weeks, beginning in 
May, and lafting till July. 

It is propagated by Seed, which 
mould be fovvn in the Middle of 
May-chy in a Bed of frem light Earth, 
in an open Expofure; and in about 
five Weeks after the Plants will ap- 
pear, when they fhould be carefully 
cleared from Weeds ; and if the Sea- 
fon mould prove dry, they muft be 
refrefhed now and-then with Water, 
which will greatly promote their 
Growth. When the Plants are about 
two Inches high, they mould be care- 
fully tranfplanted into a Bed or Bor- 
der of frem light undunged Earth, 
obferving to (hade them from the 
Sun until they have taken Root; as 
alfo to refrefh them frequently with 
Water, until they are well eftablim'd 
in this Bed \ after which time they 
will require no farther Care, but to 
keep them conftantly clear from 
Weeds, till Michaelmas, when they 
are to be removed into the Places 
where they are defigned to remain 
for good. 

When the Plants are firfl tranf- 
planted from the Seed-bed into a 
Nurferybed, they mould be plant- 
ed about fix Inches afunder every 
Way, which will be fufficient room 
for them the firft Seafon ; and this 
will admit of the Hoe to come be- 
tween the Plants to deftroy the 
Weeds, which is by much a better 
Method than the pulling them out 



by Hand, and is much fooner per- 
form'd. # 

At Michaelmas, when the Plants 
are tranfplanted for good, they 
fhould be carefully taken up with 
Balls of Earth to their Roots ; and 
they muft be planted in the Middle o£ 
the Borders in frefh light Earth, in- 
termixing them with other hardy 
Plants of the fame Growth ; where 
they will make a pretty Appearance, 
when they are in Flower, and will 
continue three or four Years ; and 
in fome poor flony Soils I have 
known the Roots live fix or feven 
Years ; but thefe did not produce 
fo large Spikes of Flowers, as thole 
younger and more vigorous Planes. 

It will be proper to have fome of 
the Plants in Pocs, which, in cafe of 
a fevere Winter, may be fhelter'd 
under a Frame, for fear thofe Plant* 
which are exposed mould be deftroy- 
ed ; and thefe Plants in Pots, if they 
are duly fupply'd with Water in dry 
Weather, will flower very ftfong ; 
wherefore they may be placed among 
other Plants, to decorate Courts, &c. 
where they will have a good Effect. 

But as thefe Plants do not continue 
many Years, it will be proper to raife 
a Supply of young Plants to fucceed 
them i for the old Plants will pro- 
duce Seeds plentifully, which are 
ripe in Augujl, when they mould be 
gather'd in dry Weather, and kept 
in a warm dry Room, till the time 
for fowing them. 




S A 




ABINA, The Savine-tree. 
The Cbaraclers are ; 



// bath company rigid, attd prick- 
ly ever -green Leaves: the Fruit is 
4 I 2 fmally 



S A 

fnmll, fl>hir\cal) and ivar/ed ; and 
the ivhole Plant has a 'very rank 
flrong Smell. 

The Species arc ; 

1 . S a in N a folio tantarifci Diofcori- 
dis. C.B, P. The Male or common 
Savine. 

2. Sabina folio CUprtffl. C.B. P. 
The berry-bearing, or upright Sa- 
vine. 

3. Sabina folio e varitgato. The 
fhiped Savine. 

Thefe Plants are commonly culti- 
vated for medicinal Ufc, and are 
rarely planted in Gardens for Plea- 
fure, becaufe their ill Scent renders 
them difagreeable in frequented Pla- 
ces ; but yet they may be admitted 
for planting in Clumps, or to form 
Amphitheatres of ever- green Trees ; 
where, if thefe are intermixed among 
other low growing Plants, they will 
add to the V ariety. 

Thefe Plants may be propagated 
by laying down their young Branches 
in the Spring; which, if duly wa- 
tered in dry Weather, will take 
Hoot in a Year's time, and may then 
be tranfplanted out either into a Nur- 
fery, or the Places where they are to 
remain : they may alfo be propaga- 
ted by Cuttings, which mould be 
planted on a moift Soil about the 
J^eginning of October ; which, if 
duly water'd in dry Weather, will 
take Root, and the Autumn follow- 
ing may be removed, as was directed 
for the Layers. 

The time for tranfplanting thefe 
Plants is the fame with Laurels, 
Laurus Tinus, &e. obferving to do 
it in moift W T eather, laying a little 
Mulch upon .'the Surface of the 
Ground about their Roots, to pre- 
vent their drying : after they are 
rooted, they will require no farther 
Care, but to keep them clear from 
\Vj;eds, .and ro dig the Ground about 



S A 

their Roots every Spring, which 
will greatly promote their Growth. 

Thefe Plants are ufually ranged 
with the Junipers ; to which Genus 
they properly belong by their Cha- 
racters ; but as they have been long 
known by the Title of Savine in the 
Shops, I have continued this Name 
to them. 

The firft: Sort feldom produces 
Berries in this Country, r.or in many 
other Places ; which has occafion'd 
many Perfons to give it the Epithet 
of Male, and to the upright Sort 
that of Female, from its bearing 
plenty of Berries ; and from hence 
fome have fuppofed them to be but 
one Species ; but they are certainly 
two diftincl: Plants ; for they totally 
differ in the mariner of their Growth, 
as alfo in their Leaves. I have fome- 
times found Berries on the firft Sort; 
but thefe are produe'd fparingly, and 
never but on old Plants. 

The firft feldom rifes above three 
or four Feet high ; the Branches 
fpread horizontally to a great Di- 
ftance from the Stem ; fo thefe Plants 
are very proper to plant for cover- 
ing of Rocks, or to hang over Wa- 
ter, where the dark Green of the 
Leaves will have a very good Effect ; 
and being extremely hardy, is an- 
other Recommendation : for in the 
fevere Froft in the Year 1739-46. 
when there were few Plants efcap'd, 
thefe retain'd their Verdure, and 
were not isjur'd. 

The other Sort grows more erect, 
and will rife to the Height of ten or 
twelve Feet. The Leaves of this 
referable thofe of the Virginian Ce- 
dar, and have the fame rank Scent 
as the common Savine ; but this is 
not common in England at prefent : 
however, it deferves to be propa- 
gated, as it makes a Variety among 
other ever-green Shrubs. 

SAFFRON. 



S A 

SAFFRON. Vide Crocus. 

SAGE. Vide Salvia. 

SALIC ARIA, Willow- wort, or 
Spiked Loofe-ftrife. 

The Char after s are; 

'The Flowers conf;Ji of federal 
Leaves, <vohicb are placed circularly, 
and expand in form of a Rofe : theft 
Leaves are produced from tbelncifures 
of the Flower-cup : from the Centre 
of the Flower-cup rifes the Point al, 
which afterward becomes a Fruit, or 
c-val Hujh, confining of two Cells, and 
generally full of fmall Seeds, which 
adhere to the Placenta, and are com- 
monly wrapped up in the Flower-cup. 
The Species are ; 

i.Salicaria vulgaris purpurea, 
foliis cblongis. Toum. Purple fpiked 
Willow-herb, or Loofe-ftrife, with 
long Leaves. 

2. Salicaria purpurea, foliis/ub- 
rotundis. Toum. Purple fpiked 
Willow-herb, or Loofe-itrife, with 
roundifti Leaves. 

3. Salicaria hyjfopi folio latiore. 
Inf. R H. Broad hyflbp - leav'd 
Willow-wort, or Hedge-hyflbp. 

4. Saliqaria hyffopi folio an^u- 
Jiiore. In/I. R. H. Narrow hyflbp- 
ieav'd Willow-wort, or Grafs poly. 

5. Salicaria Lufitanica, angu- 
fliore folio. Inf. R. H. Portugal 
Willow-wort, with a narrow Leaf. 

6. Salicaria Hi [panic a, hyjjbpi 
folio, foribus oblongis, faturate cae- 
ruleis. Ufi. R. H. Spanijh Wiilow- 
wort, with an Hyfibp-leaf, and ob- 
long deep blue Flowers. 

7. Salicaria minima LupAanica, 
nummularis? folio. Inf. R. H. The 
leal! Portugal Willow- wort, with a 
Moneywort-leaf. 

8. Salicaria Orientals, falicis 
folio acutijjimo rjf glabro. Tourn. Car. 
Eaftern Willow-wort, with a fharp- 
poimed imooth Willow- leaf. 

9. Salicaria Cnti-:a t funic* fa< 



S A 

Ih. Toum. Cor. Candy Willow" 
wort, with a Pomgranate-leaf. 

The two Sorts firlt-mention'd are 
very common by the Sides of Ditches, 
and other moid Places, in divers 
Parts of England, and are rarely cul- 
tivated in Gardens : yet, for the 
Beauty cf their long Spikes of pur- 
ple Flowers, they deferve a Place in 
a good Garden, as a'.fo for their long 
Continuance in Flower: however, 
if there happens to be a moilt boggy- 
Place in a Garden, where few other 
Plants will thrive, thefe may be 
placed there to Advantage, and will 
afford a great deal of Pleafure. They 
propagate themfelves very fait by 
their creeping Roots ; and if they de- 
light in the Soil, will in amort time 
multiply exceedingly. Thefe pro- 
duce their Flowers in June and^Vy, 
and often continue till Augujl in 
Beauty. 

The two next Sorts are found wild 
in England, on moift Soils, where 
the Water {lands in Winter ; but 
they are pretty rare near London. 
Thefe are feldom preferved in Gar- 
dens, but are here mentioned to in- 
troduce the next Sort, which is a 
very beautiful Plant, and deferves a 
Place in every curious Garden, for 
its long Continuance in Flower . This 
Sort is a Native of Portugal-, but is a 
tolerable hardy Plant, and wiil en- 
dure the Cold of our ordinary Win- 
ters in the open Air ; but in very fe- 
vere Frolt, is fometisnes uer\royed ; 
fo that fome Plants of this Kind may ' 
be planted in Po:<, which may be 
fheher'd under a common Frame in 
Winter, where they ihould have as 
much free Air* as poilible in miid* 
Weather; for they only require to 
be protected from very hard Frofh. 
In Summer they may be placed 
abroad with other flowering Plants; 
but in dry Weather- they mutt be duly 
i- 1 1 watered. 



S A 

watered, otherwife they will not 
flower ftrong, nor continue fo long 
in Beauty. Thefe Flowers are pro- 
duced from the Wings of the 
Leaves, beginning at the Bottom 
of the Stalks near the Root, and are 
continued all the Way up to the Top 
of the Stalks, which are about two 
Feet in Length ; for this Sort feldom 
rif«s any higher : the Flowers are 
pretty large, and of a bright purple 
Colour. This Plant begins to flower 
the Beginning of June, and continues 
till Auguft. 

As this Sort very rarely produces 
ripe Seeds in England, it muft be 
propagated by parting of the Roots, 
or by laying down the Branches, 
which will take Root in a few 
Months (provided they are conftant- 
]y watered in dry Weather) ; and 
may then be taken from the old 
Plants, and planted into Pots, that 
they may be flielter'd in Winter ; 
and the Spring following, fome of 
them may be fhaken out of the Pots , 
and planted into a Border, where 
they may have the morning Sun ; 
and in dry Weather, if they are wa- 
tered conftantly, they will flower 
very well, and make a fine Appear- 
ance. 

The fixth Sort is alfo a very beau- 
tiful Plant, and well deferves a Place 
in every good Garden. This grows 
about the fame Height with the for- 
mer ; fo may be interfpers'd with it 
in the Borders of the Flower-gar- 
den ; as may alfo the feventh and 
eighth jSorts, for Variety, tho' they 
are not near fo beautiful as either of 
the former Sorts. Thefe may be 
treated in the fame manner as hath 
been directed for the fifth Sort ; with 
which Management they will thrive 
very well. 

The eighth Sort grows much tall- 
er than either of the other ; fo mould 
be plac'd asn6ngft larger Plants. This 



S A 

is very hardy, and may be propa- 
gated either by Seeds, or by parting 
of the Roots, which is the furtlt 
way ; becaufe the Seeds do not ripen 
every Year in this Climate. The 
beft time to part the Roots is in Au- 
tumn, that they may be well fixed in 
the Ground before the Spring ; be- 
caufe thofe which are parted in the 
Spring, feldom flower very ftrong, 
efpecially if the Seafon proves dry. 
This Sort may be intermix'd with 
the two large Kinds firft-mention'd, 
and will grow in almoft any Situa- 
tion, provided they are watered in 
diy Weather. 

SALICORNIA, Jointed Glaff- 
wort, or Saltwort. 

The Characters are ; 

It hath an apetalous Flower, ivant- 
ing the EmpaUment ; for the Stamina 
( or Chives ), and the Emhryoes, grow 
on the extreme Part of the Leaves : 
thefe Embryoes afterward become Pods 
or Bladders, which far the mofi part 
contain one Seed. 

The Species are ; 

1. Sa li corn i a geniculata femper» 
virens. Toum. Cor. Jointed ever- 
green Glaflwort. 

2. Salicornia geniculata annua* 
Toum. Cor. Annual Jointed Giaff- 
wort. 

Thefe Plants grow on the Sea- 
coaft in many Parts of Europe, and 
upon the Shores in feveral Places in 
England ^hich are waihed everyTide 
with the Salt-water ; but are rarely 
planted in Gardens, becaufe it is very 
difficult to make them grow in any 
other Situation, tb.2n in Salt-marfhes, 
and on the Shores, where the Salt- 
water frequently flows. Of thefe 
Plants there feem to be two or three 
Varieties, which appear remarkably 
different ; but are not Juppofed to be 
diftincl Species. 

The Inhabitants near the Sea- 
coaft; where thefe Plan;; grow, cu: 



S A 

them up toward the Latter-end of 
Summer, when they are fully 
grown and after having dried them 
in the Sun, they burn them for their 
Ames, which are ufed in making of 
Glafs and Soap. Thefe Herbs are, 
by the Country-people, call'd Kelp ; 
and are promifcuoufly gather'd for 
Ufe. 

From the Allies of thefe Plants is 
extracted the Salt, called Sal Kali, 
or Alkali, which is much ufed by 
the Chemifts. 

The manner of gathering and 
burning of thefe Herbs is already 
mention'd under the Article of Kali ; 
fo I mall not repeat it in this Place. 

In fome Parts of England thefe 
Herbs are gather'd and pickled for 
Samphire, though it is very different 
from either of thefe. 

SAL1X, The Sallow, or Willow* 
tree. 

The Characters are ; 
It bath amentaceous Flowers, con- 
Jifling of federal Stamina, wbicb are 
collected into a Spike, but are barren : 
tbe Embryces are produced upon dif- 
ferent Trees from tbe Male Flowers, 
and afterward become a Fruit or Hujk, 
jhaped like a Cone, opening in two 
Parts, and containing downy Seeds, 
The Species are ; 

1. Salix vulgaris alba arbor e- 
fcens. C. B. P. The common white 

Willow. 

2. Salix folio laureo,feu lata gla- 
bra odorato. Pbyt. Brit. The bay- 
leav'd fweet Willow. 

3. Salix folio longo utrinque <vi~ 
rente odorato. The long-leav'd fweet 
Willow. 

4. Salix folio longo latcque fplen- 
dente,fragilis. Rail Syn. The Crack 
Willow. 

5. Salix folio amygdalino, utrin- 
que aurito y corticem aljiciens. Rait 
Syn. The almond -leav'd Willow, 
tin: calls its Bark, 



s A 

6. Saltx folio auricula to fplen- 
dente, fiexilis. Cat. Cant. The 
round-ear'd mining Willow. 

7. Salix folio longo fubluteo, non 
auriculato, viminibus luteis. Raii Syn, 
The long-leav'd yellowifti Willow. 

8. Salix latifclia rotunda. C. 
B. P. Round-Ieav'd Sallow. 

9. Salix latifclia rotunda varie- 
gata. The ftriped Sallow. 

10. Salix latifolia, folio fplen- 
Raii Syn. Broad iriining-leav'd Sal- 
low. 

11. Salix Or ient alls, fiagellis de- 
orfum pulchre pendent ibus >. T, Cor, 
The weeping Willow. 

12. Salix caprea, acuta hngoque 
folio. Raii Syn. Mountain Willow, 
with a long-pointed Leaf. 

13. Salix minime fragilis, folii: 
longijjimis utrinque <viridibus non fer- 
ratis. Raii Syn. Smooth longgreen- 
leav'd Willow. 

14. Salix folio longijjima. Cat, 
Cant. The Ofier. 

15. Salix bumilior, foliis anguftis 
fubcaeruleis ex ad-verfo btnis. Raii 
Syn. The yellow dwarf Willow. 

16. Salix Alpina, alni rotundo fo- 
lio, repens. Bocc. Muf. Mountain, 
creeping Willow, with a round Al- 
der-leaf. 

There are a greater Number of 
Species to be found in England than 
are here mention'd, efpecially of 
the Sallows, as I have been in- 
formed by a very judicious Ba- 
fket-maker : there are at leaft 
thirty Sorts, which they diltinguifh 
by Name, commonly in Ufe in their 
Trade ; and befides thefe, there are 
a great Number of mountain Wil- 
lows, which grow upon dry Grounds, 
and are cultivated as Under-wood, 
in many Parts of England. 

The firft Sort here mention'd is 
the common white Willow, which 
grows to the largeft Size of all the 
Sorts. Th? Shoots of this are bri:- 
4 1 4 tl?, 



S A 

tie, fo are not fit for the Bafkct- 
makers or Gardeners ; out the Wood 
of this Tree was much efleem'd by 
the Shoemakers for Heels of Shoes, 
being a light fmooth Wood : fo that 
this Sort is only proper for fuch 
Plantations as are defigned to grow 
tali, either for Shade or Shelter ; 
therefore is generally planted in low 
marthy Lands, for that Purpofe. 

The fecond Sort flioots very ftrong, 
bat is not inclinable to grow to a 
large Size ; fo k chiefly planted for 
the Ufe of Bafket- makers ; theTwigs 
of this being pliable. The Leaves of 
this are as large as thofe of the Bay- 
tree, and have an agreeable Scent ; 
for which Reafon many People plant 
this in the low wet Parts of Planta- 
tion?, where better Things will not 
thrive. 

The third Sort hath alfo an agree- 
able Scent ; fo is by many preferved 
in their Gardens and Plantations. 
The Twigs of this are pliable, which 
renders them fit for the Bafk.et-mak- 
ers and Gardeners. 

The fourth Sort is brittle, fo un- 
fit for Ufe, This grows to be a large 
Tree; therefore may be planted for 
Shade and Shelter. 

The fifth, fixth, feventh, thir- 
teenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth 
Sorts have pliable Twigs ; fo are 
planted in the Ofier-grounds for the 
Haskec-makers; but the thirteenth 
Sort is efleem'd the belt. The Tvvio;s 
of this may be tvviiled about like 
Thread, being exceeding tough and 
pliable ; therefore thefe'are the befl 
Sort for the Gardeners Ufe, and par- 
ticularly for fattening of Fruit-trees 
to the Efpalier; fo that where there 
is Room and Conveniency, a few of 
thefe (hould be planted, becaufe they 
are very ufefu! in a Garden. 

The eleventh Sort is not a Native 
of this Country ; but has been in- 
troduced cf late Years from ihsJLe- 



S A 

njafit, where it is a Native. The 
Branches of this Sort are very {len- 
der, and always hang downward ; 
which occafion'd this Title of weep- 
ing Willow. This is very proper to 
plant at the Termination of Water, 
where the Head isdefign'd to be hid, 
and the Sight deceiv'd, by the Wa- 
ter being loft under the Boughs of 
the Willow. 

The eighth, ninth, and twelfth 
Sorts are frequently planted in Cop- 
pice?, for Underwood ; and are of- 
ten cut for Hoops, as alfo for make- 
Ing Hurdle - fences about Fields. 
Thefe Sorts grow upon dry chalky 
Lands, where few other Kinds will 
thrive. 

The ninth Sort is only a Variety 
of the eighth, having variegated 
Leaves, which in the Spring make 
a pretty Appearance ; fo is preferv'd 
in the Gardens of thofe who are 
curious in having Plants with varie- 
gated Leaves. 

The iixteenth Sort is of very hum- 
ble Growth, feldom rifing to be one 
Foot high. The Roots of this Kind 
creep in the Ground ; fo it propa- 
gates very faft in a cold moift Situa- 
tion. This grows plentifully in the 
mountainous Parts of Wales and 
Cumberland, as alfo upon the Alps ; 
and I have alfo received it from Da- 
*uis*s Streights ; fo that I believe it is 
common in moft cold Countries : 
but it is difHcult to get this to thrive 
in the South ; for where fome curi- 
ous Perfons have procurM Plants of 
it from the Places of its Growth, 
they have not been able to keep it 
many Years ; for it delights to grow 
upon Moors and Swamps, where 
the Soil is of a peaty Nature. But 
as this Plant is of no Ufe or Beau- 
ty, it is rarely preferved in Gardens. 

There are. feveral of the Sorts 
which are planted in the Oiler- 
grounds, and always kept low, that 

when 



S A 

tyhen they are not cut down, and 
have room to grow, will rife to a 
confiderable Height, and become 
large Trees : fo that they may be 
planted for the fame Purpofes as the 
firft Sort, and will make a Variety 
when intermix'd with it j though 
they are commonly cultivated for 
their Twigs, which are annually 
cut, and produce good Profit to the 
Owner of the Land. 

All the Sorts of Willows may be 
eafily propagated by planting Cut- 
tings or Sets in the Spring, which 
readily take Root, and are of quick 
Growth. Thofe Sorts which grow 
to be large Trees, and are culti- 
vated for their Timber, are gene- 
rally planted from Sets, which are 
about feven or eight Feet long : thefe 
are Iharpen'd at their larger End, 
and thrylt into the Ground by the 
Sides of Ditches and Banks, where 
the Ground is moiit ; in which Pla- 
ces they make a confiderable Pro- 
grofs, and are a great Improvement 
to fuch Eftates ; becaufe their Tops 
will be fit to lop every fifth or fixth 
Year. The larger Wood, if found, 
is commonly fold for making wood- 
en Heels or Soles for Shoes ; as 
alio to the Turners, for many Kinds 
of light Ware. 

The Sallows are commonly plant- 
ed in Cuttings made from itrong 
Shoots of the former Year, and are 
about three Feet long : thefe are 
commonly thruft down two Feet 
deep into the Ground, and are one 
Foot above it. The Soil mould al- 
ways be dug or plow'd before they 
are planted, and the Cuttings plac'd 
about three Feet Rcw from Row, 
and eighteen Inches afunder in the 
Rows; obferving alwavs to place 
the Rows the Hoping Way of the 
Ground (fpecially if the. Tides 
overflow the Place) ; becaufe if the 
Rows are plac'd the contrary Ways, 



s A 

all the Filth and Weeds will be de- 
tain'd by the Plants, which will 
choak them up. 

The bell Seafon for planting thefe 
Cuttings is in February ; for if the/ 
are planted fooner, they are apt to 
peel, if it proves hard Froft ; which 
greatly injures them. Thefe Plants 
are always cut every Year ; and if 
the Soil be good, they will produce 
a great Crop; fo that the yearly- 
Produce of one Acre has been often 
fold for fifteen Pounds; but ten 
Pounds is a common Price, which is 
much better than Corn-land ; fo that 
it is great Pity thefe Plants are not 
more cultivated, efpecially upon 
moift boggy Soils, upon which few 
other Things will thrive. s 

SALVIA, Sage. 

The Characters are ; 

// hath a labiated Flower, confin- 
ing of one Leaf whofe Upper-lip 
is fometimes arched, and fome- 
times hooked ; hut the Under- lip, or 
Beard, is divided into three Purts, 
hunching out, and not hollowed, as 
the Clary: cut of the Flower -cup 
rifes the Pointal, attended, as it were, 
by four Embryocs, which afterward 
become fo many Seeds, which are 
roundijh, fiut up in an Hufk, which 
was before the Flower- cup : to which 
may be added, That the Stamina fome- 
what refmble the Os Hyoidis. 
The Species are; 

1. Salvia major, an Sphacelus 
Theophrafi. C. B. P. The greater 
or common Sage. 

2. Salvia nigra. C.B.P. Com- 
mon red Sage. 

3. Salvia major, foliis ex wridi 
Iff albo mariegatis, Boerh. Ind. The 
greater Sage, with Leaves variega- 
ted with White and Green. 

4. Salv/a foliis <verfic:loribus. C. 
B. P t Party-colour'd Sage. 

5. Salvia I at if alia /errata. C. B. 
P. The Broad- leav'd notched Sage. 

6. Salvia 



S A 

6. Salvia latifolia /errata, fol'iis 
ex albo n/ariegatis. Broad - leav'd 
Sage, with variegated Leaves. 

7. Salvia abjinthium redolens. J. 
B. Wormwood Sage. 

8. Salvia minor aurita, & non 
aurita. C. B. P. Sage of Virtue. 

9. Salvia minor, foliis n/ariega- 
tis. H. R. Par. Sage of Virtue, 
with ftriped Leaves. 

10. Salvia Orient alts lati folia 
abjinthium redolent, fiore cameo ma- 
gna. Boerh. Broad - leavM Eaftern 
Sage, fmelling like Wormwood, 
with a large flefh-colour'd Flower. 

ir. Salvia Orient alis lati folia 
hirfutijjima <vifeofa pimiata, fore iff 
ralyce purpureis, inodora. Boerh. Ind. 
Eaftern Sage, with broad hairy 
clammy wing'd Leaves, with a pur- 
ple Flower and Flower-cup, without 
Smel!. 

12. Salvia Africa na frutefcens, 
folio feorodoni<e> fore nj'wlaceo. H. A. 
Shrubby African Sage, with a Wood- 
tage-leaf, anda violet colour'd Flow- 
er. 

13. Salvia Africana frutefcens, 
folio- fub rot undo glauco, fore aureo 
magna. H. A. Shrubby African Sage, 
with roundim fea-green Leaves, and 
a large golden Flower. 

14. Salvia Orient alis abfinthium 
reddens, foliis pinnatis, fiore carneo, 
elatior. Sher. Eaftern upright Worm- 
wood Sage, with wing'd Leaves, and 
a flefh-colour'd Flower. 

15. Salvi a Hi f panic a, folio laven- 
dultf. Tourn. Spanijh Sage, with a 
Lavender-leaf. 

There are feveral other Species, 
or at leaft Varieties, of this Plant, 
which are prefer ved in fome curious 
Botanic Gardens abroad ; but thofe 
here mentioned are what I have 
obferved.in the Englijh Gardens. 

The firfl Sort, tho' the moft com- 
mon in many Parts of Europe, yet 
is bat rarely to be feea in the Eng- 



s a 

Ujh Gardens ; but the red Sort is molt 
commonly cultivated in this Coun- 
try, which many Perfons fuppofe to 
be only a Variety of the common 
Sort ; but it conftantly preferves its 
Difference when raifed from Seeds, 
as I have two or three times experi- 
mented ; fo that I don't fcruple to 
make it a diftincl Species, fince its 
Difference from the common is 
much greater than in fome of the 
other Sorts of Sage, particularly the 
Sage of Virtue, and the Lavender- 
leav'd Sage; both which, when cul- 
tivated in a good Soil, are fo nearly 
alike, as not to be diftinguihYd by* 
the beft Botanifts. This red Sage, the 
Wormwood Sage, and Sage of Vir- 
tue, are the principal Sorts cultivated 
for Ufc in England tho' the Broad- 
leav'd Sage is much preferable to 
the Sage of Virtue for Tea, it giving 
the Water a much more grateful Fla- 
vour, and is efteemed to be of a lefs 
drying Quality ; fo that moll Per- 
fons, who are Lovers of Sage-tea 4 
prefer this for that Purpofe. 

All the Sorts of Sage, except the 
eleventh Sort, which is but annual, 
may be propagated by planting Cut- 
tings or Slips, during any ©f the 
Summer-months, obferving to wa- 
ter and (hade them until they have 
taken Root ; after which they may 
be taken up, and planted where they 
aredefigned to remain, which mould 
always be upon adry Soil, and where 
they may have the Benefit of the Sun ; 
for if they are planted on a moift Soil, 
or in a ftiady Situation, they are very 
fubjeft to be deftroyed in Winter ; 
nor will thefe Plants endure the Cold 
fo well, when planted upon a rich 
Soil, as thofe which have a barren, 
dry, rocky Soil, which is the Cafe 
of moil of the verticillate Plants. 
The Side fhoots and Tops of thefe 
Plants may be gathered in the Sum - 
mer, and dried, if deHgned for Tea ; 

othcr^ 



S A 

otherwife they are bed taken green 
from the Plants for moft other Ufes. 

The twelfth, thirteenth, and four- 
teenth Sorts are fomewhat tender ; 
therefore thefe muft be planted into 
Pots filled with freih light fandy 
Earth ; and in Winter muft be re- 
moved into the Confervatory, where 
they mould be placed as near the 
Windows as poffible, that they may 
have a great Share of frelh Air when- 
ever the Seafon is mild ; for if they 
are too much drawn, they feldom 
flower well, and make but an indif- 
ferent Appearance : in Summer they 
muft be expofed amongft other Exo- 
tic Plants in fome well-fheltered Si- 
tuation ; for they are pretty hardy, 
and only require to be meltered from 
the Froft, and ftrong Winds. Thefe 
Plants muft be often refrefoecT with 
Water, efpecially in warm Weather, 
otherwife they will mrivel and de- 
cay ; and they mould be tranfplant- 
ed at leaft twice every Summer, be- 
caufe their Roots will greatly in- 
crease ; which, if confin'd in the Pots 
too long, will turn mouldy, and de- 
cay. The other Oriental Sorts are 
hardy enough to endure the Cold of 
our ordinary Winters in the open 
Air, provided they are planted in a 
dry Soil, and a warm Situation. 

Thefe Plants may alfo be propa- 
gated by fowLig their Seeds in the 
Spring upon a Bed of frefh Earth, 
obferving to keep the Ground clear 
from Weeds until the Plants are come 
up ; when they mould be tranfplant- 
ed into Beds of frefh Earth, and 
treated as thofe raifed from Cuttings 
or Slips. 

SALVIA AGRESTIS. Vide 
Scordium. 

SAMBUCUS, The Elder- tree. 
The Characters are ; 

The Branches are full of Pith, 
hawing hut little Wood : the Flowers 
are monoid ale us, divided into federal 



S A 

Segments, and expand in form of m 
Rofe : thefe are, for the mojl part, 
collected into an Umbel, and are fuc~ 
ceeded by foft fucculent Berries, haw 
ing three Seeds in each. 
The Species are ; 

1 . Sambucus fruelu in umbellct 
nigro. C. B. P. Common Elder, 
with black Berries. 

2. Sambucus frutlu in umbellct 
wiridi. C. B. P. Common Elder, 
with greenifh Berries. 

3. Sambucus fruflu alho. Lob* 
The white-berried Elder. 

4. Sambucus racemofa rubra. C, 
B. P. The mountain red-berried 
Elder. 

5. Sambucus laciniato folio. C. 
B. P. The Cut or Parftey-leav d 
Elder. 

6. Sambucus vulgaris, foliis ex 
luteo<variegatis. The blotch'd-Ieav'd 
Elder. 

7. Sambucus humilis, fiveEhu- 
lus. C. B. P. Dwarf Elder, or 
Danewort. 

The firft of thefe Trees is very 
common in the Hedges in moft Parts 
of England ; but the fecond and third 
Sorts are more rare : thefe are pro- 
pagated for the fake of their Berries, 
which are by fome Perfons ufed for 
making Wine, and for other Pur- 
poses. The fourth Sort is lefs com- 
mon in England than either of the 
former, it being only to be found in 
fome curious Gardens at prefent. 
The fifth and fixth Sorts are preferv'd 
for the Variety of their Leaves, hy 
fuch as are curious in collecting the 
various Kinds of Trees and Shrubs. 

All thefe Sorts may be eafily pro- 
pagated from Cuttings, or by fowing 
their Seeds ; but the former, being 
the moft expeditious Method, is ge- 
nerally pra&ifed. The Time for 
planting of their Cuttings is from 
September to March ; in the doing of 

which, there needs no more Care 

than 



S A 

than to thruft the Cuttings about fix 
or eight Inches into the Ground, and 
they will take Root faft enough, and 
may afterward be tranfplanted 
where they are to remain, which 
may be upon almoft any Soil or Si- 
acration : they are extreme hardy ; 
2nd if their Seeds are permitted to 
fall upon the Ground, they will pro- 
duce Plenty of Plants the fucceeding 
Summer. 

Thefe Trees are often planted for 
making; Fences, becaufe of their . 
quick Growth ; but as their Bot- 
toms become naked in a few Years, 
they are not fo proper for that Ufe : 
Tit: u >er would I recommend them to 
he planted near Habitations ; becaufe 
at the Seafon when they are m Flow- 
er, they emit fuch a ftrong Scent, as 
will occafion violent Pains in the 
Heads of thofe who abide long near 
them : belides, the crude Parts which 
are continually perfpired thro' their 
Leaves, are accounted unwholfome ; 
tW the Leaves, Bark, and other 
Farts, are greatly efteemed for many 
tJIes in Medicine. 

The Dwarf Elder is found wild in 
foiae Counties of England; but near 
London it is propagated in Gardens 
for medicinal Ufe ; tho* very often 
the Herb- women in the Markets give 
the tender Shoots of the Elder-tree 
inltead of this, to fuch Perfons as 
can*c diuinguiwhthem afunder. 

This Plant multiplies exceeding 
fail by its creeping Root, which, if 
permitted to run, will foon overfpread 
a large Spot of Ground : the Ort-fets 
of thefe Roots may be tranfplanted 
any time from September to March, 
and will grow in any Soil or Situa- 
tion ; but fliould be allowed room 
to fpread ; for if they are planted 
near other Plant?, they will over- 
jvin and deftroy tnem. 

SAMOLUS, Round-leavM Wa- 
ter Pimpernel. 

The Char afters are ; 



S A 

It hath a wheel - Jhaped Flower, 
conftfting of one Leaf, which is cut 
into fweral Segments: the Point al 
arifes from the Empalement, and is 
fxed like a Nail in the Centre of the 
Flower ; which, uniting with the 
Empalement, is turn "d into a Fruit or 
Pod, opening at the Top, and inclofing 
many fnall Seeds. 

We know but one Species of this 
Plant ; which is, 

Samolus Valerandi. J. B. 
Round-leav'd Water-pimpernel. 

This Plant grows wild in fwampy 
Places, where the Water ufually 
ftands in Winter; and is feldom pre- 
ferved in Gardens : it is an annual 
Plant, which flowers in June, and 
the Seeds are ripe in Augujl ; at 
which time, whoever hath a mind to 
cultivate this Plant, mould fow the 
Seeds on a nioift Soil, where the 
Plants will come up, and require no 
farther Care, but to keep them clear 
from Weeds. 

SANGUINARIA, Puccoon. 

The Characlers are ; 
The Flower is inclofed in a Sheath, 
compofed of two o<vai conca<ve Leaves \ 
which fall off : the Flower hath eight 
oblong Petals, which are alternately 
narrow : thefe fpread open; and in the 
Centre is fit ua ted the Point al, attend- 
ed by feveral fhort Stamina : the 
Pointal afterward becomes an oblong 
fwelling Pod, opening both ways, and 
including many round-pointed Seeds. 

We have but one Species of this 
Plant; viz. 

Sancuinaria minor, fore fimplici. 
Hort. El/h. The fmall Puccoon, 
with a fingle Flower. 

There are fome other Varieties of 
this Plant mentioned in the Eltham 
Garden ; but they are not diibntt 
Species, for they vary annually ; 
therefore it is to no purpofe to men- 
tion their Variations. 

This Plant was formerly ranged 
in th* Genus of Celandine, by the 

Title 



S A 

Title of Ckelidonium maximum Cana- 
denfe acaulon ; and this Name of San- 
•guinaria was applied to it by Dr. 
Dillenius, who was ProfefTor of Bo- 
tany at Oxford. We have no pro- 
per Englijh Name for this ; but as 
the Inhabitants of America call it by 
the Indian Name Puccoon, I have 
continued it here. 

It is a Native of moft of the 
Northern Parts of America , where it 
grows plentifully in the Woods ; and 
in the Spring, before the Leaves of 
the Trees come out, the Surface of 
the Ground is in many Places cover- 
ed with the Flowers, which have 
fomeRefemblanceof our Wood Ane- 
mone ; but they have mort naked 
Pedicles, each fupporting one Flow- 
er at the Top : fome of thefe Flow- 
ers will have ten or twelve Petals; 
fo that they appear to have a double 
Range of Leaves, which has occa- 
fioned their being termed double 
Flowers : but this- is only acciden- 
tal, the fame Roots, in different 
Years, producing different Flowers: 
the Roots of this Plant are tuberous, 
and the whole Plant has a yellow 
Juice, which the Indians ufe to paint 
themfelves. 

This Plant is hardy enough to live 
in the open Air in England ; but it 
fhould be Dianted in a loofe Soil, 
and a fhekered Situation, but not too 
much expofed to the Sun : it is pro- 
pagated by the Roots, which may 
be taken up and parted every other 
Year : the belt time for doing of 
this is in September, that the Roots 
may have time to fend out Fibres 
before the hard Froft fets in. The 
Flowers of thrs Plant appear in 
April ; and when they decay, the 
green Leaves come out, which will 
continue till Midfummer ; then they 
decay, and the Roots remain un- 
adive till the following Autumn: 
fo that unleis the Roots are marked ; 



S A 

h will be pretty difficult to fag 
them, after their Leaves decay ; for 
they are of a dirty-brown Colour on 
the Outfide ; fo are not eafily di- 
fiinguifhed from the Earth. 

This Plant is very proper to mir 
with the DogM»oth Violet, Spring 
Cyclamen, Ptmfia* Iris, Bulbcco- 
dium, Sifyrinchium, and fome othe? 
low- growing bulbous and tuberous- 
rootcd Flowers, which require the 
lame Culture ; where thefe will add 
to the Variety when they are in 
Beauty: for when the Roots are 
ftrong, and grow in a good Soi3 # 
they will produce a gre:u Number 
of Flowers upon each Root: the 
Roots may be planted about four or 
five Inches afunder every Way. 

SANGOTSOR8A, Burnet, caliei 
by the French Pimpernel. 
The Characters are ; 

'The Empalement of the Flower t/mk 
Jijis of two Leaves, which fall away' 
the Flower is of cm Leaf, di vided in- 
to four Parts, which are joined at 
the Bottom : the quadrangular Pom- 
tal, which is fituated in the Centre, 
bt:ccmes a fmall Capful', opening bet J? 
W ays, and inclafing fmall Seeds, 
The Species are ; 

1. Sangujsorea minor. C. B. P. 
Common Burnet, or Pimpernel. 

2. Sanguisorba mo jar pratevjis, 
Rupp. Flor. Great Meadow Burnet. 

3. Sanguisorba Canadcnjh, fort 
albo fpicato. Rupp. Flor. Canada 
Burner, with a white (piked Flower. 

4. Sanguisorba major, foliis au- 
riculatis glahris. Great Burnet, with 
fmooth-ear'd Leaves. 

5. Sanguisorba hirfuta, e?gri- 
monise foliis. Hairy Burnet, with 
Leaves like Agrimony. 

6 . Sanguisorba fpinofz, caule 
fruticofo. Prickly Burnet, with a 
woody Stalk. 

7. % A.N Oil i s o r B A majot\Hifpinica, 
conglomerate flare. Great Spunijb 

Burnet, 



S A 

Burnet, with Flowers growing in a 
dofe Head. 

8. Sancuisorba minor, femine 
tnajore iff crajjiore. Small Burnet, 
with a larger and thicker Seed. 

This Genus of Plants has been by 
feme old Writers titled Sanguiforba, 
by others Pimpinella ; and by fome 
both Titles have been applied to it : 
but Dr. Linnaeus has divided the Spe- 
cies of this Genus, to fome of which 
he applies this Name of Sanguiforba, 
and to the others Poterium : the firft 
Genus he places in his Clafs of Te- 
trandria, as they have but four Sta- 
mina in their Flowers : the other he 
places in his Clafs of Monoecia Poly- 
andria, thefe having Male and Fe- 
male Flowers in the lame Spike ; 
and the Flowers have many Stamina: 
fo, by his Method, thefe two Genera 
are feparated to a great Di (lance : 
but as thefe Species have been al- 
ways brought under one Genus be- 
fore his time, I choofe to continue 
them together. 

The firft Sort grows wild in many 
Parts of England, particularly upon 
chalky Land, where it grows fo 
fmall, as to appear different from 
what it does when tranfplanted into 
Gardens. This is the Sort which is 
directed by the College for medicinal 
Ufe ; and it has been ufed as a cool- 
ing Herb in Drinks; but of late 
Yean the People cultivate it for Sal- 
lads : the young Leaves in the Spring, 
being mixed with other fmall Herbs 
in Sallads, give a very agreeable 
Flavour to them. 

The fecond Sort alfo grows wild 
in moid Meadow5, in fome Parts 
of England. The third Sort was 
brought from the Northern Parts of 
America. The fourth Sort is a Na- 
tive of the Mountains in Savoy. The 
feventh Sort grows wild in Spain and 
Portugal) and the eighth Sort in 
IJlria and Dalmalia ; from whence 



S A ' 

I received the Seeds, which were 
procured for me by my much ho- 
noured Friend the Chevalier Rath- 
geb. Thefe are all of them hardy 
perennial Plants, which will eafily 
rife from the Seeds, if they are fown 
on a Bed of common Earth in the 
Spring; and when the Plants are fit 
to remove, they mould be tranf- 
planted into Beds : the fmall Sorts 
may be planted one Foot afunder, 
and the large Sorts two Feet : thefe 
. Roots will abide feveral Years, and 
produce plenty of Seeds. 

The fifth Sort feldom lafts longer 
than two Years ; fo that when the 
Plants have perfected their Seeds, 
they foon after perim : therefore 
whoever is willing to preferve this 
Species, mould annually fow fome 
of the Seeds : this is hardy, and may 
be propagated in the fame manner 
as the former Sort. 

The fixth Sort grows with woody 
Stalks about three Feet high, which 
continue feveral Years ; and fends 
out many irregular Branches, which 
are furnifhed with Spines toward 
their Extremities : this Sort is not 
fo hardy as the former; fo mould 
be preferved in Pots, and meltered 
from fevere Froft in Winter ; other- 
wife the Plants will be deftroyed : ic 
may be propagated by Seeds, as the 
f ormer Sorts, or by Cuttings, which 
may be planted any time in Sum- 
mer : and if they are duly watered 
and fhaded, they wiil foon take 
Root ; and may afterward be planted 
into Pots. 

SANGUIS DRACONIS. Vide 
Palma. 

SANICULA, Sanicle. 
The Characters are ; 

// is an umbelliferous Plant, whofe 
Flower confijls of jive Leaves placed 
orbicularly ; but are generally bent 
back to the Centre of the Flower, reji- 
ing on the Empalement, which be- 
comes 



S A 

comes a Fruit composed of two Seeds, 
that are gibbous and prickly on one 
Side, but plain on the other : fame of 
the Flowers are always barren. 

There is but one Species of this 
Plant at prefent in England ; 

Sanicula ojf.cinarum. C. B. P. 
Sanicle, or Self heal. 

This Plant is found wild in 
Woods, and fhady Place?, in moft 
Parts of England ; but being a me- 
dicinal Plant, may be propagated in 
Gardens for Ufe : it may be in- 
creased by parting of the Roots, any 
time from September to March ; but 
it is bell to do it in Autumn, that 
the Plants may be well rooted before 
the dry Weather in Spring comes 
on : they mould have a moift Soil, 
and a (hady Situation, in which they 
will thrive exceedingly. 

SANTOLINA, Lavender - cot- 
ton. 

The Cbaraclers are ; 
It hath a globofe flo/culous Flower, 
confijling of many Florets, divided in- 
to federal Segments, fitting on the 
Embryo, contained in the intermediate 
little Leaves, hollowed like a Gutter, 
and a fquamous hemifpherical Empale- 
ment : the Embryo afterward becomes 
a Seed, not at all furnijhed with 
Down : to thefe Notes muft be added, 
Larger Flowers than thofe of IVorm 
wood and Southernwood, and alfo the 
whole Face of the Plant. 

The Species are ; 
I . Santolina foil is teretibus . 
Touvn. Common Lavender -cot- 
ton. 

, 2 . S a N T o L i N A flore majore,- foliis 
fjiUofn iff iucanis. Tourn. Lavender- 
cotton, with a larger Flower, and 
hoary Leaves. 

3. Santo lin a foliis erycte <vel fa- 
hin<e. Tourn. Green -leav'd Laven- 
der-cotton, with a Scent like Oint- 
ment. 

4. S A NT OH N A foliis CUprrfil. 



S A 

Tourn. Cyprefs-leav'd Lavender- 
cotton. 

5. Santolina refens & canefcent* 
Tourn. Creeeping and hoary La- 
vender-cotton. 

6. Santolina fol iis minus iircams . 
Town. Lavender-cotton with left 
hoary Leaves. 

7. Santolina foliis obfure c/ T 
rentibus, flore attreo. Tourn. Laven- 
der-cotton with dark-green Leaves, 
and a golden Flower. 

8. Santolina foliis rorifmarini 9 
major. Tourn. Greater Lavender - 
cotton, with Rofmary- leaves. 

9. Santolina <vermiculata Cre- 
tica. Tourn. Vermiculated Laven- 
der-cotton of Candy. 

The firft of thefe Plants is culti- 
vated in Gardens for medicinal Uie; 
as is the third, for furnifhing Balco- 
nies, and other little Places in and 
near the City, by way of Ornament; 
but die other Sorts are rarely to be 
found, but in the Gardens of thofe 
who are curious in Botanical Studies. 

Molt of thefe Plants may be culti- 
vated fo as to become Ornaments to 
a Garden, particularly in fmall Bof- 
quets of ever-green Shrubs; where, 
if thefe are artfully intermix'd with 
other Plants of the fame Growth, and 
placed in the front Line, they will 
make an agreeable Variety ; efpe- 
cially if care be taken to trim them 
twice in a Summer, to keep them 
within Eounds; otherwife their 
Branches are apt to ftraggle, and, 
in wet Weather, to be borne down, 
and difplaced, which renders them 
unfightly ; but when they are kept 
in Order, their hoary and different- 
colour'd Leaves will have a pretty 
Effect in fuch Plantations. 

Thefe Plants may be propagated 
by planting Slips or Cuttings of anv 
of the Kinds during the Spring, which 
mould be put into a Border of frefh 
light Earth, and water'd and fhaded 

in 



S A 

la hot dry Weather, until they have 
taken Root ; after which they will 
require no farther Care, but to keep 
them clear from Weeds till Autumn, 
v/hen they mould be carefully taken 
up, and tranCplanted where they are 
defigned to remain : but if the 
Ground is not ready by that time to 
receive them, it will be proper to 
let them remain in the Border until 
Spring ; for if they are tranfplanted 
late in Autumn, they are liable to 
be deftroyed by a little Cold in 
Winter. 

Thefe Plants are very hardy, and 
if planted in a lean, gravelly, or 
fandy dry Soil, will continue many 
Years, and refill the Cold very well : 
but if they are in a wet or rich Soil, 
they are often deftroyed in Winter. 

SAP1NDUS, The Soapberry. 
The Characters are ; 

It hath a Flower, which, for the 
moji part, is compofed of four Leaves 
expanding in form of a Rofe : from 
whofe four-kan>d Empalement arifes 
the. Point a I, which afterward becomes 
a fpherical Fruit, having a thick o'ly 
Cover, inclofing a Nut of the fame 
Form. 

We have but one Species of this 
Plant ; which is, 

Sapindus foliis cofla alatte inna- 
fcentihus. Injh R. H. Th'e Soapberry, 
or Soap-apple-tree. 

This Tree is very common in Ja- 
maica, Barbados, and molt other 
Places in the IV ..ft -hi dies, where it 
rifes to the Height of thirty Feet, or 
more ; but in Europe it is preferv'd 
by thofe Perfons who are curious in 
cultivating Exotic Plants, for the 
fingular Structure of the Leaves, 
which are very long and narrow, 
having Borders on each Side, which, 
at about every two Inches, have 
Pinna, or Wings, oppofite to each 
other, and terminated by an odd 
one. The Flowers are produc'd at 



s A 

the Ends of the Branches, which arc 
fmall and white, growing in Clu- 
fters. Thefe are fucceeded by fpheri- 
cal brown Berries, about the Size of 
Cherries, which have very little 
Pulp; but a brown Skin covering 
the Nut, which is round, black, and 
hard. Thefe Nuts were formerly 
brought into England to make But- 
tons ; for which Purpofe they were 
very proper, becaufe they never 
crack. The Skin which furrounds 
the Nut, wiil lather like Soap, and 
is ufed in America to warn Linen ; 
though many People fay it will burn 
it, when it is often ufed. 

This Plant is propagated by Seeds 
(which muft be obtain'd from the 
Countries where they naturally grow; 
for they do not produce Fruit in 
Europe): thefe muft be put into fmall 
Pots filled with freih rich Earth, and 
plunged into an Hot-bed of Tanners 
Bark. The Pots muft be frequently 
watered, otjierwife the Berries, whole 
outer Cover is very hard, will not 
vegetate. In a Month or live Weeks 
the Plants will begin to appear, 
when the Glaftes of the Hot- bed 
fhould be raifed every Day in warm 
Weather, to admit frefli Air to the 
Plants, Jn three Weeks or a Month 
after the Plants appear, they will be 
fit to tranfplant ; when they muft be 
fhaken out of the Pots, and care- 
fully parted, fo as not to injure their 
Roots, and each planted into a fe- 
parate fmall Pot filled with light rich 
Earth, and then plunged into the; 
Hot-bed again ; obferving to made 
them from the Sun every Day, un- 
til they have taken new Root ; after 
which time, they muft have free Air 
admitted to them every Day, when 
the Weather is warm ; and will re- 
quire to be frequently watered. 

After the Plants are well rooted, 
they will make great Progrefr, foai 
to fill thefe Pots with their Root* i 1 



S A 

a few Weeks time; therefore they 
mud then be fhifted into larger Pots ; 
and as the Plants advance, they 
fhould be inured to bear the open 
Air by degrees ; for if they are forc'd 
too much in Summer, they feldom 
live through the Winter. I have 
frequently rais'd thefe Plants from 
Seeds, to the Height of two Feet in 
one Summer; and the Leaves of 
thefe Plants have been a Foot and an 
half in Length, fo that they made a 
iine Appearance : but thefe Plants 
did not furvive the Winter ; where- 
as thofe which were expos'd to the 
open Air in July, and thereby 
Hinted in their Growth, continued 
their Leaves frefh all the Winter. 
Thefe were plac'd in a Stove upon 
Shelves, where the Warmth was very 
moderare ;' with which thefe Plants 
will thrive better than in a greater 
Heat. 

SAPONARIA. Vide Lychnis. 
SAPOTA, The Mammee Sapo- 

ta. 

The Charadcrs are ; 

// hath a rofe-Jbaped Flower, con- 
Jifiing of federal Leaves, which are 
placed in a circular Order ; from vjhofe 
Empalement arifes the Point al, which 
afterward becomes a large oval foft 
jlifhy Fruity inclofng an oblong pointed 
Stone or Fruit , which is finely poliflj- 
ed, having a rough Fijfure on one of 
the Edges, of an Afh-colour. 
The Species are ; 

1. S a POT A frudu turbinato mi- 
pari. Plum. Nov. Gen. Sapota with 
a leffer Fruit, Ihaped like a Top. 

2. Sapota frudu ovate major i. 
Plum. Nov. Gen. Sapota with a 
larger oval Fruit. 

The Name of Sapota is what thefe 
Fruit are call'd by the Natives of 
America ; to which fome add tne Ap- 
pellation of Mammee : bu; there is 
no other Name given to thefe Fruits 
by the EngUJk, fince thev have fet- 

Vol. HI. # 



S A 

tied in the Wejl- Indies, fo far as I can 
learn. 

The firft of thefe Trees is com- 
mon about Panama, and fome other 
Piaces in the Spanijh Weft-Indies ; 
but is not to be found in any of the 
Englijh Settlements in America. The 
fecond Sort is very common in Ja- 
maica, Barbados, and moft of the 
Iflandsin the Wejl- Indies, where the 
Trees are planted in Gardens for 
their Fruit, which is by many Per- 
fons greatly eileemed. 

Thefe Trees grow in America to 
the Height of thirty five or forty 
Feet, having a ftrait Trunk, cover- 
ed with an afli-coloured Bark. The 
Branches are produe'd on every Side, 
fo as to form a regular Head : thefe 
are befet with Leaves, which are a 
Foot in Length, and near three 
Inches broad. The Flowers, which, 
are produced from the Branches, are 
of a Cream-colour ; when thefe fall 
away, they are fucceeded by large 
oval or top ftiaped Fruit, which are 
covered with a brownifli Skin, un- 
der which is a thick Pulp of a Rufiet- 
colour, very lufcious, caiFd Natural 
Marmclade, from its Likcnefs to 
Marmelade of Quinces. 

As thefe Trees are Natives of very 
warm Countries, they cannot be pre- 
ferv'd in England, unlefs they 1 are 
plac'd in the warmeft Stoves, and 
manag'd with great Care. They 
are propagated by planting the 
Stones ; but as thefe will not keep 
good long out of the Ground, the 
fureft Method to obtain thefe PIant3 
is, to ha\'e the Stones planted in 
Tubs of Earth, as foon as they are 
taken out of the Fruit, and the Tubs 
placed in a Situation where they may 
have the morning Sun, and kept 
duly water d. When the Plants are 
come up, they mult be fecur'd from 
Vermin, and kept clear from Weeds; 
but mould remain in the Country 

4 K till 



S A 

till they are about a Foot high, when 
they may be (hipp'd for England: 
but they fhould be brought over in 
the Summer-feafon, and, if pomble, 
time enough for the Plants to make 
good Roots after they arrive. Du- 
ring their Paflage, they muft have 
Come Water, while they continue 
in a warm Climate ; but as they 
come into colder Weather, they 
fliould have little Moilture ; and 
they muft be fecured from fait Wa- 
ter, which will foon deftroy the 
Plants, if it gets at them 

When thefe Plants arrive in Eng- 
land, they mould be carefully taken 
out of the Tubs, prefer ving fome 
Earth to their Roots, and planted 
into Pots tilled with frefli Earth, and 
then plunged into a moderate Hot- 
bed of Tanners Bark ; obferving, if 
the Weather is hot, to (hade the 
Glades with Mats every Day, to 
fcreen the Plants from the Sun, un- 
til they have taken new Root ; ob- 
ferving alfo, not to water them too 
much at firft, efpecially if the Earth 
in which they come over is moift; 
becaufe too much Water is very in- 
jurious to the Plants before they are 
well rooted ; but afterward they 
muft have plenty of Water in warm 
W r eather: and they muft have a large 
Share of Air admitted to them, other- 
wife their Leaves will be infefted 
with Infefts, and become foul ; in 
which cafe they muft be warned 
with a Sponge, to clean them; without 
which the Plants will not thrive. 

In the Winter thefe Plants muft 
be plac'd in the warmeft Stove; a?d 
in cold Weather they fliould have 
but little Water given to them, tho' 
they muft be frequently refrefhed 
when the Earth is dry ; efpecially, 
if they retain their Leaves all the 
Winter, they will require a greater 
Share of Water, than when they drop 
their Leaves : fo that this mull be 



S A 

done with Difcredon, according fo 
the State in which the Plants are. 
As thefe Plants grow in Magnitude, 
they mould be fhifted into Pots of a 
larger Size; but they muft not be 
over-potted ; for that will infallibly 
dertroy them. 

SARRACENA, The Side-faddle 
Flower. 

The Charaders are ; 

It hath a Flower confjiing of fe- 
*veral Leaves, which are placed cir- 
cularly , and expand in form of a Rofc 9 
and refing in a many Icavd Empale- 
mint : from the Middle arifes the 
Pointal, which is membra?iacecus t 
and faped like an Hood, and after- 
ward becomes a roundifb Emit divi- 
ded into five Cells, which contain ob- 
long Seeds. 

The Species are ; 

1. Sarracena CanadenfiSy foliij 
cavis iff auritis. Inft. R. H. Canady 
Sarrac&na, withhoilow eared Leaves. 

2. Sarracena foliis longioriLus iff 
angufioribus. Catefb. Hijl, Carol* 
Long narrovv-leav'd Sarracena. 

Thefe ftrange Plants are Native3 
of New-England, Virginia, and fe- 
veral Places in North- America^ where 
they grow on Bogs, and in fuch Pla- 
ces where the W aters ufually ftand in 
Winter. The Leaves of the firft Sort 
arife from the Root every Spring, 
being eight or nine in Number ; 
which are fmall at. the Bottom, but 
fwell larger toward the Top, and 
are hollow like a Pitcher ; having a 
fort of an Appendage at the Top, 
fomewhat reiemblmg a Flap : fo 
that in thefe Leaves there is com- 
monly a large Quantity of Wacer 
contain'd. Thefe are feven or eight 
Inches in Length :■ between the 
Leaves arifes the Flower- ftem, which 
is naked ; and each of thefe fuftains 
one purple Flower, growing on the 
Top, which is fucceeded by a round- 
ilh Fruit. 

Tke 



S A 

The Leaves of the fecond Sort 
grow near three Feet high ; being 
fmall at the Bottom, but widening 
gradually to the Top. Thefe are 
hollow, and are arched over at the 
Modth like a Friar's Cowl. Tae 
Fiowers of this grow on naked Pe- 
dicles, rifing from the Root to the 
Height of three Feet : thefe Flow- 
ers are green. 

The Name was given to this Plant 
by Dr. Tour.-.efort, in Honour of Dr. 
Sdrrazi'i, a curious Botanift, who 
fent the Plant from Canad.y to Dr. 
Icwncfyrt at Paris. 

As thefe Plants grow on Bogs, it 
is very difficult to cultivate th'.m in 
England: forakho' the Winters are 
much more fevere in the Places of 
their natural Growth, than they ge- 
nerally are in England; )et their 
Summers being much warmer, they 
thrive much better, and produce their 
Flowers and Fruif annually ; where- 
as it is withgreat Difficulty they are 
kept alive for a Year or two in Eng- 
land ; and tney have not yet flower- 
ed in this Country, as I could learn. 
By the Appearance of fome Plants, 
which I receiv'd from New- Eng- 
land, which were taken up on the 
fame Spot, the two Sorts grow pro- 
mifcuoufly ; Lut whether they are 
only accidental Varieties, I caniiot 
fay. 

The only Method to obtain thefe 
Plants is, to procure them from the 
Places of their Growth, and to have 
them taken up with large Balls of 
Earth to their Roots, ana planted in 
Tubs of Ear:h ; which muft be con- 
ftantly watered during their Paftage, 
otherwife they will de^ay before they 
arrive ; and there is little Probai. :lity 
of rainng thefe Plants from Se-.ds: 
fo that young Plants mould be taken 
up to bring over, which are r..ore 
likely to Hand here, than thofe which 
have fiower'd two or three times. 



S A 

When the Plants are brought over* 
they mould be planted into pretty 
large Pots ; which fnou!d be filled 
with foft fpongy Earth, mixed with 
rotten Wood, Mofs, and Turf, 
which is very like the natural Soil in 
which they grow. Thefe Pots mult 
be conftantly fuppiied with Water, 
and placed in a lhady Situation in 
Summer ; but in the Winter they 
muft be covered with Mofs, or fhel- 
ter'd under a Frame, otherwife they 
will not live in this Country ; tho* 
they have much more fevere Froft in 
the Countries where they naturally 
grow ; but there they are covered 
with Snow, which may be a great 
Protection co tnem. With this Ma- 
nagement I have kept fome of thefe 
Plants aiive two Years ; but they 
made very litt'eCrogrfs. 

SATUREIA, Savory. 
The Characters are ; 

// is a Plant of the verticillate 
Kind, with a laliated Flower, whofe 
upper Lip ( or Creji ) is divided into 
two Parts ; lut the lower Lip ( or 
Beard ) is divided into three Parts, 
the middle Part being crenated :■ thefe 
Flowers are prcducd from the IVings 
of the Leav:s, in a loofe Order, end 
not in U r horles or Spikes, as are mojl 
of this Teibe cf Plants, 
The Sprcies are ; 

i. Satureia fati-ua. J. B. Gar- 
den or Summer-favcry. 

a. Satureia mcntana. C.B.P. 
W T inter-favory. 

'3. Satureia Vlrginiana. Par, 
Bat. Virginian Savory. 

The firit of thefe Plants is annual, 
and is propagated by fowing the 
Seeds upon a Bed of frefh light 
Earth in March ; and when the 
Plants are come up, they muft be 
tranfpianted into other Beds, place- 
ing them about four cr five Inches 
afunder each Way; obferving to do 
this in moift cloudy Weather, be- 
4 K 2 caufe 



S A 

caufe at fuch times the Plant will 
Toon take Root : but if the Seafon 
fhould prove hot and dry, they mull 
be diligently watered until they have 
taken Root ; after which they will 
require no farther Care, but to keep 
them clear from Weeds ; and in July 
they will flower ; at which time they 
will be fit to cut for medicinal Ufe : 
but thofe Plants which are left uncut 
will produce ripe Seeds in September, 
provided the Autumn be favourable. 

The Winter-favory is an abiding 
Phnt, and may be propagated by 
Slips or Cuttings ; which, if plant- 
ed in a Bed of freih light Earth in 
the Spring, and carefully watered, 
will take Root in a lhort time, and 
may then be tranfplanted where they 
are to remain. There feem to be 
two Species of this, Offering in their 
manner of Growth, and alfo in the 
Size of their Flowers. This Plant 
fhould have a dry Soil, in which it 
will endure the Cold very well, as 
may be feen by its growing in fome 
Places upon the Tops of Walls, 
where it defies the fevereft Cold of 
our Climate. 

Thefe Plants were antiently more 
cultivated in England than at pre- 
fect, they being very little in Ufe to 
what they were formerly, when they 
enter'd moft Dilhes of Soups, &c. 
but at prefent they are very little 
ufed in the Kitchen, being chiefly 
cultivated for medicinal Ule. 

SATYRION. Vide Orchis. 

S A VINE. Vide Sabina. 

SAVORY. Vide Satureia. 

SAURURUS, Lizards-tail 
The Charafters are ; 

It hath an apetakus Flower, con- 
fifing of two Chives, which open two 
ways, and are full of very fmall Pow- 
der ( or Farina) : the Embryo rejls be- 
tween two Chives, which afterward 
becomes an oval Fruit, inclofing a 
fivgk Seed; to thefe Notes mujl be 



S A 

added, The Flowers and Fruit arefx' 
ed to one Axis, fo as to refemble the 
"Tail of a Lizard. 

The Species are ; 

I. Saururus racemofus, feu bo- 
tryites major. Plum. Nov. Gen. Great- 
er branching Lizards-tail, 

2. Saururus racemofus, feu bo- 
tryites minor. Plum. Nov. Gen. Letter 
branching Lizards-tail. 

3. Saururus cauda adunca. 
Plum. Nov. Gen. Lizards-tail with 
a crooked Tail. 

4. Saururus foliis plant agineis, 
cauda breviori. Plum. Nov. Gen. 
Lizards -tail with Plantain - leaves, 
and a fhorter Tail. 

5. Saururus ho tryites major, fo- 
liis plantagvieis. Plum. Nov. Gen. 
Greater clufter'd Lizards-tail, with 
Plantain-leaves. 

6. Saururus foliis amplis ro fun- 
di s Cif umbilicatis. Plum. Nov. Gen. 
Lizards-tail with large round umbi- 
licated Leaves. 

7. Saururus foliis amplis cor da- 
tis, non umbilicatis. Plum. Nov. Gen. 
Lizards-tail with large heart-fhaped 
Leaves, not umbilicated. 

8. Saururus procumbens minor 
botryites, folio carnofo cordato. Plum, 
Nov. Gen. Smaller creeping clufter'd 
Lizards-tail, with a flelhy heart- 
fhap'd Leaf. 

9. Saururus alius humilis, folio 
camofo fubrotundo. Plum. Nov. 'Gen. 
Low Lizards-tail, with a roundifli 
flefhy Leaf. 

10. Saururus repens, folio crbi- 
culari, nummularis facie. Plum. Nov. 
Gen. Creeping Lizards tail, with 
a round Leaf, having the Appear- 
ance of Moneywort. 

I I . Saururus repens triphyllus s 
folio rotunda. Plum. Nov. Gen. Creep- 
ing three-leav'd Lizards-tail, with a 
round Leaf. 

12. Saururus cauliculis macule- 
fs t repens. Plum. Nov. Gen. Creep- 
ing 



S A 

ing Lizards-tail, with a fpotted 
Stalk. 

13. Saururus fr.utefcens, lauro- 
cerafi folio, fruStu breviore & craf 

Jlore. Houjl. Shrubby Lizards-tail, 
with a Laurel-leaf, and a fhorter 
and thicker Fruit. 

14. Saururus arbor efc ens lati fo- 
lia <villofa, frutlu gracili. Houjl. 
Tree-like Lizards-tail, with a broad 
hairy Leaf, and a flender Fruit. 

The feven Sorts firll - mention'd 
grow to be flirubby, and rife to the 
Height of four or hve Feet, having 
Leaves plac'd alternately on their 
Branches. The lulus comes out 
from the Wings of the Leaves, which 
is lhap'd like a Lizard's Tail ; from 
whence they had their Names. By 
fome they are called long Pepper, 
from the Ref.mDlance their hit 
bear to the long Pepper ; but the 
Fruit of thefe are not ufed, nor have 
they the Tafte of Pepper. Thefe 
Sorts were d.fcover'd to grow in 
Jamaica, by the late Dr.. Houjloun ; 
and fome of thtm are defcribed by 
Sir Hans Sloane, in his Natural Hi- 
ftory of that I (land. 

The eighth, ninth, and tenth 
Sorts are Plants of humbler Growth : 
thefe trail on the Ground, and emit 
Roots from their Joints, which fallen 
themfelves into the Earth where-ever 
it is Ioofe ; by which Method they 
fpread to a great Dillance. The 
Leaves and Stalks of the ninth Sort 
are very thick and fucculent, and re- 
main always green. 

The eleventh and twelfth Sorts 
are creeping Plants, which fallen 
themfelves to Trees ; by which means 
they rife to the Height of eight or 
ten Peer, fallen their Roots into the 
Bark of the Tree?, and receive Part 
of their Nourishment from thence. 

All thefe twelve Sorts were difco- 
ver'd by Father Plumier in the Weft- 
Iniic:, WHO has figur'd and defcrib'd 



S A 

tbem in his Hiilory of American 
Plants ; but feven of them were be- 
fore defcrib'd by Sir Hans Sloane, in 
his Natural Hiilory of Jamaica. 

The two lad Sorts were difcover- 
ed by the late Dr. Houjloun at La 
Vera Cruz, from whence he fent 
Samples of them into England. Thefe 
two Sorts grow much larger than 
either of thole before-mention'd. 

Some of thefe Plants are called, 
by the Inhabitants of Jamaica, Spa- 
nifh Elder, from their being jointed, 
and their Branches having a great 
deal of Pith in them. Others of 
them, efpecially thofe which have 
Leaves fhaped like an Heart, are 
caJPd Santa Maria Leaves. 

Thefe Plants moll of them grow 
in moill Ihady Places, in the warmed 
Parts of America ■, where many of 
them root into the decayed Trunks 
of Trees, and rotten Wood (efpeci- 
cially thofe which trail), and there- 
by they propagate fafter than by 
Seeds ; for as they emit Roots at al- 
moft every Joint, each of thefe will 
make a feparate Plant. 

But as thefe Plants are too tender 
to bear the open Air in this Climate, 
they mult be preferved in a Stove, 
where the Air may be kept in a mo- 
derate Temperature for Heat; and 
if they are placed in the Bark -bed, 
and their Branches permitted to trail 
on the Surface of the Bark, the Plants 
will fend forth Roots at every Joint, 
and fallen themfelves flrongly into 
the Bark ; fo will thrive exceeding 
fall, and produce their Flowers and 
Fruit. 

The Seeds of thefe Plants, when 
brought from abroad, feldom fuc- 
ceed in England; fo that the moil 
proper Method to obtain the Plants 
is, to have fome of their Cuttings 
planted into Boxes of Earth, in the 
Countries where they naturally 
grow ; and when they are well raos- 

4 K 3 



S A 

cd, they may be fent over to Eng- 
land, with Directions given to the 
Perlons to whofe Care they are in- 
truded, not to let them have too 
much Water (efpeciaUy when they 
come into a cool Climate) ; becauie 
Moifture then will be very prejudi- 
cial to them. They mull alfo be 
carefully guarded againll the Salt- 
water, which will infallibly deftroy 
them, if it be fuffered to come to 
them. When the Plants arrive in 
England, they mould be cireiully 
taken out of the Boxes, and each 
planted into a feparate final 1 Pot fill- 
ed with frefli light Earth, and then 
plunged into a moderate Hot-bed 
of Tanners Bark ; obferving to lhade 
them from the Sun at nrft, until 
they have taken Root; after which 
time they fhould have frelh Air ad- 
mitted to them, in proportion to the 
Warmih of the Seafon ; but in Win- 
ter -they mud be keDt pretty warm, 
othenvife they will not live in this 
Country 

Tne furefi: Method to make thefe 
Plants thrive in England is, to plunge 
the Pots in o the Bark in the Stove, 
and to fufFer the Branches of the 
creeping Kind.- to trail on the Sur- 
face of the Bed; where they will 
itrike Roots into the Tan, and will 
thrive exceedingly. TCheJfe Plants 
merit a Place in every Cc'leftion of 
Plants, for their remarkable Leaves, 
and the lingular Structure of their 
Branches ; as alio for the Oddnefs 
of their Flowers and Fruit, which 
are, for the moft part, prod-ue'd 
from the Wings of the Leaves. 

SAXIFRAGA, Saxifrage. 
The Characters are ; 

The Flower conftjls of federal 
Leaves placed orbicularly, which ex- 
pand in form of a Rife : out o f whofe 
Kuhifid FLwcr-rup rijes the Pcintal; 
which commonly ends in two Horns, 
and afterward turns, together with 



S A 

the Flower - cup, into a roundijh Fruit, 
which has likewife two Horns, and 
two Cells, which are full of fmall 
Seeds. 

The Species are ; 

1. Saxifraga rotundifaiia alba. 
C. B. P. White round-leav A d Saxi- 
frage. 

2. Saxifraga rotunii folia alba, 
fore pleno. Boerh.Ind. White rcund- 
leav'd Saxifrage, with a double Flow- 
er. 

3. Saxifraga Alpina erycoides, 
fore cceruleo. Tow n. IVIoun^iin heath- 
like Sengreen, with a blue Flower. 

4. Saxifraga fediflio, fore clbo, 
tnultifora. 'Joum. Many - flower'd 
Saxifrage, with an Houfleek -ieaf, 
ard a white Flower, commonly call- 
ed Pyramidal Sedum. 

5 . S a X 1 f R ag a fedi folio anguficre 
f errata. Toum. oaxih age with a nar- 
row ferrated Houfleek -leaf, 

6. Saxifr aga a. folia hulbos ge- 
reus. C. B. P. Saxifrage bearing 
Bulbs at the Wings of .v Leaves. 

j. Saxifraga c uerna annua humi- 
lior. Inf. R. H. Dwari Spring an- 
nual Caxifra?^, commonly ^\U'd 
Rue-leav'd Whitlovv-grafs". 

8. Saxifraga mufcofa, tnf.o fo- 
lio. Inf. R. H. Moffy Sr. afrage, 
with a trifid Leaf, ccrnmoi ly call'd 
Mountain Cengreen, or Lad ; es Cu- 
fhion. 

Q- Sax I FRAG a triduclylitfs Alpha, 
pallidc lutca Inf. R. H. Moun- 
tain Saxifrage, of a pale yellow Co- 
lour, with a Leaf cut into three Seg- 
ments. 

10. Saxifraga tridaclylites Al- 
pina minor & villofa. Inf. R. II, 
Small hairy Saxifrage of the Alps, 
with z Leaf cut into three Seg- 
ments. 

11. Saxifraga alba petraa 
Ron*. Inf. R. H. White Rock 
Saxifrage. 

12. Saxifraga f edi flic, Pyre- 

naicci 



S A 

Tiaica /errata. Lift. R. H. Pyrenean 
Saxifrage, with a fawed Houlleek- 
leaf. 

13. Saxifraga foliis fubrotundis 
ferratis. Inf. R. H. Saxifrage with 
roundilh fawed Leaves. 

14. Saxifraga Alpha , fed i foliis 
crenatisefperis. Injl. R. H. Saxifrage 
of the Alps, with rough notched 
Leaves like Houfleek. 

15. Saxifraga folits oblon go -ro- 
tunda dentatis, floribus ccmpattis. 
Raii Syn. Ed.Ty. Saxifrage with an ob- 
long roundilh indented Leaf, and the 
Flowers growing in clofe Bunches. 

16. Saxifraga montana pyr ami- 
data, folio L giore. Injl. R. H. 
Mountain pyramidal Saxifrage, with 
a long Leaf. 

17. Saxifraga Pyrenaica lutea 
tninimn, fedi foliis denfijjime congeflis. 
In Jl. R. H. The lealt' yellow Pyre- 
nean Snxifrage, with Houfleek - 
leave? growing very clofe together. 

|.$. Saxifraga Alpina minima, 
folits c&fiis, deor'um iiicur-vis. Inf. 
R. H. The lea' Saxifrage of the 
Alp, With fky-coiour'd Leaves, 
which btnei downward. 

19. Saxifraga Alpina lutea, f di 
folio, liji, R. hi. Yeliovv Saxifrage 
of the Alps, with an Houfleek leaf. 

20. Saxifraga Pyrenaica trida- 
ftylites lat folia. Inf. R. H. Pyrenean 
Saxifrage, with broad Leaves cut 
into three Segments. 

21. Saxifraga Cantabrica lati- 
folia tri;'a:l\lites rigidior. Inf. R. 
H. Broad ftiff-leav'd Saxifrage of 
Bifay, with Leaves cut into three 
Segments. 

22. Saxifraga tri dactylites Pyre- 
naica, pallide lutea, minima. Inf. R. 
H. Tbe lea ft pale-yellow Saxifrage 
of the Pyrenees, wuh Leaves cut into 
three Segments. 

23. Saxifraga Pyrenaica, foliis 
parti m integris, par tint trifdis. If. 
R II Pyrenean Saxifrage, with 



S A 

Leaves partly intire, and partly cut 
into three Segments. 

24. Saxifraga Pyrenaica minima 
lutea, mufco f mi lis. Inf. R. H. The 
leaft yellow Saxifrage of the Pyre 
nean Mountains, refembling Mofs. 

25. Saxifraga annua Cretica mi- 
nima, bederacco folio. Tourn. Cor. 
The leaft annual Saxifrage of Can- 
dia, with an Ivy-leaf. 

26. Saxifraca P en jylvanica, flo- 
ribus mufcojis. Hort. Eltb. Saxifrage 
of Penfyhani7, with greenilh Flow- 
ers, growing branchy. 

The firii of thefe Plants is very 
common in moift Meadows in di- 
vers Parts of England, and is rarely 
cultivated in Gardens. This is what 
the College of Phyficians have di- 
rected to be ufed in Medicine, under 
the Title of White Saxifrage, to di- 
ftinguifh it from Meado-xv Saxifrage ; 
which is an umbelliferous Plant, of 
a very different Nature and Appear- 
ance from this. 

The fecond Sort is a Variety of 
the fir ft, which was found wild by 
Mr. Jofepb Blind, Gardener at Barns, 
who tranfplamed it into his Garden, 
and afterward diftributed it to fede- 
ral curious Perfons ; fince which time 
it hath been multiply'd lb much, as 
to become a very common Plant in 
molt Gardens near London ; where it 
is commonly planted in Pots, to ad- 
orn Court-yards, &c. in the Spring. 

This Piant is propagated by OiF- 
fets, which are fent forth from the 
old Roots in great Plenty. The beft 
Seafon for tranfpianting them is in 
July, after their Leaves are dscay'd ; 
when they mult be put into frelh un- 
dung'd Earth, and plac'd in the 
Shade until Autumn : but in Winter 
they mult be expos'd to the Sun, 
which will caufe them to flower 
fomevvhat ear'ier in the Spring. Jn 
April thefe Plants will flower ; and 
if they are in large Tults, will at 
4 K 4 that 



S A 

that time make a very handfome 
Appearance ; for which Reafon molt 
People differ them to remain three 
or four Years unremov'd, and when 
they are tranfplanted, always plant 
them in Bunches, that they may pro- 
duce a greater Number of Flowers. 
If thefe Plants are put into the full 
Ground, they muft have a fhady 
Situa*:on; othervvife they will not 
thrive. 

The th ; rd Sort is a low creeping 
Plant, which lies upon the Surface 
of the Ground, lomewhat like Mofs : 
this grows wild J n the Northern 
Counties oi England; and is rarely 
cultivated in Gardens \ tho' it de- 
ferves a Place better than many 
other Plants, which are treated with 
great Care ; for in the Month of 
March the w»,ole Plant is covered 
with fine blue Flowere, which make 
a beautiful Appearance on the Sur- 
face of the Ground. This Sort mul- 
tiplies very faft, by its trailing Bran- 
ches, which put out Roots at their 
Joints, and may be parted at AiY- 
ckaelmas, which is the proper Seafon 
to remove the Plants. . This Plant 
jnuft have a fliady Situation, and 
ihou-d be duly watered in dry Wea- 
ther ; otherwife it will not thrive. 

The fourth Sort is propagated for 
the fake of its fpecious Flowers : this 
k brought from the Alps, and Pyre- 
tiean Mountains, where it grows 
wild. It is ufually planted in Pots 
filled with frefr. light Earth, and in 
the Summer-feaion placed in the 
Shade ; but in the Winter it fhouid 
Hie expofed to the Sun ; and all the 
Off-fets fhouid be taken off, leaving 
the Plant fingle, which will caufe it 
to produce a much Wronger Stem for 
flowering : for when there are Off- 
sets about the old Plant, they cxhauft 
the Nouriihment from it, whereby 
it is rendered much weaker. Thefe 
Qft fcti puft be each planted in a 



S A 

feparate Halfpeny Pot filled with 
rrefh Earth, in order to fuccecd the 
older Plants, which generally perilh 
after flowering : thefe Off-fets will 
produce Flowers the fecond Year ; 
fo that there mould be annually fome 
of them planted, to fucceed the 
others. When thefe Plants are ftrong 
and healthy, they will produce a 
Stem of Flowers full three Feet high, 
which divides into Branches in a py- 
ramidal Order, and are befet with 
Flowers from Bottom to Top, fo as 
to make abeautiful Figure: and as it 
ufually flowers in June, it is com- 
monly placed in Chimneys of Hails, 
where it will continue in Flower a 
long time, provided it have Water 
duly given it ; and will afford an 
agreeable Profpedt. 

The fifth Sort is alfo a Native of 
the Al£s y but will grow very well in 
Gardens : and tho* the Flowers are 
not very beautiful ; yet, for the Va- 
riety of its fer.rated ever - green 
Leaves, it may have a Place in every 
good Garden. This may be propa- 
gated by Off-fets, and requires the 
fame Management as the former. 

The fixth Sort is a Variety of the 
common white Saxifrage, from which 
it differs in bearing imall Bulbs at 
the Leaves. This is not common in 
England; but is found wild on the 
Pyrrnean Mountains, and in other 
moid Places in Spain and Italy ; and 
propagates very faff by the Bulbs; 
which grow on the Stalks in the 
fame manner as the firy Lily. 

The feventh Sort is a low annual 
Flant, which ufually grows on the 
Tops of Walls, and on diy rubbifhy 
Places, and flowers in April. This 
Plant has been efleemed a very good 
Remedy for the King's -evil, and 
other fcrophulous Diforders. Mr. 
Boyle y in his Treatife concerning the 
Ufefulnefs of- Natural Phiiofophy, 
has recommended this Herb to be 
infufed 



S A 

infufed in fmall Beer, and drank for 
fome Days ; which he fays will cure 
the King's-evil, without any fenfible 
Exacuation, by confuming the Hu- 
mour, mitigating the Pain, difcuffing 
the Tumours, and drying up the Ul- 
cers. The Time for gathering of 
this Herb to dry, is in the Middle 
of April, when it is in Flower ; for 
it foon after perfects its Seeds, and 
dies away. 

The eighth Sort grows wild in 
feveral Paris of Yorkjhire, and other 
cold Countries. This fpreads on the 
Surface of the Ground, and forms 
itfelf into a roundifh Tuft, which is 
exceeding clofe and foft, and has 
the Appearance of Mofs at a fmall 
Diftance ; from whence fome of the 
Country-people give it the Name of 
Lady's Cufhion. This Sort may be 
propagated in Plenty by its trailing 
Shoots; which, if they reft on the 
Ground, will put out Roots, and 
multiply exceedingly. It loves a 
moid mady Situation. 

The ninth, tenth, eleventh, fe- 
venteenth, twenty-fecond, and twen- 
ty-third Sorts are alfo fmall Plants, 
which lie clofe to the Ground, fome- 
what like the eighth Sort ; by which 
means they propagate themfelves 
plentifully: they are all hardy 
Plants, being Natives of the J/ps's 
Pyrenees, and other mountainous 
Places : they require to be planted in 
a moift Soil, and a fiiady Situation ; 
for if they are too much expofed to 
the Sun, they will not thrive ; nor 
will they continue long, if they are 
planted on a rich Soil. 

As thefe Plants do not produce 
very beautiful Flowers, they are 
feldom regarded ; and are rarely 
planted in Gardens, unlefs by fome 
Perfons who are curious in Botany, 
for the fake of Variety. But yet 
thefe Plants may be introduced to 
jplant about Rock- work, or between 



s A 

the Joints of ruftic Buildings, where, 
if they are in the Shade, they will 
thrive very well, and have a very 
good Effect to the Sight : for thefe 
will fucceed, where Mofs cannot be 
planted ; and having fo much the 
Appearance of Mofs, will be by moll: 
People taken for it at a fmall Di- 
ftance : and as thefe continue green 
throughout the Year, they will much 
betler anfwer the Purpofe. 

The twelfth, thirteenth, four- 
teenth, fifteenth, and nineteenth 
Sorts have broader Leaves, and ap- 
pear very much like fome Sorts of 
Houfleeks. Thefe are very hardy 
Plants, being Natives of Northern 
Countries ; therefore they mult be 
planted in a mady Situation, and a 
poor Soil ; but they will grow on 
drier Places than the former Sorts. 
Thefe Plants are eafily propagated 
by OfF-fets, which they fend out in 
great Plenty, and may be adapted to 
the fame Purpofes a* the former, to 
adorn Rock - work, &c . and will 
make a pretty Diverfity. 

The twenty -fifth Sort is an annual 
Plant, which was found by Dr. 
Toumefort in the Ifland of Crete, and 
is by fome preferv'd for the fake of 
Variety ; but there is no great Beauty 
in it. 

The twenty-fixth Sort was brought 
from Penfylvania to Mr. Peter Col' 
linfon ; who hath diitributed it to fe- 
veral Perfoas who are curious in 
preferving rare Plants. This Sort 
hath long Leaves, which fpread on 
the Surface of the Ground ; from 
between which arife the Flower- 
ftems, which grow about two Feet 
high, and branch toward the Top, 
bearing Clutters of fmall greenifh 
Flowers. This is propagated by 
parting of the Roots, and mould be 
planted in a fhady Situation; where, 
if it is duly water'd in dry Weather, 
it will thrive and flower every Year 

plenti- 



s c 

plentifully ; and may be allowed a 
Place in a fhady Border, for Variety - 

SCABIOSA, Scabious. 

Tbe Characters are ; 
It hath a fiofculaus FlagWff, csn- 
Jijfmg of many unequal Florets, con- 
tained in a common Emblement : fome 
cf thefe, which occupy the Middle, are 
act info four or f-ve Segments ; the 
reft, which are placed at th-e Edge, 
<sre if labia ted: each of thefe fit on the 
%sp of an Embryo, which is crowned ; 
4*d is contained in a proper Empak- 
wsu&t, which afterward becomes a 
Capfule, either Jimple, or funnel-jhap- 
ed+ pregnant with a Seed crown d, 
winch before was the Embryo. 

The Species are ; 

1. Scabiosa pratenfis hirfuta, 
f&e otfiicinarum. C. B.P. Common 
lield Scabious. 

2. Scabiosa in tegri folia glabra, 
rmtdice prtemorfa. H. L. Whole-ieav'd 
Scabious, or DevilVbit. 

3 . Scabiosa fella :a t folii non dif 
ptBb. C. B. P. Starred Scahioi^, 
With an undivided Leaf. 

4. Scabiosa jiellata, folio laci- 
niiato^ major. C. B. P. Greater 
ftarred Scabious, wich a cut Leaf 

5. Scabiosa peregrina rubra, ca- 
pitals oblango. C. B. P. Red Indian 
Scabious, with longifh Pleads, com- 
monly called Mufk Scabious. 

6. Scabiosa perrgrina, cupitulo 
ehlongo, fore cameo, ti. R. Par. In- 
tteavGr Mufk Scabious, with longifn 
Heads, and a'ftefh-c.^our'd Flower. 

7. Scabiosa perrgrina, capitulo 
eblomgo, fore atro-purpweo. H. R. 
Par. Indian or Mufk Siab-ous, with 
long: (h Heads, and a dark -purple 
Flower. 

8. 3cabiosa peregrina, capitulo 
thlongo, fore "jariegato. H. R. Par, 
Indian or Mufk Scabious, with ob- 
long Heads, and a variegated Flow- 
er. 



s c 

Q. Scabiosa bidica prolifet-Q. H. 
Edinb. Indian childin.g Scabious. 

10 Scabiosa Africana frutefcens. 
Par. Bat, Ic. Africa?/, fhrubby Sca- 
bious. 

1 1. Scabiosa Africana frutef ens, 
folio rigido fplendente ferrato fore al- 
bicante. H. A. Africa fhrubby 
Scabious, with a ftiff mining terraced 
Leaf, and a whitifh Flower. 

12. Scaijiosa Alpina, folio cen- 
taurii majoris. C. B. P. Alpine Sca- 
bious, with a greater Centaury- 
leaf. 

13. Scabiosa fruticans lati folia 
alba. C. B. P. White broad-leav'd 
fhrubby Scabious. 

14. Scabiosa fruticans latifolia, 
fotibui ad c^ruleum incltnantibus. 
C. B. P. Broad-leav'd fhrubby Sca- 
bious, with Flowers inclining to 
blue. 

1*5. Scabiosa frutefcens a ngufifo- 
lia alba. C. B. P. White narrow- 
leav'd fhrubby Scabious. 

16. Scabiosa mult if do folio, fore 
Jiavefccnie. €. R ? Scabious with 
a varioufly-d- vided Leaf, and a yel- 
low: fix Flower. 

17 S ( : a b 1 o s \ mc^tcna glabra, fo- 
fits fcabi ,c vulgaris. C. B. P. Moun- 
tain fmooth-leav'd Scabious. 

1 3. Scabiosa montana latifolia 
non I acini at a, rubra CSf prima. C. B. 
P. The firft red broad-ieav'd moun- 
tain Scabious, not jagged. 

19. Scabiosa latifolia rubra non 
laciniata, fecunda. C. B. P. The 
fecond red broad-leav'd Scabious, 
not jagged. 

20 Scabiosa argent ea angufti fo- 
lia. C. B. P. Narrow filver-leav'd 
Scabious. 

21. Scabiosa Sicula fruticans, 
laureola folio,- fubtus incano. Inf. R. 
H. bhrubby Sicilian Scabious, with 
a Sparge-lauTel-leaf, hoary under- 
neath. 

22. Scaeiosa frutefcens, Jfcfitt 

leucoii 



hucoii bortenfis. Hort. Cath. Shrubby 
Scabious, with Stockgilly - flower- 
leaves. 

23. Scabiosa Cretica frutefcens, 
auricula urfi folio. Tourn. Cor. 
Shrubby Candy Scabious, with a 
BearVear-leaf. 

24. Scabiosa frutefcens, foliis in- 
fra integris, fore cceruleo. Bocrb. 
Ind. Shrubby Scabious, with the 
lower Leaves intire, and a blue 
Flower. 

25. Scaeiosa perennis Sicula, flore 
fulphureo. Boerb. Ind. Perennial Si' 

cilian Scabious, with a brimftone- 
colour'd Flower. 

26. Scabiosa fella ta frutefcens, 
leucoii folio minori, una alterdwe crena 
incifo. Flor. Bat. Shrubby ftarry- 
feedt-d Scabious, with a fmaller 
Stochgillyflower-leaf. 

27. Scabiosa Africana frutefcens 
maxima, foliis rugofs iff crenatis, 
minor. Par. Bat. Greateft fhrubby 
African Scabious, with rough and 
lefs notched Leaves-. 

23. Scabiosa Africana frutefcens 
maxima, foliis tenuijjimeincifs. Boerb. 
Ind. alt. Greaterl ihrubby African 
Scabious, with Leaves very finely 
jagged. 

29. Scabiosa altijfma annua, fo- 
liis agrimonite nonnibil fmilibus. H. 
L. The talleft annual Scabious, with 
Leaves fomething like that of Agri- 
mony. 

30. ~caeiosa fraxinella? foliis. 
hji. R. H. Scabious with white 
Dittany-leaves. 

31. SCABIOSA uirgee pa f oris folio. 
C. B. P. Scabious with a lefler Tea- 
fel-leaf. 

32. Scabiosa Luftanica, Indict 
f mi lis. Inf. R. H. Portugal Scabi- 
ous, like the Indian one. 

33. Scabiosa fella ta Hifpanica, 
atnplijjimo folio. Inf. R. H. Spanijb 
ftarred Scabious, with a very large 
X-eaf. 



34. Scabiosa fiellata annua prolU 
fera. H. Par. Annual proliferous 
ftarred Scabious. 

35. Scabiosa Ori entails fellata, 
foliis <variis,flore cameo, femif of culis 
forum fimbriatis. Eaftern ftarred Sca- 
bious, with variable Leaves, and a 
flefh colour'd Flower, whofe Half- 
florets are fringed. 

The firft Sort here mentioned 
grows wild in divers Parts of Eng- 
land, upon arable Land; as doth the 
fecond in Woods, and fhady Places, 
almoft every-where. The firft of 
thefe is what the College of Phyfi- 
cians have directed to be ufed, under 
theTide of Scabious; tho 1 the Peo- 
ple who fupply the Markets gene- 
rally bring the fecond Sort inftead 
thereof ; but it may be eafily known 
therefrom by its hairy divided 
Leaves. The fecond Sort the Col- 
lege have directed to be ufed un- 
der the Title of Devils-bit ; which 
Name it received from the lower 
Part of its Root being commonly- 
eaten off. 

Both thefe Plants are very com- 
mon in the Fields and Woods; but 
may be propagated in Gardens, by 
fowing their Seeds in the Spring up- 
on a Bed of frefh Earth ; and when 
the Plants are come up, they muft 
be tranfplanted into other Beds of 
frefh Earth, at about eight or ten 
Inches Diftance ; obferving to wa- 
ter them until they have taken Root; 
after which time they will require 
no farther Culture, but to keep 
them clear from Weeds ; and the 
fecond Summer they will flower, and 
produce Seeds : but their Roots will 
abide many Years, and may be part- 
ed to propagate the Species. 

The third Sort will grow to the 
Height of four or five Feet, and 
have a woody Trunk : this is pre- 
ferved in Green hoiifes in Winter, 
by fuch as are curious in foreign 

Plants. 



s c 

Plants. It may be propagated by 
planting Slips or Cuttings in Pots of 
frefh Earth, during any of the Sum- 
mer-monrhs ; which, if placed in a 
moderate Hot -bed, watered and 
fhaded, will take Root in a fhort 
time ; after which they may be in- 
ured to the open Air by degrees, in- 
to which they mould be removed to 
continue abroad until Odobir, when 
they muil be carried into Shelters 
but mu ft have as much free Air as 
poUible in mild Weather ; for they 
cnly require to be protected from 
Jbard Frolt, and frequently watered. 
This Plant produces Flowers moft 
Part of the Year, for which it is 
chiefly preferved ; tho' the Flowers 
have not more Beauty nor Scent than 
the common Field fort. 

The fourth Sort is an annual 
Plant, which is preferved in the Gar- 
dens of the Curious ; but the Flow- 
ers of this are very like thofe of the 
former Sort, and have no Scent. 

The Indian or Mufk Scabious's are 
preferv'd for the Beauty and fweet 
Scent of their Flowers, wnich con- 
tinue a long time. Thefe are pro- 
pagated by fovving of their Seeds ; 
the bcfl time for which is about the 
Latter-end of May, or the Begin- 
ning of June, that the Plants may 
get Strength before Winter ; for if 
they are fown too earlyin theSpring, 
they will flower the Autumn follow- 
ing ; and the Winter coming on 
focn, will prevent their ripening 
Seeds : befides, there will be fewer 
Flowers upon thofe, than if they had 
remained fcrong Plants thro' the 
Winter, and had fent forth their 
Ffower-ftems in Spring ; for thefe 
will branch out on every Side, and 
produce a prodigious Number of 
Flowers, ajfid continue a Succeffion 
of them on the fame Plants from 
June toSeptember, and produce good 
Seeds in Plenty, 



s c 

The Seeds of thefe Plants mould 
be fown upon a fhady Border of 
frefh Earth (for if they are fown up- 
on a Place too much expofed to the 
Sun, and the Seafon mould prove 
dry, few of them will grow). When 
thePlants are come up, they may be 
tranfplanted into other Beds or Bor- 
ders of frem Earth, obferving to 
water and fhade them until they 
have taken Root ; after which they 
will require no farther Care, but to 
. keep them clear from Weeds till 
Michaelmas, when they may be 
tranfplanted into the Middle of the 
Borders in the Pleafure - garden ; 
where the ftveral Sorts being inter- 
mix'd, will make an agreeable Va- 
riety. 

They are extremely hardy, be- 
ing rarely injur'd by Cold, unlefs 
they have mot up to flower before 
Winter ; but feldom continue after 
ripening their Seeds. 

The two African Tree Scabious's 
are abiding Plants, which are pre- 
ferved in Pots, and houfed in Win- 
ter, as the third Sort : thefe may be 
propagated by Slips or Cuttings, as 
the third, and require the fame Ma- 
nagement. 

The twelfth Sort is preferved by 
fuch as are curious in collecting Va- 
rieties of Plants ; but the Flowers 
have no Scent: however, as it is an 
hardy Plant, requiring no other Cul- 
ture than the common Field Sort, it 
may be admitted, for Diverfity, in- 
to the Pleafure-garden ; becaufe it 
will thrive in fhady Places, where 
few other Plants will grow. 

The thirteenth, fourteenth, fif- 
teenth, Sixteenth, feventeenth, eigh- 
teenth, nineteenth, twentieth, twen- 
ty-fourth, twenty-fifth, thirtieth, and 
thirty- firft Sorts are all of them 
abiding Plants, which are hardy 
enough to live in the open Air in, 
England \ 



s c 



England; fo may be managed as 
hath been directed for the common 
Sorts of Scabious. 

The twenty-firft, twenty -fecond, 
twenty - third, and twenty - lixth 
Sorts, are alfo abiding Plants ; but 
are fomewhat tenderer than thofe 
before mention'd : fo fome Plants 
of each Kind mould be kept in Pots, 
that they may be ihelter'd in Winter 
under a common Hot-bed-frame ; 
and the others muft be planted in 
warm Borders, othcrwife they will 
not live thro' the Winters in this 
Country : and if the Soil in which 
thefe are planted, is poor and dry, 
they will grow Hinted, and bear the 
Cold much better, than thofe which 
are planted in a rich Soil, and grow 
freely. Thofe Plants which are in 
Pots, and are placed in Shelter in 
Winter, muft have as much free Air 
as poifible in mild Weather ; other- 
w'ie they will draw up weak, and 
appear very unfightly ; fo they 
fhculd only be cover 'd in very hard 
Frofts, and continually expos'dwhcn 
the Weather is mild. 

The twenty-feventh and twenty- 
eighth Sorts were brought from the 
Cape of Good Hope ; fo are more ten- 
der than the former : therefore thefe 
muft always be kept in Pots, and in 
Winter fhould be placed in an airy 
Glafs-cafe, where in mild Weather 
they may have as much free Air as 
partible ; they mould be frequently 
water'd, for they are very thirlly 
Plants. In fevere Froft they mull 
be carefully guarded ; but they will 
bear a little Cold pretty well. 

All the mrubby Sorts of Scabious 
may be propagated by Cuttings, 
which may be taken off during any 
of the Summer-months ; and mould 
be planted in a mady Border, and 
duly water'd in dry Weather, which 
will promote their taking Root; and 
then they may be potted, and placed 



in a mady Situation, till they have 
taken new Root ; after which time 
they may be placed amongft other 
hardy Exotic Plants, in a fhelter'd 
Situation, where they may remain 
until the End of Ocloitr, when they 
muft be removed into Shelter. In 
fome favourable Seafons thefe Plants 
will produce good Seeds in Englani % 
fo that the Plants may be raifed 
from thefe, by fowing them in an 
open Border of light Earth about 
the Middle of March ; and if the 
Spring fliould prove very dry, it will 
be neceflary to water the Ground 
now-and-then, which will forward 
the Vegetation of the Seed ; fo that 
the Plants will appear in about three 
Weeks after the Seeds are fown. 
When they come up, they muft be 
kept clear from Weed?, and in dry- 
Weather duly water'd ; and when 
they are ftrong enough to tranfplant, 
they fhould be planted in Pets, and 
managed in the fame manner as 
thofe Plants which are propagated 
by Cuttings. 

The twenty-ninth, thirty-fecond, 
thirty-third, thirty-fourth, and thir- 
ty - fifth Sorts are annual Plants, 
which are only propagated by Seeds, 
Thefe may be managed in the fame 
manner as hath been directed for the 
Indian Scabious's. 

All the Sorts of Scabious continue 
a long time in Flower, for which 
they are regarded ; for there is no 
very great Beauty in many of their 
Flowers : but as moft of the hardy- 
Sorts produce Flowers near three 
Months fucceffively, they may be 
allowed a Place in the Borders of 
large Gardens, becaufe they require 
very little Care to cultivate them. 
Ar.d as the fhrubby Kinds continue 
in Flower moft Part of the Year, 
they make an agreeable Variety 
amongft hardy Exotic Plants in 
Winter, 

SCAN- 



s c 

SCANDIX, Shepherds Needle, 
Or Venus-comb. 

The Characters are ; 

It hath a rofe-Jhaped v.?nhellated 
Flower, conjtfting of federal Petals, 
nvhich are ranged orbicularly, and 
reft on the Empalement ; nvhich be- 
comes a Fruit confijiing of tvjo Parts, 
having tvoo Seeds, which refemhle a 
Needle, when joined. 
The Species are ; 

1. Scandix roftrato, vul- 
garis. C. B. P. Common Shep- 
herds Needle, with beaked Seeds. 

2. Scandix Cretica major. C. B. 
P. Great Shepherds Needle ofCrete. 

3. Scandix Cretica minor. C.BP. 
Smaller Shepherds Needle of Crete, 
4. Scandix Orientalis,flore ma- 
xima. Tourn. Cor. Eaftern Shep- 
herds Needle, with a very large 
Flower. 

The firft of thefe Plants grows 
wild amongft Corn, in molt Parts of 
England. The fecond and third 
Sorts grow wild in the Ifland of 
Candia; and the fourth Sort was 
discovered by Dr. Toumefort in the 
Levant. 

Thefe Plants are preferv'd by the 
Curious in Botany, for the fake of 
Variety ; but are feldom admitted 
into other Gardens. The Fruit of 
thefe Plants, having Beaks greatly 
refemblingCranesBills, may be taken 
for them at a fmall Diflance ; but 
being ranged fomewhat like the 
Teeth of a Comb, occafion'd the 
Name given to it. 

They may be propagated by Seeds, 
which mould be fown in Autumn, 
foon after they are ripe, in the Place 
where they are delign'd to remain, 
which mould be in a fliady Situa- 
tion ; and when the Plants are come 
up, they will require no farther 
Care, but to keep them clear from 
Weed's. In May the Plants will 
flower, and in the Beginning oijuiy 



s c 

they will perfett their Seeds, and 
foon after decay. But if their Seed: 
are permitted to fcatter, the Plants 
will come up without any manner of 
Care, and become Weeds in the 
Garden. 

SCILLA, Squills. 
The Characters are; 

It hath a large, acrid, bulbous 
Root, like an Onion : the Leaves are 
broad : the Flowers are like thofe of 
Omitbogalum, or the Starry Hya- 
cinth : they grow in a long Spike, and 
come out before the Leaves, 
The Species are ; 

1. S c 1 l l a vulgaris, radice rubra. 
C. B. P. Common red Squill. 

2. Scilla radice alba. C. B. P. 
The white Squill. 

Thefe Plants are very common 
upon the fandy Shores of Spain, and 
the Levant, from whence theirRoots 
are annually brought to England, for 
medicinal Ufe : but altho' thefe 
Roots are brought over chiefly for 
medicinal Ufe, yet are they worthy 
of being cultivated in every good 
Garden, for the Beauty of their 
flowers ; which make a very hand- 
fome Appearance when they are 
flrong Roots, 

The beft time to tranfplant thefe 
Roots is in May, when their Leaves 
are decay'd : and if the Roots are 
brought from Abroad, if they can 
be procur'd firm at that Seafon, or 
a little after, they fhould be plant- 
ed in Pots of light fandy Earth, and 
placed in the Windows of theGreen- 
houfe ; where, if they are blowing 
Roots, they will flower the July 
following. 

Thefe Plants mutt be preferv'd in 
Shelter during the Winter - feafon ; 
becaufe, if their Leaves are deflroy'd 
by Froft in Winter, the Roots are 
fubjeft to peri!h : but in Summer 
they mould be expos'd to the open 
Air, and in dry Weather muft be 
frequently 



s c 

frequently <vaterM ; efpecially da- 
ring the Seal on their Leaves are on, 
or "that rhey are in Flower : but 
when the Roots are in a State of 
Keft, they mould have but little 
Moifture ; for Wet at that time will 
lot them. They are pretty hardy, 
and only require to be Ihelter'd 
from hardFroft; but mufi have as 
much free Air as poffible in open 
Weather. 

SCLAREA, Clary. 
The Charailers are ; 

It is a <vtrticilhte Plant, with a 
labiatcd Flow\r, cOnfijllng of one Leaf, 
ivhofe Upper- lip ( or Creft J is hooked ; 
but the Under- lip (or Beard) is di- 
vided into three Parts, the middle 
Segment being hollovj and hi fid : out 
cf the Flswer-cup rifes the Point a I, 
attended by four Embryoes, txbich af- 
terward turn to fo many roundifhSeeds 
inclofedin an Hufi, which was before 
the Flower-cup. 

The Species are ; 

1. Sclarea. Tabern. Ic. Com- 
mon Garden Clary. 

2. Sclarea njulga ris fa n uginrfa , 
emplifjimo folio. Tourn. Common 
downy Clary, with a large Leaf. 

3. Sclarea laciniatis foliis.Tourn. 
Clary with a jagged Leaf. 

4. Scla"Ea Lufitanica glutinofa, 
cmplijjjmo folio, Tcurn. Portugal 
Clary, with a large glutinous Leaf. 

5. Sclarea Indica, fore var le- 
gato. Tcurn. Indian Clary, with a 
variegated Flower, 

6. c clare a rugofo, uerrucofo, & 
laciniato folio. Tcum. Clary with 
a rough, warted, and jagged Leaf. 

7. Sclarea glutinofa, fijr is lutei 
*variegati barba anipla cava. Boerb. 
Lid. Glutinous Clary, with a yel- 
low variegated Flower, having a 
large hollow Beard, commonly calFd 
Jupiter's Diftaff. 

8 . Sclarea folio falviee, minor, 
five glabra. Tcurn. Lefler or ihiOQtll 
Clary with a Sage-leaf. 



s c 

9. Sclarea Or ten talis, folio If 
tonics acutifflmo, cc?na purpura iemte* 
T. Cor. Eaftern Clary, with a 
marp - pointed Betony - leaf, and a 
purplifh Top. 

10. Sclarea pratenfis, folih f*r~ 
ratis, fiore fua<ve - rubtnte. Tonne. 
Meadow Clary,with ferrated Leaves, 
and a foft-red Flower. 

The common Garden Clary is 
chiefly cultivated in England for me- 
dicinal' U(e ; but the other Sorts are 
preferv'd in Botanic Gardens for the 
fake of Variety, with many otheT 
Sorts of lefs Note : however, thole 
here mention'd are worthy of aPlace 
in large Gardens, where, if they are 
intermix^ among other large grow- 
ing Plants, they will afford a pretty 
Variety ; efpecially the fifth, eigfcta, 
ninth, and tenth Sorts, which pro- 
duce long Spikes of beautiful Flow- 
ers, and continue a long time in 
Beauty. 

The Flowers of the fevemth 

Sort are us'd in Holland, to give a 
Flavour to the khenijh Wines.which 
are brew'd at Dort. 

All thefe Sorts may be propagated 
by fowing their Seeds upon a Bed of 
frefh Earth in March or April ; ard 
when the Plants are come up, they 
mould be tranfplanted into Beds of 
frefhEarth, about eight Inches afuti- 
der, obferving to water them un- 
til they have taken Root; after 
which they will require no farther 
Care, buc to keep them clear from 
Weeds until Michaelmas, when they 
mould be tranfplanted into the 
Places where they are to remain, 
placing them at a large Diftance ; 
for they fpread pretty iar, provided 
the Soil be good. If thefe Plants 
are planted for a Crop intended for 
medicinalUle, they ihould be plant- 
ed in Rows two Feet and an half 
aiunder, and the Plants eighteen 
Inches dittaat in the Rows ; but the 

other 



other Sorts to be placed in Borders 
fnould be planted eight or ten Feet 
diftant, being intermix'd with other 
Plants. Some of thefe Sorts will 
endure many Years, provided they 
are planted on a frefn Soil, not over- 
moid or rich ; bat others rarely 
continue longer than the fecond 
Year, perifhing foon after they have 
perfected their Seeds : thefe mould 
therefore be often renewed from 
Seeds, to have a Continuance of 
them; but the other Sorts may be 
increafed by parting their Roots, 
the beft time for which is atMichael- 
mas, when their Stems begin to de- 
cay. 

SCOLYMUS, The Golden- 
thiitle. 

The Char afters are ; 
The whole Plant hath the Appear- 
ance of a Thiflle : the Flower confvjis 
of many Half-florets, which rejl on 
the Embryocs ; each of thefe are fepa- 
rated by a thin Leaf ; and on the Top 
of each Embryo is fajiend a little 
Leaf: thefe are contain 'd in a fcaly 
Empalement , which inclofes the 
Seed. 

The Species are; 

1. Scolymus chryfanthemus. C. 
B. P. The Golden-thiftle. 

2. Scolymus chryfanthemus an- 
nuus. H. R. Par. Annual Golden - 
ihhtle. 

3. Scolymus chryfanthemus 
Africanus procerior. H.R. Par. Tall- 
er African Golden-thiftle. 

The firlt and fecond Sorts grow 
wild in the South of France, and in 
Spain ; but the third Sort is a Na- 
tive of Africa. The nrft and third 
Sorts arc biennial Plants ; but the 
fecond is an annual, and pennies 
foon after it has perfected its Seeds. 

They are propagated by Seeds, 
which mould be fovvn in March, on 
a Bed of frefh undung'd Earth, in an 
open Situation ; and when thtPIar/iS 



are come up, they fhould be kept 
clear from Weeds ; and where they 
grow too clofe, fome of them mould 
be pulled out, fo as to leave thofe 
which are defign'd to remain, about 
two Feet afunder. This is all the 
Culture which thefe Plants require ; 
for as they fend forth Tap-roots, 
they do not bear tranfplanting well 5 
therefore they mull bs fown where 
they are to remain ; and if they 
are kept clear from Weeds, theywill 
thrive very well ; and when the 
Seafons prove dry, will perfed their 
Seeds in Autumn; but in wet Sea- 
fons they rarely ever produce good 
Seeds in England ; which renders it 
difficult to continue the Species,with- 
out procuring frelh Seeds from A- 
broad. 

ThefePlants are preferved by thofe 
Perfons who are curious in Botany, 
for Variety - fake ; but are rarely 
planted in other Gardens. 

SCORDIUM, Water-german- 
der. 

The Characters are ; 
The Flowers are like thofe of Ger- 
mander, which are produced from the 
Wings of the Leaves : the Flower- 
cup is tubulous ; and the whole Plant 
fmells like Garlick. 

The Species are ; 

1. Scordium. C. B. P. Com- 
mon Water- germander. 

2. Scordium alteram, fi<ve falvia 
agrejlis. C. B. P. Wild - fage, 

fuulgo. 

3. Scordium frufefcens, folio an- 
guflo fclwse,flore luteolo. Boerh. bid. 
Shrubby Wild-fage, with a narrow 
Sage-leaf, and yellowilh Flowers. 

The firlt. of thefe Plants grows 
wild in moift Places in the lfle of 
Ely, in great Plenty ; but near Lon- 
don it is propagated in Gardens for 
medicinal Ufe. This Plant is in- 
creafed by parting the Roots, of 
from Cuttings or Slips : the beft 

time 



s c 

time for this Work is the Beginning 
of March. Thefe Slips mull be 
planted in Beds of moiit Earth, 
about four or five Inches afunder, 
obferving to water them well until 
they have taken Root ; aft^r which 
they will require no further Care 
but to keep them clear from Weeds, 
and in July the Plants will be fit to 
cut for medicinal Ufe, being at that 
time in Flower ; but it is not pro- 
per to tranfplant them every Year, 
for then the Crop will be fmaller; 
therefore every other Year will be 
fufncient to renew thefe Beds : nor 
Ihould they be planted again upon 
the fame Ground, but upon a frelTi 
Spot ; other wife they will not 
thrive. 

The Wild-fage is very common 
in Woods, and lhady Places, in di- 
vers Parts of England ; and is rarely 
cultivated in Gardens, except by 
chofe who are curious in Botany. 
This may be propagated by fowiag 
the Seeds in the Spring upon a Bed 
of frefh Earth ; and when thePlants 
are come up, they fhould be tram- 
planted out, at about a Foot afander, 
«pon a frefh light Soil, obferving to 
water them until they have taken 
Hoot ; after which they will re- 
quire no farther Care but to keep 
them clear from Weeds ; for t-hey 
are extremely hardy, and will abide 
many Years in almoil any So;l or 
Situation. 

The third Sort is of a more ten- 
der Nature, and requires to be mel- 
ter'd from fevere Froft ; to which if 
it be expos'd, it is often deilroy'd. 
This may be propagated by lowing 
the Seeds as the former ; but when 
the Plants come up they mould be 
plac'd in Pots of frefh Earth, and in 
Winter put in an airy Part of the 
Green-houfs, where they may enjoy 
the free Air when the Weatksr is 

Vol. Hi. 



s c 

mild ; for if they are too much 
drawn, they are fubject to mould 
and decay. In the Summer-fealbn 
they fhould be expos'd to the open 
Air, with Myrtles, and other foreign 
Plants; and mull be frequently re- 
frefh'd with Water. 

SCORPIURUS, Caterpillers. 

The Characters are ; 
It hath a papilionaceous Flower, 
out of whofe Evipaletnent rifes the 
Polntal, which after^vard becomes a 
jointed Pod, convoluted like a Snail 
or Galcrp 'dL r, having a Seed in each 
Joint, which is, for the moji part, of 
an o-jal Figure. 

The Species are ; 

1. Scorpiurus bvpleuri folio. C. 
B. P. The great rough Caterpii- 
ler. 

2. ScorpiurUo lupleuri folio, cor- 
ni cults afperis, magis in fe contort is <of 
ccn-jolutis. Mar. ^Hijl. Prickly Ca- 
terpiller. 

3. SCORPIURUS bupleuri folio, /i- 
liquis le-jiLus. Park. 'I heat. Smooth- 
podded Caterpiller. 

4. Scorpiurus fli qua traffa 
Boelii. Ger. Emac. Thick - podded 
Caterpiller. 

c. Scorpiurus Jiliqua cochlcata 
& firiata Ohjfponenfis. H. R. Par. 
Caterpiller with a twilled furrowfd 
Pod. 

6. Scorpiurus foliis <via'sr, mini* 
ma. Mor. Hijl. The fmalkil Ca- 
terpiller, with Vetch-leaves. 
Thefe Plants are preferv'd in feve- 
ral curious Gardens, for their Odd- 
nefs more than for any great Beau- 
ty : they are all of them annual 
Plants, which are propagated by 
fowirg their Seeds upon a Bed of 
frefh light Earth ; and when the 
Plants are come up, they fhould be 
thinned, fo as to leave them about 
ten Inches or a Foot afunder;, be- 
came their Branches trail upon the 
4 % Ground 



s c 

Ground ; and if they have not 
room, they are apt to overbear each 
other, and thereby are very often 
rotted, efpecially in moift Seafons. 
The Weeds mould alfo be diligently 
clear'd from them,otherwife they will 
grow over and deflroy them: in June 
thefePlantswill produce fmall yellow 
papilionaceous Flowers, which are 
Succeeded by Pods, which of the firft 
Sort are fo much like Caterpillers, 
that a Perfon, at a fmall Diftance, 
would imagine they were real Ca- 
terpillers feeding on the Plants ; and 
it is for this Oddnefs of their Pods 
that thefe Plants are chiefly pre- 
ferv'd. 

Thefe Plants will feldom thrive 
well, if they are tranfplanted ; there- 
fore the bell Method is, to put in 
three or four good Seeds in each 
Place where you would have the 
Plants remain (which may be in the 
Middle of large Borders in the Plea- 
fure-garden, where being intermix'd 
with other Plants, they will afford a 
pleafing Variety). When the Plants 
come up, there mould be only one 
of the moft promifing left in each 
Place, which mould be ccnftantly 
kept clear from Weeds ; and when 
their Pcds are ripe, they mould be 
gather'd and prefervM in a dry 
Place till the following Spring, in 
order to be fown. 

The firft, third, and fourth Sorts 
are the belt worth cultivating, their 
Pods being large, and more vifible 
than the other,and are more in form 
of a Caterpilier. 

SCORZONERA, Vipers-grafs. 

The Char after s are ; 
It hath afemifiofculous Flower, con- 
fining of many Ha if -florets, which 
refi upon tbcEntbryoes, which are in- 
cluded in one common Empalement, 
which is fcoly : the Embryoes after- 
ward become oblong Seeds, nvbich are 
fwnijVd with Down, 



S C 

The Species are; 

1. Scorzonera latifolia Jtnuatal 
C. B. P. Common or broad-leav'd 
Vipers - grafs, with an indented 
Leaf. 

2. Scorzonera lati folia altera; 
C. B. P. Another broad-leav'd 
Vipers-grafs. 

3. Scorzonera laciniatis foliis. 
Toum. Vipers-grafs with jagged 
Leaves. 

The firft of thefe Sorts is what 
the College of Phyficians have di- 
rected for medicinal Ufe ; and it 13 
alfo cultivated for the Ufe of the 
Kitchen in divers Gardens near Lon- 
don ; tho* at prefent it is not fo much 
propagated as it hath been fome 
Years fince, when it was more com- 
monly brought to the Markets. 

The fecond Sort is equally as good 
as the firft for all the Purpofes for 
which that is cultivated ; but as it is 
lefs common, it is rarely found in 
England, except in Botanic Gardens; 
v/here the third Sort is alfo cultiva- 
ted for Variety, but is never appl) 'd 
to any Ufes. 

Thefe Plants may be propagated 
by fowing their Seeds in the Spring 
upon a Spotoffrefh light Soil. The 
befc Method Of fowing them is, to 
draw {hallow Furrows by a Line 
about a Foot afunder, into which 
you fhould fcatter the Seeds, thinly 
covering them over about half an 
Inch thick with the fame light 
Earth; and when the Plants are come 
up, they fhould be thinned where 
they are too clofe in the Rows, leav- 
ing them at leaft fix Inches afunder ; 
and, at the fame time, you fhould 
hoe down all the Weeds to deflroy 
them : and this muft be repeated as 
often as is neceflary ; for if theWeeds 
are permitted to grow among the 
Plants, they will draw them up weak., 
and prevent their Growth. 

There 



s c 

There are many People who Tow 
thefe Seeds promifcuoufly in a Bed, 
and afterward tranfplant them out 
at the Diftance they would have 
them grow : but this is not fo well 
as the former Method, becaufe their 
Roots commonly fhoot downright, 
which, in being tranfplanted, are 
often broken ; fo that they never 
will make fuch fair Roots as thofe 
which remain in the fame Place 
where they are fown : for when the 
extreme Part of the Root is broken, 
it never extends itfelf in Length af- 
terward ; but only moots out into 
many forked fmall Roots, which are 
not near fo valuable as thofe which 
are large and ftrait. Thefe Roots 
may be taken up when the Leaves 
begin to decay ; at which time, they 
have done growing ; tho' they may 
remain in the Ground until Spring, 
and may be taken up as they are 
ufed : but thofe which remain in the 
Ground after March will fhoot up 
their Flower - Items ; after which 
they are not fo good, being fticky 
and ftrong. 

If you intend to fave Seeds of 
thefe Plants, you mould let a Parcel 
of the beft remain in the Places 
where they grew ; and when their 
Stems are grown to their Height, 
they ihould befupported with Stakes, 
to prevent their falling to the 
Ground, or breaking. In "June 
they will flower ; and about the Be- 
ginning of Augufl their Seeds will 
ripen, when they mould begather'd, 
and preferv'd dry till the Spring fol- 
lowing, for Ufe. 

SCROPHULARIA, Figwort. 
The Characters are : 

// hath an anomalous Flower, con- 
Jtfiing of one Leaf^ gaping on both 
Side Stand generally globular ,cut \ as it 
ivy e, into two Lips ; under the up- 
per one of which are two fmal I Leases: 



s c 

the Point al rifes out of tl e Flower- 
cup, which afterward turns to a Fruit 
or Hujk, with a roundijh -pointed End, 
opening into two Di<vifiom, parted in- 
to two Cells by an intermediate Par- 
tit ion, and full of Jmall Seeds, which 
adhere to Placenta. 
The Species are ; 

1. Scrophularia nodofa faetlda. 
C. B. P. Stinking knobbed-roct- 
ed Figwort. 

2. Scrophularia aquatica ma- 
jor. C.B.P. Greater Water Fig- 
wort. 

3. Scrophularia Hij panic a, fam- 
buci folio glabra. Tourn. Spanijb 
Figwort, with a fmooth Elder - 
leaf. 

4. Scrophularia maxima Lufi- 
ian>ca,fambuci folio lanuginofo.Tou m . 
Greatefc Portugal Figwort, with a 
woolly Elder- leaf. 

5. Scrophularia rut a car.ina 
die! a vulgaris. C. B. P. Figwort, 
commonly called Dog's-rue. 

6. Scrophularia fax at His luci- 
da, laferpitii Majjilienfs foliis. Boc. 
Muf. Shining Rock Figwort, with 
Leaves like the Marfeilles Lafer- 
wort. 

7. Scrophularia glauco flio, 
in amplas lacinias di-vifo. Tourn. Fig- 
wort with a fea-green Leaf, divided 
into large Segments. 

8. Scrophularia foliis flirt's 
modo lacinintis, Vel ruta canina lati- 
folia. C. B. P. Figwort with Leaves 
jagged after the manner of Fern, or 
broad leav'd Dog's-rue. 

9. Scrophularia five lutco. C. 

B. P. Figwort with a yellow Flow- 
er. 

id. Scrophularia folio itrtic&. 

C. B. P. Figwort with a Nettle- 
leaf. 

11. Scrophularia betonic^ fo- 
lio. Inf. R. H. Fjgwcrt-vvith a 
Betony-leaf. 

4 L 2 12. Scro- 



s c 

IZ. Scrophularia fcarodunite 
fclio. Mor. Hifl. Figwort with a 
YVood-fage-leaf. 

13. Scrophularia pcregrina 
frutefcens, foliis teucrii crajjiufculis. 
Breyn. Cent. Foreign ihrubby Fig- 
wort, with a thick Tree German- 
der-leaf. 

14. Scrophularia Lufitanica 
frutefcens^ njerbenacec foliis. Inf. R. 
H. Shrubby Portugal Figwort, with 
Vervain-leaves. 

15. Scrophularia Cretica fru- 
tefcens, folio <vario craffori. Tourn. 
Cor. Shrubby Figwort of Candia, 
with a thicker variable Leaf. 

16. Scrophularia Gra'ca fru- 
tefcens & perennis,nrtic<e folio. Tourn. 
Cor. Greek Ihrubby and perennial 
Figwort, with a Nettle-leaf. 

17. SCROPHURARIA JLph(fiH 9 lu- 

nariee folio, flore rubro. Tourn. Cor. 
Epbefan Figwort, with a Moon- 
wort-leaf, and a red Flower. 

iS. Scrophularia Oricntalis, 
fcliis c.innabinis. Tourn. Cor. Eaft- 
ern Figwort, with Ballard -hemp- 
leaves. 

19. Scrophularia Orient alls, 
titnplijTwio folio, cattle a la to'. Tourn. 
Cor. Eaftern Figwort, with a large 
Leaf, and a winged Stalk. 

20. Scrophularia Oriental is, 
tili<e folio. Tourn. Cor. Eaftern 
Figwort, with a Lime-tree- leaf. 

21. Scrophularia Orient a lis, 
thryfantbemi fol io, fore niinimo <va- 
riegato. Tourn. Cor. Eaftern Fig- 
wort, with a Corn-marigold -leaf,and 
the leaft variegated Flower. 

The firft Sort here mentioned 
grows wild in great Plenty inWoods, 
;md other fhady Places, in divers 
Parts of England, and is rarely cul- 
tivated in Gardens : but this being 
the Sort which the College of Phy- 
ficians have directed for medicinal 
Ufe, under the Title of Scrophularia 



s c 

major, it is by fome preferved in 
their Phyfic-gardcns. 

The fecond Sort is alfo very com- 
mon inmoiitPhces, and by theSides 
of Ditches almoft every-where : this 
is alfo an officinal Plant, and ftands 
in the Catalogue of Simples, under 
the Title of Betonica aquatica, i. e. 
Water-betony, becaufe the Leaves 
are fomewhat like thofe of Be- 
tony. 

Thefe two Plants may be eafily 
propagated in Gardens, by fowing 
their Seeds early in the Spring upon 
a Bed of frefh Earth, in a fhady Si- 
tuation ; and when the Plants are 
come up, they mould be tranfplant- 
ed out into a ftrong moift Soil,about 
two Feet afunder, obferving to water 
them until they have taken Root ; 
after which they will require no far- 
ther Care, but to hoe down the 
Weeds between them, from time to 
time, as they are produced. The 
fecond Year thefe Plants will moot 
up to flower ; and if their Stems are 
fuffered to remain, they will pro- 
duce Seed: but the Herb is general- 
ly cut for Ufe, juft as the Flowers 
begin to open ; for if it Hands long- 
er, the Leaves change, and the whole 
Plant contains much lefs Juice. 
Thefe Roots will abide many Years 
without renewing : but it will be 
proper to tranlplant them every 
other Year, otherwife their Roots 
will fpread over each other, and 
thereby deftroy themfelves. 

The third and fourth Sorts are 
very beautiful Plants, being worthy 
of aPlacc in every goodGarden: thefe. 
are fomewhat tenderer than the for- 
mer Sorts ; tho' they will endure 
the Cold of our ordinary Winters, 
if planted in a light Soil, and a 
warm Situation. Thefe may be 
propagated by fowing their Seeds in 
the Spring, upon a Bed df frefh 



s c 

Earth ; and when the Plants are 
come up, they Ihould be tranfplant- 
ed into Bedsoffrelh Earth, at about 
fix Inches Diftance from each other, 
obferving to water and {hade them 
until they have taken Root ; after 
which they will require no farther 
Care, but to keep them clear from 
Weeds, and in very dry Weather to 
refrefh them with Water. 

At Michaelmos fome of them may 
be tranfplanted into the Middle of 
warm Borders in the Pleafure-gar- 
den ; and the reft maybe planted in- 
to Pots fill'd with freih light Earth, 
which in Winter ihould be (heltered 
under a common Hot-bed-frame, 
where they may be covered in frofty 
Weather ; but in mild Weather 
they fiiould have as much free Air 
as poiiible. Thefe Plants, thus fhel- 
ter\i,wiii flower very ftrong iaMajs 
and if daiy watered in dry Weather, 
will produce ripe Seeds in July, 
whi< a may Degatner^d in the Pods, 
and preserved for fowing. The 
Roots ofthefe Plants will abide three 
or four Years, unleis deftroyed by 
great Cold ; and may be parted, to 
increafe them : but thefe Plants 
which are propagated from Slips, 
feldom flower lb itrong as thole pro- 
duced from Seeds ; fo that it is the 
belt Way to raife every Year fome 
from Seeds • co fucceed the old 
Koo:s. 

The fifth, fixth, feventh, and 
eighth Sorts are alio tender, and 
will rarely endure the Cold of our 
Winters without Shelter, unlefs in 
fome very warm Situations ; there- 
fore thefe mould be planted in Pots 
fill'd with ftefh light Earth, and fhel- 
tered in Winter as the two former 
Sorts. Thefe may be propagated 
from Seeds, as the former Sorts. 
Thefe Sorts feldom abide longer 
than two Years, and mult be defend- 
ed from Frofl in Winter j fo that 



s c 

they mould be often renew'd froia 
Seeds. 

The ninth, tenth, eleventh, and 
twenty-firft Sorts are biennial Plants, 
which very rarely live longer than 
two Years. Thefe feldom flower 
the fame Seafon their Seeds are 
fown ; or if they do, it is generally- 
pretty late in Autumn ; fo that they 
do not produce good Seeds: but 
when the Plants grow Ihort, and do 
not put out their Flower-ftems the 
firit. Year, they flower very ftrong 
early in the following Summer, and 
produce good Seeds. Thefe Sorts 
are hardy enough to endure the 
Cold of our ordinary Winters very 
well, provided they are planted in a 
dry undunged Soil. 

The twelfth, thirteenth, four- 
teenth, fifteenth, fixteenth, eighteenth, 
nineteenth, and twentieth Sorts are 
abidingPIantf, theirRoots continuing 
many Years ; and the eighteenthSort 
creeps at the Root, fo that it pro- 
pagates very fail that way, as alfo 
by Seeds. This is an extreme har- 
dy Plant, and will live in almolt any 
Soil and Situation ; but mould not 
be planted too near other Plants, be- 
caufe ic creeps fo far, as to interfere 
with fuch Plants as grow near it. 

The other Sorts will endure the 
Cold of our ordinary Winters very 
well, if they are planted in a lhel- 
tered Situation ; and when they are 
planted in a lean rubbifhy Soil, they 
will not grow too freely, but will be 
Hinted, and endure a much greater 
Share of Cold, than when they are 
planted in a rich Soil,where they be- 
come very luxuriant. 

All thefe Sorts ^re propagated by 
Seeds, which fno ;ld be fown on a 
Bid of lightEarth in the Spring; but 
it often happens, that the Seeds will 
lie in the Ground a Year, or longer, 
before the Plants come up ; fo that 
ths Ground (hould not be d&urbed, 
4 L 3 if 



s c 

if the Plants do not appear the firft 
Year : bat it mould be kept clean 
from Weeds, and wait until the 
Plants come up ; and when they are 
fit to remove, they mould be tranf- 
planted where they are to remain. 
Thefe Sorts are preferved by thofe 
who are curious in the Study of 
Plants ; but are rarely propagated 
in other Gardens. 

SCUTELLARIA, Scull-cap. 
The Characters are ; 

The Empaletnent of the Flower is 
of t.-,e Lip-kin J ; the up^er Segment 
ref tabling an Helmet ; and is divi- 
ded into three Seg7ne?its ; the middle 
being broad and concave ; but the 
other tv:o are narrow and plain : the 
Beard, or lower Lip, is divided into 
tvjo equal Segments : tbeCdXyx, hav- 
ing aC over, contains aFruit refmbiing 
the He el of aS Upper or Shoe, vuhichCha- 
r a tier is fujfeient to difinguifb it from 
all the other Genera of this Clafs. 
The Species are ; 

I. Scutellaria foliis ova t is fer- 
ratis, [pica interrupta. Lin. Hcrt. 
Cliff. Scull-cap with oval fawed 
Leaves, and an interrupted Spike. 

2. Scutellaria foliis cordato- 
lanceolatis crenatis. Lin. Hort. Cliff. 
JVlarlh common Scull -cap, 

3. Scutellaria foliis ovatis 
(renatis, fpicis imbricatis. Lin. Hort. 
Cliff. Alpine Scull-cap, with a large 
Flower, and an imbricated Spike. 

4. Scutellaria foliis incifo-fer- 
ratis utrinque glabris,ftica tetragona. 
Lin. Hort, Upfal. Alpine Scull-cap, 
with fn-.coth fawed Leaves, and a 
large Fiower with a fquare Spike. 

5. Scutellaria foliis cordc.to- 
Idnctolatis fcrratis, pedunculis multi- 
jioris. Flor. Leyd. Scull-cap with 
heart - fhaped fawed Leaves, and 
many long Flowers growing upon 
each Fc otftalk. 

6. Scutellaria foliis cordatis 
fbtyftf obiufe jenatis, Jpicis fofiofis. 



s c 

Flor. Leyd. Scull-cap with blunt 
heart-lhaped fawed Leaves, and a 
leafy Spike. 

7. Scutellaria foliis cordata- 
oblongis acuminatis ferratis, fpicis fub- 
nudis. Flor. Leyd. Scuil-cap with 
oblong pointed heart-fhaped Leaves, 
which are fawed, and the lower Par; 
of the Spike naked. 

8. Scutellaria foliis pinnatif- 
dis. Lin. Hort. Cliff. Eaftern Scull- 
cap, with elegant cut Leaves. 

9. Scutellaria incana, foliis 
magi j laciniatis, fore luteo. Hoary 
Eaftern Scull-cap, with Leaves much 
cut. 

The fecond Sort is a common 
V/eed, which grows plentifully by 
the Side of Ditches, in moft Parts of 
England-, therefore is not admitted 
into Gardens : this was formely ti- 
tled Lyfmachia galericulata. 

The nrft Sort grows plentifully in 
Italy, and other warm Countries, in 
moid Places: tfcis is a Plant of no 
great Beauty ; but is kept in Botanic 
Gardens for the fake of Variety. 

The third and fourth Sorts are 
Natives of the Alps ; the Branches 
of thefe trail upon the Ground ; and 
at the End of each there is a Spike 
of large Flowers, which in one Sort 
are blue, with yellow Falls ; and 
thofe of the other are white : the 
Flowers of thefe Plants continue a 
long time ; fo a few Plants of each 
Sort may be admitted to have a 
Place in large Gardens, where they 
will add to the Variety : thefe per- 
fect their Seeds very well in Eng- 
land ; fo that they may be propa- 
gated in plenty : the Seeds may be 
fown upon a Bed of common Earth 
about the Latter-end of March ; and 
when the Plants are fit to remove, 
they may be either planted in the 
Borders of rhe Pieafure- garden, or 
into Nurfery-beds, where they may 
iiay tiii the following Autumn ; and 



S E 

then they fhould be planted where 
they are defign'd to remain : they 
are very hardy Plants ; therefore 
will thrive in any Situation, and con- 
tinue feveral Years. 

The fifth, fixth, and feventh Sorts 
have upright Shoots ; and the Flow- 
ers of thefe are produced in long 
Spikes; but they are fmall, and have 
little Beauty ; fo the Plants are only 
preferved in the Gardens of the Cu- 
rious, for the fake of Variety : they 
are hardy perennial Plants, and per- 
fect their Seeds in plenty every Year; 
fo may be propagated in the fame 
manner as the former. 

The eighth and ninth Sorts have 
trailing Branches, which are garnifh- 
ed with elegant Leaves ; thofeof the 
eighth Sort being fhaped like Ger- 
mander, and are hoary underneath : 
thofe of the ninth Sort are deeply 
fawed, and are hoary on both Sides : 
thefe produce Spikes of yellow 
Flowers, which make a pretty Ap- 
pearance, and continue long in 
Beauty ; fo that they deferve a Place 
in every curious Garden : thefe Sorts 
are pretty hardy, inrefpeft to Cold ; 
but they mould be planted on a dry 
Soil, otherwife they will not live 
thro' the Winter ; nor do thefe 
Plants thrive well in Pots ; there- 
fore they mould always be planted 
in the full Ground : they perfect 
their Seeds well every Year ; fo 
young Plants fnould be annually 
raifed, becaufe they feldom continue 
longer than two Years. 

SECALE, Rye. 

The Char a tiers are ; 

The Flowers have no Leaves, but 
conjijl of federal Stamina, which are 
produced from the Flower-cup : thefe 
Flowers are coiled ed into a fiat Spike , 
and are difpofed aimofi Jingly : from 
the Flower - cup rifes the Pointal ; 
which afterward becomes an oblong 
fiendcr §.$d t inclofed in an liujk, 



S E 

which was before the Flower- cup jr 
this differs from Wheat, in having a 
flatter Spike, the Awn larger, and 
more naked. 

The Species are ; 

1. Sec ale bybernum, vel majus. 
C. B. P. Common or Winter 
Rye. 

2. Sec ale vcrnunt iff minus. C. 
B. P. LefTer or Spring Rye. 

The firft Sort is what the gene- 
rality of Farmers propagate, and is 
ufually fown in Autumn, at the 
fame Seafon with Wheat : and in 
many of the Northern Counties, as 
alfo in Wales, they are often mixed 
together : tho' I think it muft be 
very bad Hufbandry ; for the Rye 
will always ripen fooner than Wheat; 
fo that if the latter is permitted to 
itand to be fully ripe,the former will 
matter : nor can this be praclifed 
where the People are not accuftom'd 
to eat Rye-bread ; for altho'it is by 
fome accounted good when mixed, 
yet it being fo very clammy, few 
People, who have been fed with 
Wheat, will ever care to eat the 
Bread made of this. 

It is generally fown on poor, dry, 
gravelly, or fandy Land, where 
Wheat will not thrive ; and in fuch 
Places may anfwer very well: but 
on fuch Land as will bear Wheat, it 
is not proper to fow Rye ; fince of 
late Years that Wheat has been at a 
low Price, the other has been worth 
little. 

When Rye is fown, the Ground 
mould not be too wet ; and if it 
mould happen, that much Rain falls 
before the Rye is come up, it often 
rots in the Ground ; but it is not 
long in coming up, it being much 
fooner out of the Ground than 
Wheat. 

The fmall Rye may be fown in 
the Spring, about the fame time 
with Gats, and is ufually ripe asioon 
4 L 4 as i 



S E 

?s the other Sort : but if the Seafon 
proves wet, it is apt to run much to 
Straw ; and the Grain is generally 
lighter than the other ; fo the only 
Ufe of this Sort is to low upon fuch 
Lands, where the Autumnal Crop 
may have mifcarried. 

The general Ufe of Rye is fcr 
Bread, ekher aione, or mixed with 
Wheat ; but (as was before observ- 
ed) it is only fit for fuch Perfons 
who have a ! ways been ufed to rhis 
Food, few other Per ions caring to 
cat of it : nor have I ever heard of 
its having been exported; fo can ne- 
ver be worth cultivating in gene- 
ral ; tho I have been informed it 
will yield aiirong Spirit, whic v, - 
haps may occaiion its being more 
cultivated, fince the pernicious 
Ule of Spirituous Liquors is now 
tolerated. 

Rye is alfo fown in Autumn to 
afford green £eed for Ewes and 
Lambs in the Spring, before there is 
plenty of Grafs : when this is in- 
tended, the Rye mould be fown 
early in Autumn, that it may have 
Strength to furniih early Feed : the 
great Ufe of this is, to fuppiy the 
want of Turneps, in thole Places 
where they have faikd ; as aifo af- 
ter the Turneps are over, and before 
the Grafs is grown enough, to fup- 
piy green Feed fcr the Ewes : fo 
that in thofe Seafcns, when theTur- 
r.f ps in general fail, it is very good 
Hufbandry to fow the Land with 
j ye, efpecially where there are 
blocks of Sheep, which cannot be 
well fuppcrted, where green Feed is 
wanting early in the v pr.ng : there- 
fore thofe Farmers, who have large 
live S ocks, mould have feveral Ivie- 
thecs f fupplying themfelves with 
fu r cier.t Feed, left fome mould fail j 
for as Turneps are a very precari- 
o s Crop % fome Land mould be 
ibwi. with 'Cole- feed,which will fup- 



S E 

ply the Want of Turneps in Win- 
ter : and if fome of the Ground, 
which was fown late with Turneps, 
which had failed, was fown in Au- 
tumn with Rye, that would be pro- 
per to fuppiy the want of Cole-feed 
afterward. 

SECURIDACA, Hatchet- vetch. 
The Cbaratlers are ; 

// hath a papilionaceous Flower, 
out of nvhofe Empahmr.nt rifts the 
Painful, uubicb afterword becomes an 
upright, plain, articulated Pod, con- 
taining in carh Joint a rhomboid 
. Seed, having a A otch on the inner 
Side. 

We have but one Species of this 
Plant is Mi/gland ; viz. 

Securidaca lutea major. C. B, 
P. The greater yellow Hatchet- 
vetch. 

This Plant grows among the 
Corn in Spain, Italy, and other warm 
Countries ; but in England it is pre- 
ferv'd in Botanic Gardens, for the 
fake of Variety : this may be pro- 
pagated Jay fowing the Seeds in 
Borders of frefli light Earth in the 
Spring, in the Places where they are 
to abide ; for they feldom fucceed 
well, if they are tranfplanted : they 
mould be allowed at h aft two Feet 
Dillance, becaufe their Branches 
trail upon the Ground. Jn June 
thefe Plants will flower, and in Au- 
gufl .their Seeds will ripen, when 
they mould be gathered, and pre- 
ferved for Ufe. A few of thefe 
Plants may be admitted into every 
good Garden for Variety ; tho* 
there is no great Beauty in their 
Flowers. 

SEDUM, Houfleek. 
The Characlers are ; 

The Flower confijls of federal 
Leagues, which are placed orbicular' 
ly, and expand in form of a Roj'c ; cut 
of <rxbofe F/o-uC'er-cup rifes the Point al, 
which afterward turns to a Fruit, 
com/ofedi 



S E 

compofed, as it were, of many Seed- 
vejl-h, refembling Hujks, ivbicb are 
collected into a fort of Head, and full 
of fmall Seeds. 

The Species are ; 

1 . Sedu m majus njulgare .C.B.P. 
Common great Houfleek. 

2. Sedum minus luteum, fclio acu- 
ta. C. B. P. The molt ordinary 
Prickmadam, or Sharp-pointed yel- 
low Houfleek. 

3. Sedum minus luteum, ramulis 
refiexis. C. B. P. Yellow Stone- 
crop, with reflex'd Branches. 

4. Sedum par*vum acre, fore lu- 
tto. J* B. Wall-pepper, or Stone- 
crop. 

5. Sedum minus, a rupe Sancli 
Vincentii. R >>i Syn. Stonecrop of 
St. Vincent's Rock. 

6. Sedum minus teretifolium al- 
bum. C. B. P. White - flower'd 
Stonecrop, with taper Leaves. 

7. Sedum minus, circinato folio. 
C. B. P. Lefter Stonecrop, with 
round Leaves. 

8. Sedum majus vulgari frnile, 
glehulis decidentibus. Mor. Hijl. 
Houfleek like the common Sort, 
throwing off the young ones. 

9. Sedum montanum foment ofum. 
C. B. P. Mountain woolly Houf- 
leek, commonly called Cobweb 
Houfleek. 

10. $ edu M majus arborefcens. J. 
B. Greater Tree Houfleek. 

11. Sedum majus arborefcens, fo- 
liis elegant ijfi me -oariegatis tricolor 7- 
bus. Boerb. lr.d. Greater Tree 
Houfleek, with beautiful variegated 
Leaves. 

12. Sedum Ca?:arinun:,foliis om- 
t .. 1 maximis. H. A. The greateft 
Houfleek of the Canaries. 

u. Sedum Afr um faxatile, folio - 
lis fedi vu farts, in rofam 'vere compo- 
fitis. Pcprb. bid. Afican Rock 
Houfieek ; with fmall Leaves, 



S E 

like the common Sort, collecled like 
a Rofe. 

14. Sedum Afrum montanum, fo- 
il is fubrotundis, dentibus albis ferratis 
confer tim natis. Boerb. Ind. Afri- 
can mountainHoufleek, with round- 
ifli indented feirated Leaves, with 
white Edges. 

15. Sedum Africanum frutefcens y 
folio lengo ferrato conferiim nato. 

Boerb. Ind. African fhrubby Houf- 
leek, with long femted Leaves. 

16. oEdum mo jus montanum, den- 
tatis foliis, altcrum. C. B. P. An- 
other great mountain Houfleek,wita 
indented Leaves. 

17. Sedum majus ncntanum, fo- 
liis non dentatis, foribus rubentibus. 
C. B. P. The great mountain 
Houfleek, with indented Leaves, 
and redifh Flowers. 

18. Sedum teretifolium majus, 
flore albo. Mo>\ Hort. R. BUf. 
GreaterHoufleek, with taperLeaves, 
and a white Flower. 

19. Sedum minus, lato iff crank 
caule, Portlandicum Bdgarum. H. 
R. Par. Small Portland Houfleek, 
with a broad and thick Stalk. 

20. Sedum Alpinum rofum me- 
dium, acuto folio, barmatodes majus. 
H. R. Par. Greater bloody Rofe 
Houfleek of the Alps, with a ftiarp- 
pointed Leaf. 

21. Sedum Alpinum rbfeum medi- 
um, aculeo ruberte. H. R. Par m 
Middle Rofe Houfleek of the Alps, 
with rediili Prickles. 

22. Sedum Alpinum rofeum mi- 
nus, divide CfT fubbirfutum. H. R m 
Par. Small Rofe green and hairy 
Houfleek of the Alps. 

23. Sedum Alpinum fubbirfutum, 
folio longiore. H. R. Par y Hairy 
Houfleek of the Alps, with a longer 
Leaf. 

24. Sedum Alpinum fuhbirfutum t 
corcna for,': purpurafcents, difco <vi- 

r.idi 



S E 

B. R. Par. Hairy Houfleek 
of the Alps, with the Borders of a 
purplifh Colour, and the Middle 
£reen. 

25. Sedum minus teretifolium lu- 
teum. C. B. P. Small taper-leav'd 
yellow Houfleek. 

26. Sedum minus teretifolium 
clta-um. C. B. P. Another fmall 
tBper-lcav'd Houfleek. 

27. Sedum longifolhim, eitrho 
pro. Mor. H. R. Blaf. Long- 
leaVd Houfleek, with a citron-co- 
Jour y d Flower. 

28. Sedum minimum lutettm, non 
we. J. B. The fmalleit yellow 
Houfleek, which is not acrid. 

29. Sedum minimum no7t a eye, 
fore alb*. Raii Hift. The ieaft 
Houfleek, which is not acrid, with 
a white Flower. 

3a Sedum A'pinum, fore palli- 
d>. C. B. P. Alpine Houfleek, 
with a pale Flower. 

31. Sedum Alpinum,rt»hra magna 
fare. C. B. P. Alpine Houfleek, 
with a large red Flower. 

3 2v Sedu m Hi [fpantim, folio glauco 
ccuto, fiove albida. Boerb. bid. alt. 
§panijh Houfleek, with a pointed fea- 
green Leaf, and a whitifli Flower. 

3-3. Sedum palujire fubbirfutum 
ptrpurxum. C B. P. Hairy purple 
aaarfli Houfleek. 

34. Sedum echinatim, <vel fella- 
tunt,fore albo. J. B. Starry Houf- 
leek, with a white Flower. 

3 £ . Sedum ecbinatutn, fore lutes. 
J~. B. Prickly Houfleek, with a 
yellow Flower. 

The firft Sort is very common in 
England being often planted upon 
the Tops of Houfcs, and other 
Buildings ;• where, being prefe rvM 
dry, it will endure the greateft Cold 
of our Climate. This is directed by 
the College of Phyflcians to be ufed 
ia Medicine, as a great Cooler. It 



S E 

may be propagated by planting the 
Off-fets ( which are produced in 
great Plenty from the old Plants) 
any time in Summer. It requires 
to be placed very dry ; for if its 
Roots are moift, the Plants will rot 
in cold Weather. 

The fecond, third, fourth, fixth, 
and feventh Sorts grow in plenty 
upon Walls and Buildings in divers 
Parts of England, where they pro- 
pagate themfelves by their trailing 
Branches, fo as, in a fliort time, to 
cover the whole Place, provided 
they are not cut off. The fixth Sort 
is alfo prefcribed by the College of 
Phyficians, to enter fome officinal 
Compofitions ; but the People who 
fupply the Markets, commonly fell 
the Wall -pepper inflead of this : 
which is a very wrong Practice ; be- 
caufe the fixth Sort is a very cold 
Herb, and is accordingly directed 
to be put into cooling Ointments : 
and the Wall- pepper is an exceed- 
ing fliarp acrid Plant (from whence 
it received the Name of Wall-pep- 
per), which renders it contrary to 
the Intention of the Phyfician : 
therefore whoever makes ufe of 
thefe Plants, fhould be very careful 
to have the right ; otherwifeit is bet- 
ter to ufe the common great Sort, in 
which they are not fo liable to be 
impos'd on. 

The fifth Sort is a Native of St, 
Vincenis Rock in Cornwall, from 
whence it hath been taken, and dif- 
tributed into the feveral Gardens of 
fuch Perfons as are curious in pre- 
ferving a Variety of Plants. 

Thefe Plants are all extreme har- 
dy, and will thrive exceedingly, if 
planted in a dry Soil, and an open 
Situation, where they will propa- 
gate themfelves by their trailing 
Branches, which take Root where- 
ever shey touch :i;e Ground. 

The 



S E 

The eighth and ninth Sorts pro- 
pagate themfelves by Off-fets, in the 
znanner as the common Sort ; tho' 
the eighth throws off the young ones 
from the Top of the old Plants, 
which, falling on the Ground, take 
Root, and thereby areincreafed very 
plentifully. Thefe are both very 
hardy ; and if planted in a dry rub- 
bilhy Soil, will thrive, and endure 
the feverell Cold of our Climate. 

The tenth Sort is propagated by 
planting Cuttings during any of the 
Summer-months, which mould be 
laid in a dry Place a Fortnight af- 
ter they are cut from the old Plants, 
that their wounded Parts may heal 
over before they are planted, other- 
wife they are fubjecl to rot. Thefe 
ihould be planted in Pots filled with 
freih light fandy Earth, and placed 
in a fhady Situation (but not under 
the Drip of Trees), obferving to give 
them now-and-then a little Water, 
when the Earth is dry : but you mult 
be very careful not- to let them have 
too much Moifture, which will rot 
them. 

When they have taken Root, they 
may be removed into a more open 
Situation, placing them amongft 
other Exotic Plants, in a Place where 
they may be defended from ftrong 
Winds ; in which Situation they 
may remain until Autumn, when 
they mult be removed into the Con- 
servatory, to be preferved from Cold 
in Winter, which will deftroy them. 
Tho' they do not require any arti- 
ficial Pleat, but only to be protected 
from Froft; yet do they require as 
rnuch free Air as pofiible in mild 
Weather ; therefore the beft way of 
preferving thefe Plants is, to have 
an airy Glafs-cafe ; in which many 
Sorts of Ficoides, and other fuccu- 
Jent Plants, may be intermixed with 
thefe, where they will thrive much 
better than if placed amongft O- 



S E 

ranges, Myrtles, and other Trees, 

in a Green- houfe ; becaufe the Per- 
fpiration of thofe Trees renders the 
Air of the Place damp ; and when 
the Houfe is clofely (hut up, this 
Air is often rancid ; which, being 
imbibed by the Houfleeks, wit! 
caufe their Leaves to fall off, and 
the Plants will decay foon after 5 
whereas, in an open airy Glafs-cafe, 
where there are none but fucculent 
Plants, there will never be near fo 
much Damp in the Air; and inYuch 
Places they will thrive and flower 
almoll every Winter, when the Plants 
have gotten fufficient Strength. Thefe 
Plants, in moift Weather, will fend 
forth long Roots from their Bran- 
ches, four or five Feet from the 
Ground : and if the Earth is placed 
near to thefe Roots, they will ftrike 
into it, and the Branches may be 
afterward feparated from the old 
Plants. 

The eleventh Sort is a Variety of 
the tenth, which was accidentally 
obtained in the Gardens of the late 
Duchefs of Beaufort at Badmingtcn 9 
from a Branch which broke off from 
one of the plain Sort of Houfleek- 
trees by Accident ; and being plant- 
ed 111 Lime-rubbim afterward, be» 
came beautifully variegated ; from 
which Plant there have been vali 
Numbers raifed, and diitxibuted intQ 
many curiousGardens, both at home 
and abroad. This is propagated in 
the fame manner as the former, and ' 
requires the fame Management in 
Winter : but the Soil in which it is 
planted fliould be one Half frefli 
fandy Soil, and the other Half Limer 
rubbifh and Sea-fand, equally mix- 
ed, in which it will thrive much 
berter than in a rich Soil : you muft 
alfo be very careful not to give it too, 
much Water in Winter, which will 
caufe it to caft its Leaves, and de- 
cay. With this Management thefe 

Plants. 



S E 

Plants will grow to be eight or ten 
Feet high, and will produce beauti- 
ful Spikes of Flowers every Year, 
which are commonly in Eeauty in 
Winter ; and are thereby more va- 
luable, for coming at a Seafon when 
few other Plants do flower. Some- 
times thefe Plants will produce ripe 
Seeds, which, if permitted to* fall 
upon the Earth of the Pots, will 
come up the Summer following, 
fromr whence a great Stock of the 
Plants may be produced ; tho' as 
they fo eaiily take Root from Cut- 
tings, there will be no occafion to 
propngate them any other way. 

The twelfth Sort feldom produces 
any Side-branches, but grows up to 
one fingle large Head, with very 
large Leaves. This is only propa- 
gated from Seeds ; for when the 
Plants produce their Flowers, they 
always decay as foon as the Seed is 
ripe ; therefore the Seed mould 
cither be fown in Pots filled with 
light fandy Earth, as foon as it is 
yipe, or permitted to fried upon the 
Pots where they grow ; which mutt 
be fheitered from the Froft in Win- 
ter ; and the Spring following the 
young Plants will come lip in 
Plenty ; when they mould be trans- 
planted into Pots fitted with frefti 
light Earth, and exp^fed in Sum 
mer, with other Exotic Plants, in 
fome well - fhelterM Situation, where 
they may remain until October, 
when they mould be hou ?, d with 
the foregoing Sorts, and managed in 
the fame manner as hftth heen di- < 
reeled for them. Thefe Fiants will 
flower in four or five Years from 
Seed, provided they are well ma- 
ringed ; after which (as was before 
ferrd) thev ufually decay ; therefore 
it is necefTary to have a Succ'eflion of 
young Plan:;, that there may be an- 
nually feme to flower. This Sort 
rather belongs to the Saxifrage than 
this Genus. 



s E 

The thirteenth and fourteenth 
Sorts are of a fmaller Growth : thefe 
rarely rife above fix Inches high; 
but fend forth a great Quantity of 
Heads from their Sides ; which, if 
taken off, and planted in frefli light 
fandy Earth, will take Root, and 
make frefli Plants, which may be 
preferved in Pots, and houfed in 
Winter with the other Sorts before- 
mentioned, aud require to be treated 
in the fame way. 

' The fifteenth Sort grows to be 
fhrubby, and may be propagated by 
planting the Cuttings in the manner 
direcled for the Tree Houfleek, and 
muftalfobe hous'd in Winter, and 
treated in the fame manner as hath 
been already direcled for that Sort. 

Thefe are all of them very orna- 
mental Plants in the Green-houfe, 
and add greatly to the Variety, when 
placed amonglt other curious Exotic 
Plants. 

The other Sorts of Houfleek are 
very hardy Plants, which will thrive 
in the open Air in England ; and 
may be eaiily propagated by Off fets 
or Branches, which will re-:dily cake 
Root. Thofe Kinc ivl i :fi trail on 
the Ground (as many of theft do), 
will pulh out Roots from their 
Branches, and thereby fpread them- 
felves to a gre. Diftance : but the 
thirty - fecond, thirty - fourth, and 
thirty-fifth Sorts are annual Plants, 
which are only propagated by Seeds;, 
but if their Seeds are permitted to 
fcatter on the Ground, the Plants 
will come up in Autumn, and re- 
quire no other Care, but to clear 
them from great Weeds, which, if 
permitted to grow amongft them, 
would overbear and deftroy them. 

Thefe Plants are preferved in the 
Gardens of fome Perfons, who are 
curious in Botany ; but are very rare- 
ly admitted into other Gardens ; too* 
they may be very ornamental, when 



S E 

lightly difpofed ; for there are no 
Plants fo proper to plant on the 
Walls of Ruins, or other runic 
Buildings, where they will thrive 
without any Trouble, and endure 
the greateft Drought, and are never 
injured by Frofts. And as there is 
a great Variety of Species, which 
differ greatly from each other, not 
only in their Flowers, but alfo in 
the whole Face of the Plants ; fo 
they will afford an agreeable Varie- 
ty, if they are properly difpofed. In 
planting of thefe Plants, there is no 
other Care required, but to lay a 
little moift Earth on the Joints of 
the Walls or Buildings where they 
are defigned to grow, and therein to 
plant fome of the Plants in fmall 
Bunches,- which will foon take Root, 
and in one Year's time will fpread to 
a confiderable Diftance. The beft 
Seafon for this Work is a little be- 
fore Micbaebnas, that the Plants may 
be rooted before the hard Froft comes 
on. The annual Kinds will alfo 
grow in the fame manner, and will 
ihed their Seeds, and maintain them- 
felves without any Trouble, when 
they are once hYd in the Place. 
Thefe Sorts will moil of them grow 
from the Joints of Walls, which are 
perpendicular, where fcarce any 
other Plants will live ; which renders 
them more valuable, efpecially as 
they are fo eafily propagated. 

The eighteenth, twenty-fifth, and 
twenty -fixth Sorts produce long 
Branches, which hang down from 
the Walls where they grow ; there- 
fore mould be difpofed near the 
Edges ot Buildings, or on the Tops 
cf ruitic Houfes, and near the Sides, 
where they will trail, and make a 
pretty Appearance. 

The twenty eighth, twenty-ninth, 
and thirty - fecond Sorts have the 
Appearance of the Stone - crop : 
thefe have fhort Branches, and fmall 



S E 

Leaves, producing their Flowers cm 
the Tops of Shoots, which are fel- 
dom above three or four Inches highv 
but fpread and form into clofe large 
Bunches ; and where they fcatter 
their Seeds, if there is but a fma3 
Share of Earth, the Plants will come 
up, and multiply fo fall, as to co- 
ver the Top of an Houfe in a fevr 
Years. 

The fixteenth, feventeenth, nine- 
teenth, twentieth, twenty -frril, and 
twenty- fecond Sorts grow in clofe 
Heads, fomewhat like the common 
Houfleek, and are propagated by 
OrF-fets in the fame manner : thele 
may be difpofed on the Tops of 
Walls and Buildings, intermixed 
with the common Sorts of Houfleek, 
where they will make a pretty Di- 
verfity, being very different in their 
Appearance, and producing a great 
Variety in their Flowers. 

SEED : The Seed of a Plant con- 
fills of an Embryo, with its Coat or 
Cover. The Embryo, which con- 
tains the whole Plant in Miniature, 
and which is called the Germ or Bud, 
is rooted in the Placenta or Ccty/e- 
den, which makes the Coat or In<$n- 
lucru?n ) and ferves the fame Purpofes 
as the Secundines, i. e. the Chorion. 
and Amni: y in Animals. 
A Aletbod for raip.ng fucb Seeds nvbiri 
ha<ve bard Coats or Shells fur- 
rounding tbcvi y and that ha<ve been 
judged <very difficult y if not imfof- 
fbt'e, to be raifed in England. 
In the Year 1724. I had a Parcel 
of freih Cocoa-nuts given me, whick 
was brought over from Barbados : 
Part of thefe*Nuts I diverted of their 
outward Coat or Hulk, and the other 
Pare I left intire, as I received them. 
Both thefe Parcels J planted in 
large Pots filPd with good frefh, 
Earth, and plunged the Pots into 
Plot- beds made of Tanners Bark, 
giving them gentle and frequent 
Water- 



S E 

Waterings, as the Earth in the Pots 
feem'd to require ; but not one out 
©f the whole Number had made any 
Attempt to fboot, as I could per- 
ceive ; and upon taking them out of 
the Pots, I found they were rotten. 

About four Months after, I re- 
ceived another frefh Parcel of Co- 
coa - nuts from Barbados, which I 
treated in another manner : from 
Part of thefe I cut off the outer Coat 
or Hufk, and the other Part I left 
intire, as before : but fuppofing it 
was owing to my planting the other 
Parcel in Pots, that they did not 
fucceed, I made a frefh Hot-bed, 
•with Horfe-dung, and covered it 
over with frefh Earth about eighteen 
Indies thick, in which I planted the 
Nuts; obferving, as before, to fup- 
ply it with convenient Moifture, as 
alio to keep the Hot-bed in an equal 
Temper of Heat, which I was gui- 
ded to do by a Thermometer, gra- 
duated for the Ufe of Hot-beds ; but, 
with all my Care, I had no better 
Succefs than before, not one of the 
Nuts making anEffay towards moot- 
ing. 

The Year following, I had ano- 
ther Parcel of Cocoa-nuts given me, 
which, confideiing my former ill 
Succefs, I planted in a different man- 
ner, as follows : 

Having an Hot-bed, which had 
been lately made with Tanners 
Bark, and which was fiii'd with Pots 
of Exotic Plants, I remov'd two of 
the largeft Pots, which were plac'd 
in the Middle of the Bed ; and, open- 
ing the Tanners Bark under the 
Place where the two Pots Hood, I 
plac'd the two Cocoa-nuts therein, 
laying them fide-ways, to prevent 
the Moiiture (which might defcend 
from the Pots) from entering the 
Hole at the % Bale of the Fru.t, and 
thereby rotting the feminal Plant 
upon its nrlt germinating. 



s e 

I then cover'd the Nuts over with 
the Bark two or three Inches thick, 
and plac'd the two Pots over them in 
their former Station. 

In this Place I let the Nuts re- 
main for fix Weeks; v/hen remove- 
ing the two Pots, and uncovering 
the Nuts, I found them both (hot 
from the Hole in the Bale of the 
Fruit an Inch in Length ; and from 
the other End of the Fruit were fe- 
veral Fibres emitted two or three 
Inches in Length. 

Upon finding them in fuch a For- 
wardnefs, I took them out of the 
Bark, and planted them in large 
Pots filled with good frefh Earth ; 
plunging the Pots down to the Rims 
in Tanners Bark, and covering the 
Surface of the Earth in the Pots half 
an Inch with the fame ; foon after 
which, the young Shoots were above 
two Inches long, and continued to 
thrive very well. 

I communicated this Method to 
fome of my Acquaintance, who have 
tried it with the fame Succefs ; and 
if the Nuts are frefh, fcarce any of 
them mifcarry. 

This led me to try, if the fame 
Method would fucceed as well with 
Other hard - fhelPd Exotic Seeds ; 
which 1 could not, by any Method 
I had before tried, get to grow ; as 
the Bonduc or Nickar tree, the Abrus 
or Wild Liquorice, the Pbafeolus 
Bra fill 'art us /obis c villoJis pu?igentibus i 
Maximus Hermamii, or Horfe-eye 
Bean, with feveral others ; and I 
have found it both a fure and expe- 
ditious Way to raife any Sort of 
hard-mell'd Fruits or Seeds. 

For the Heat and Moifture (which 
are abfolutcly neceflary to promote 
Vegetation) they here enjoy in an 
equal and regular manner, the Tan- 
ners Bark (if rightly manag'd) keep- 
ing near an P.quality of Heat for 
three Months and the Water which 
deicends 



S E 

deicends from the Rots, when they 
are water'd, is by tRe Bark dctain'd 
from being too foon diflipated; 
which cannot be obtairrd in a com- 
mon Hot-bed, the Earth in fuch be- 
ing work'd away by the Vv'ater, and 
thereby leaving tae Seeds often de- 
ftitute of Moifture. 

Some of thefe Seeds I have had 
{hoot in a Fortnight's dine ; which, 
I am inform'd, would not have fo 
done in a Month, in their natural 
Soil ana Climate. 

I have alfo found this to be an ex- 
cellent Method to reftore Orange 
{or any other Exotic) Trees, which 
have fuffer'd by a tedious PafTage, in 
being too long out of the Ground ; 
infomuch that I recovered two 
Orange-trees, which had been ten 
Months without either Earth or Wa- 
ter. 

SENECIO, Groundfel. 

The Characters are ; 
It hath a flofculous Flower, con- 
ftjling of many Florets, divided into 
Jevcral Segments, fitting on the Em- 
bryo, contained in an Empalement, 
conf, fling of one Leaf, and di-jided in- 
to many Parts, aferward becoming cf 
a conical Figure : the Embryo after- 
ward becomes a Seed, furnif/od with 
Down ; at which time, the Empah- 
Pient is reflex 'd, to make way for the 
Seeds to efcape. 

The Species are ; 

1. Senecio minor vulgaris. C. B. 
P. Common Groundfel. 

2. Senecio Aft icav.us altifimus, 
blattarite <vcl hieracii folio. H. L. B. 
Tallelt African Groundfel, with a 
Mothmuliein-lcaf. 

3. Senecio Maderafpatanus, rapt 
folio, floribus maximis, cujus radix a 

tionnullis China dicitur. Hart. Elth. 
The China Root. 

4. Senecio AEgyptius, folio ma- 
tricar i a:. Boerh. bid. alt. Egyptian 
Gioundfel, with a Feverfew -itaf. 



S E 

5. Senecio Bonarienfl.s purpura* 
fcens, foliis imis coronopi. Hort. Eltb m 
Purplilh Groundfel of Buenos Ayns 9 
with Under-leaves like Bucldhora- 

plantain. 

The firft Sort here mention'd i& 
one of the molt common Weeds up- 
on Dunghils, old Walls, and Gar- 
dens, that we have in England; fo 
that, inftead of cultivating it, it re- 
quires fome Pains to deltroy it in 
Gardens ; for if it be fuffer'd to feed 
in a Garden (which it foon do, 
if permitted to ftand), it will be very 
difficult to extirpate it. This is fome- 
times ufed in Medicine ; but its chief 
Ufe in England is to feed Birds. 

The fecond Sort is an annuai 
Plant, which grows three or four 
Feet high; having large Leaves, 
which are /lightly cut on the Edges, 
This is in plenty in the warm Parts 
of America, as well as hi Africa : in 
both Places it is a troublefome 
Weed ; but in England it rarely pro- 
duces good Seed.<, unlefs the Plants 
are raiied on an Hot-bed ; and being 
a Plant of no Ufe or Beauty, it is 
rarely cultivated in Gardens. 

The fourth and fifth Sorts are alfo 
annual Plants : the fourth is a Na- 
tive of Egypt, and is of hum hie 
Growth : the fifth Sort was brought 
from Buenos Ayres : this grows up- 
ward of two Feet high. Both thefe 
are very hardy Plants ; and if their 
Seeds are permitted to fcatter in a 
Garden, the Plants v. ill come up, 
and become Weeds there. 

The third Sort hath large tuber- 
ous Roots, which are order'd for 
medicinal Ufe, under the Title of 
China Root. This is a perennial 
Plant, whofe Roots remain feverat 
Years ; but the Sraiks and L